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Lancet ; 399(10341): 2156-2166, 2022 06 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35594877


Over the past two decades, global health diplomacy, foreign policy for health, and global health policy have changed substantially. Diplomacy is a constitutive part of the system of global health governance. COVID-19 hit the world when multilateral cooperation was subject to major challenges, and global health has since become integral to geopolitics. The importance of global health diplomacy, especially at WHO, in keeping countries jointly committed to improving health for everyone, has once again been shown. Through a systematic review, this Series paper explores how international relations concepts and theories have been applied to better understand the role of power in shaping positions, negotiations, and outcomes in global health diplomacy. We apply an international relations perspective to reflect on the effect that those concepts and theories have had on global health diplomacy over the past two decades. This Series paper argues that a more central role of international relations concepts and theories in analysing global health diplomacy would help develop a more nuanced understanding of global health policy making. However, the world has changed to an extent that was not envisioned in academic discourse. This shift calls for new international relations concepts and theories to inform global health diplomacy.

COVID-19 , Diplomacia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Saúde Global , Humanos , Formulação de Políticas , Política Pública
J Med Internet Res ; 23(11): e20046, 2021 11 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34757318


BACKGROUND: Interest in digital technologies in the health care sector is growing and can be a way to reduce the burden on professional caregivers while helping people to become more independent. Social robots are regarded as a special form of technology that can be usefully applied in professional caregiving with the potential to focus on interpersonal contact. While implementation is progressing slowly, a debate on the concepts and applications of social robots in future care is necessary. OBJECTIVE: In addition to existing studies with a focus on societal attitudes toward social robots, there is a need to understand the views of professional caregivers and patients. This study used desired future scenarios to collate the perspectives of experts and analyze the significance for developing the place of social robots in care. METHODS: In February 2020, an expert workshop was held with 88 participants (health professionals and educators; [PhD] students of medicine, health care, professional care, and technology; patient advocates; software developers; government representatives; and research fellows) from Austria, Germany, and Switzerland. Using the scenario methodology, the possibilities of analog professional care (Analog Care), fully robotic professional care (Robotic Care), teams of robots and professional caregivers (Deep Care), and professional caregivers supported by robots (Smart Care) were discussed. The scenarios were used as a stimulus for the development of ideas about future professional caregiving. The discussion was evaluated using qualitative content analysis. RESULTS: The majority of the experts were in favor of care in which people are supported by technology (Deep Care) and developed similar scenarios with a focus on dignity-centeredness. The discussions then focused on the steps necessary for its implementation, highlighting a strong need for the development of eHealth competence in society, a change in the training of professional caregivers, and cross-sectoral concepts. The experts also saw user acceptance as crucial to the use of robotics. This involves the acceptance of both professional caregivers and care recipients. CONCLUSIONS: The literature review and subsequent workshop revealed how decision-making about the value of social robots depends on personal characteristics related to experience and values. There is therefore a strong need to recognize individual perspectives of care before social robots become an integrated part of care in the future.

Robótica , Cuidadores , Alemanha , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Interação Social
Health Promot Int ; 36(3): 601-604, 2021 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34417606
Glob Health Promot ; 28(4): 56-63, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34510964


COVID-19 has shown us clearly that the world must commit to a transformative approach that promotes health and wellbeing. Living in the Anthropocene - an epoch defined by human impact on our ecosystems - moves us into unknown territory. The challenge is to find a way of living that aims to meet the needs of all people within the means of the living planet. We will require foresight, agility and resilience to be well prepared. The global risks we face are enormous and they are interconnected - yet the opportunity to accelerate change for the better is extraordinary as well. We have models, knowledge and technologies at our disposal that could significantly improve health and wellbeing and create fairer and more sustainable societies - yet they have not been used widely to serve the public purpose and to address inequities.

COVID-19 , Ecossistema , Previsões , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2