Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 48
Filtrar
2.
Scand J Occup Ther ; 19(5): 450-6, 2012 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22214401

RESUMO

AIM: While little is known about how occupational therapists perceive the use of occupation-focused theory in their practice, evidence indicates that it has been called for in the profession. To date, the Model of Human Occupation (MOHO) is the most widely used model internationally. The aim of this study is to document practitioners' perceptions of how using MOHO impacted on their practice. METHODS: A descriptive study using an Internet-based survey study design was conducted with 429 therapists in six National Health Service (NHS) trusts in the UK. RESULTS: Of the 429 therapists, 262 completed the survey, for a response rate of 61.07%. Most were female (85.5%) with a varying range of years of experience. Most worked in community and/or inpatient mental health settings; 92.1% responded that they use MOHO as their primary model. Therapists reported using MOHO moderately to greatly improve their assessment, goal setting, and conduct of relevant interventions as well as professional identity as an OT in their mental health occupational therapy practice. CONCLUSION/IMPLICATIONS: This study examined therapists' perceived impact of using an occupation-focused model in mental health practice. The findings of this study provided promising results. Findings suggest that the utilization of MOHO increases service for clients and professional stature and identity for therapists.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Terapia Ocupacional/métodos , Coleta de Dados , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Teóricos , Terapia Ocupacional/psicologia , Reino Unido
3.
Am J Occup Ther ; 65(2): e20-e28, 2011 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22423173

RESUMO

This study examined the psychometric characteristics of the Occupational Self Assessment (OSA) which measures clients' perceptions of their own competence and the value they assign to occupations. Two hundred and ninety-six adolescents with acute mononucleosis completed the OSA along with the Fatigue Scale, the Checklist of Infectious Symptoms, the Child Health Questionnaire, and the Perceived Stress Scale. Results indicated that OSA items coalesced to capture the intended constructs that the rating scales functioned as intended and that over 90% of adolescents were validly measured. The OSA showed adequate sensitivity and was stable over time. As expected, the OSA measures of competence were moderately associated with infectious symptoms, fatigue severity, health status, and stress while the measure of values was not and both measures were not associated with age, gender, or ethnicity. Finally, as expected, adolescents who had not recovered from mononucleosis after 12 months showed lower measures on the competence scale while still attaching the same value/importance to occupational participation when compared to recovered adolescents.

4.
Am J Occup Ther ; 64(4): 621-32, 2010.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20825134

RESUMO

To ensure that researchers and practitioners make valid interpretations from children's self-reports, evidence must demonstrate that the self-report has appropriate psychometric properties. The Child Occupational Self Assessment (COSA) is a self-report of occupational competence and value for everyday activities designed to involve children in identifying goals and assessing outcomes. Five hundred two children with disabilities, ages 6-17, completed the COSA. We used a Rasch Partial Credit model and parametric and nonparametric statistics to obtain validity evidence. Evidence suggests that the COSA has good content, structural, and substantive validity as given by item and child fit statistics and unidimensionality evaluation. Evidence for external validity was mixed because child fit status and measures varied with some demographic and assessment administration variables. Evidence suggests that most children's responses to the COSA can be validly interpreted as indicators of occupational competence and value for everyday activities.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas , Avaliação da Deficiência , Adolescente , Criança , Crianças com Deficiência , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
5.
Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med ; 164(9): 803-9, 2010 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20819961

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare adolescents who do and do not recover from acute infectious mononucleosis in terms of fatigue severity and activity levels before, during, and in the 2 years following infection. DESIGN: Prospective case-control study. SETTING: The baseline and 12- and 24-month evaluations occurred in the subjects' homes. The 6-month outpatient visit occurred at Children's Memorial Hospital in Chicago, Illinois. PARTICIPANTS: Three hundred one adolescents (aged 12-18 years) with acute infectious mononucleosis. MAIN EXPOSURES: All participants were evaluated at baseline (during active infection). Six months following infection, 39 of them met criteria for chronic fatigue syndrome. These subjects were matched by sex and Tanner stage to 39 randomly selected screened-negative subjects. Both groups were reevaluated at 12- and 24-month follow-ups. OUTCOME MEASURES: Scores from the Fatigue Severity Scale and the Modifiable Activity Questionnaire. RESULTS: For both groups, physical activity levels declined and sleep increased as a result of having mononucleosis. Compared with their matched controls, adolescents with chronic fatigue syndrome reported significantly higher levels of fatigue at all points and spent significantly more time sleeping during the day 6 and 12 months following infection. The 2 groups did not differ significantly in terms of physical activity levels before, during, or after infection. There was a consistent trend for decreased physical activity in the chronic fatigue syndrome group. CONCLUSIONS: Adolescents with chronic fatigue syndrome appear to be pushing themselves in an attempt to maintain similar activity levels as their peers, but paying for it in terms of fatigue severity and an increased need for sleep, particularly during the day.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Fadiga Crônica/etiologia , Mononucleose Infecciosa/complicações , Atividade Motora , Doença Aguda , Adolescente , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Atividades de Lazer , Masculino , Sono , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
Scand J Occup Ther ; 17(3): 177-90, 2010 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19585377

RESUMO

Work is a growing concern in disability and rehabilitation fields. Specific evidence related to occupational therapy in the area of vocational rehabilitation is somewhat limited. With increased demands for occupation-focused, evidence-based, and theory-informed practice, this review aims to use clinically relevant questions to organize and synthesize evidence regarding work-related interventions specifically related to an occupation-focused theory, the Model of Human Occupation. A total of 45 published works related to both the MOHO and vocational issues were identified and included in the review. The review demonstrates that there is a range of evidence that supports the use of the MOHO and its tools as a basis for work-based clinical interventions. Evidence supports the conclusion that MOHO-based work assessments have good psychometric properties and are useful in evaluating vocational potential and needs. MOHO-based work programs have been shown to have a positive impact in improving vocational outcomes to a range of clients.


Assuntos
Terapia Ocupacional , Ocupações , Reabilitação Vocacional/métodos , Tomada de Decisões , Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Modelos Teóricos , Desenvolvimento de Programas , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Psicometria , Avaliação da Capacidade de Trabalho
7.
Br J Occup Ther ; 73(11): 524-530, 2010 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22102767

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Chronic fatigue syndrome, termed myalgic encephalomyelitis in the United Kingdom (CFS/ME), is a debilitating condition involving severe exhaustion, cognitive difficulties, educational and vocational losses, and disruption of social activities and relationships. CFS/ME may affect volition (that is, value, interest and sense of competence). PURPOSE: To test Model of Human Occupation (MOHO) concepts by comparing young people with and without CFS/ME in terms of occupational participation, volition and health-related quality of life during infection and over time. METHOD: Three hundred and one people (12-18 years old) diagnosed with glandular fever were evaluated at the time of acute infection (baseline). Six months following diagnosis, 39 of them met the criteria for CFS/ME. A further 39 who recovered were randomly selected and matched to CFS/ME participants. Both groups were re-evaluated at 12 months and 24 months. The Occupational Self Assessment and the Child General Health Questionnaire were used to compare occupational participation. RESULTS: Those with CFS/ME reported lower levels of perceived competency, more difficulties with physical functioning and poorer general health status than those who recovered. CONCLUSION: Those with CFS/ME report lower perceived competency, and compromises in physical functioning, school performance, social activities, emotional functioning and general health. This supports the MOHO assertion that impairments affect volition and quality of life.

8.
Arch Phys Med Rehabil ; 90(12): 2047-53, 2009 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19969167

RESUMO

UNLABELLED: Kramer JM, Smith EV Jr, Kielhofner G. Rating scale use by children with disabilities on a self-report of everyday activities. OBJECTIVE: To examine whether children with disabilities interpret a self-report of perceived competence and importance of everyday activities in a consistent manner and use the rating scales as intended. If not, are differences in how children interpret the scale associated with personal or contextual variables? DESIGN: Assessment and rating scale development using the Mixed Rasch Model. SETTING: Rehabilitation clinics, schools, and research sites in the United States and Europe. PARTICIPANTS: Children (N=407) aged 6 to 17 years; all had a diagnosed disability or received occupational therapy services. INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: The Child Occupational Self Assessment; 25 items representing everyday activities and two 4-point scales: competence and importance. RESULTS: For each scale, 2 groups of children were identified. Approximately 50% of the children used the rating scales as intended. The remainder used the scales as reversed 2-point scales; these children were younger and more likely to have an intellectual disability. Country and practice setting were also associated with rating scale use. All items but 1 had acceptable fit to the Rasch model, and groups of children differed in the relative competence and importance reported. CONCLUSIONS: Personal and contextual variables are associated with children with disabilities' use of self-report rating scales. Younger children and children with intellectual disabilities use a modified response pattern.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas , Avaliação da Deficiência , Crianças com Deficiência/reabilitação , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/epidemiologia , Masculino , Terapia Ocupacional , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
9.
Rev. chil. ter. ocup ; (9): 87-102, dic. 2009. ilus, tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-594242

RESUMO

La mayoría de los modelos teóricos que explican el trastorno por déficit de atención con hiperactividad coinciden en señalar la presencia de un déficit motivacional. Sin embargo, son pocos los estudios que se centran sobre la conducta intencional o volición en estos niños. El Modelo de la Ocupación Humana entiende que la volición es un elemento clave en la ocupación humana. El objetivo de este estudio es conocer cómo es la conducta intencional de los niños con trastorno por déficit de atención con hiperactividad para poder establecer objetivos y programas de tratamiento más eficaces con esta población. Método. La muestra está formada por 21 niños con edades comprendidas entre 7 y 11 años y todos ellos fueron evaluados a través del PediatricVolitional Questionaire (PVQ) en dos ocupaciones: actividades de la vida diaria y actividades escolares. Resultados. Los resultados indican que la conducta intencional es diferente en las actividades de la vida diaria y actividades escolares, mostrando una mayor complejidad en las actividades escolares. La conducta intencional es inferior en los niños del subtipo combinado que el grupo control e inatento. Conclusiones. Estos resultados podrían indicar un menor desarrollo del sentido de capacidad o competencia en los niños con el trastorno por déficit de atención con hiperactividad. Los tratamientos deberían fomentar el desarrollo de un sentido positivo de competencia y de identidad ocupacional.


Most of the theoretical models that explain Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder suggest the presence of a motivational deficit. However, few studies that focuses on the intentional or volition in these children. The Model of Human Occupation understands that volition is a key element in the human occupation. The aim of this study is how the volition of children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in order to establish goals and treatment programs more effective with this population. Method. Twenty one children, between seven and eleven years old participated and were assessed through the Pediatric Volitional Questionnaire (PVQ) in two occupations: activities of daily living and school activities. Results. The results indicate that the volition is different in the activities of daily living and school activities, showing more complex school activities. The volition is lower in children in the combined subtype that the control group and inattentive subtype. Conclusions. These results could indicate a less developed sense of capacity or competence in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. The future treatment should encourage the development of a positive sense of occupational identity and occupational competence.


Assuntos
Humanos , Criança , Atividades Cotidianas , Comportamento Infantil , Motivação , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Intenção , Terapia Ocupacional , Inquéritos e Questionários , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/reabilitação , Volição
10.
Am J Occup Ther ; 63(2): 198-207, 2009.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19432058

RESUMO

Practitioners' preparation for, attitudes toward, and experience of the therapeutic relationship and use of self were explored using a survey study with a random sample of 1,000 American Occupational Therapy Association members. Participants reported a high value for the therapeutic relationship and use of self; most felt that they were inadequately trained and that the field lacks sufficient knowledge in these areas. Regardless of practitioners' age, gender, experience level, setting, treatment intensity, and client impairment, those who placed higher value on the use of self and had more training related to the therapeutic use of self were more likely to report interpersonal difficulties and feelings of positive regard for clients and were more likely to report concerns about clients. The findings suggest that more attention needs to be paid to the therapeutic relationship and to the therapeutic use of self in education and in research.


Assuntos
Terapia Ocupacional/métodos , Relações Profissional-Paciente , Adulto , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Estudos Transversais , Coleta de Dados , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia Ocupacional/educação
11.
Can J Occup Ther ; 76(1): 56-64, 2009 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19341023

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The assessment process affects the direction and quality of the services children and youth with disabilities receive. However, little is known about how practitioners choose tools and strategies to assess clients. PURPOSE: To identify processes practitioners use to gather information and choose methods of assessment in pediatric practice. METHODS: Three focus groups were held with teams of interdisciplinary pediatric practitioners. Key themes were identified. FINDINGS: Two primary themes emerged: "Things practitioners want to know" and "Choosing what and how to assess." Practitioners began the assessment process wanting to gather information about children and their environment. Practitioners then used the initial information to decide what and how to further assess as described by three subthemes: "fitting" the child, balancing formal and informal information, and professional context. IMPLICATIONS: Practitioners generally made individualized assessment choices for each child based on the initial information they gathered and then used a balance of formal and informal assessments. However, they were more likely to formally assess children at the level of body structures and function rather than participation, and continued to rely upon such standardized assessments to meet reimbursement and policy requirements.


Assuntos
Avaliação da Deficiência , Comunicação Interdisciplinar , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde/organização & administração , Terapia Ocupacional/métodos , Pediatria , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Masculino , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde
12.
Occup Ther Health Care ; 23(1): 60-71, 2009.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23930831

RESUMO

Objective. To identify how therapists choose and use the Model of Human Occupation (MOHO). Method. A systematic random sample of 1,000 occupational therapists was surveyed as to whether they used MOHO in their practice. Those who were using MOHO were then sent a detailed questionnaire; 259 therapists responded to the survey questionnaire, forming a response rate of 60.2 percent. Results. A total of 80.7% of therapists indicated that they had used MOHO in their practice. A number of factors influenced therapists' choice to use MOHO. The most frequently cited factors were therapists' judgment that MOHO fit their own practice philosophy and their clients' needs. Most therapists used multiple means of learning about MOHO, and the number of means they used was related to both self-reported levels of knowledge and utilization of this model. Many therapists are also actively engaged in sharing their knowledge and utilization of this model. Conclusion. Multiple factors contribute to therapists' choice and use of MOHO. Therapists actively make a decision to use MOHO in practice and put forth substantial efforts to learn and share their knowledge of MOHO.

13.
Am J Occup Ther ; 62(1): 36-45, 2008.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18254429

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the effectiveness of a model program designed to increase productive participation among people living with HIV/AIDS within supportive-living facilities. METHODS: Using a nonrandomized, two-group design, 65 study participants were assigned to either the model program or standard care. Data on productive participation were collected at 3, 6, and 9 months after completion of the model or standard program. Outcomes were compared at each time point. RESULTS: Forty-six participants completed the study. Participants in the two programs did not differ significantly on baseline demographic variables. Model program participants showed significantly higher levels of productive participation at all three time points (p < .05). Odds ratios were all > 3, reflecting that participants attending the model program were at least twice as likely to be productively engaged at all three time points. CONCLUSION: Results support the effectiveness of the model program in achieving sustained productive participation in persons living with HIV/AIDS.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Participação do Paciente , Moradias Assistidas , Chicago , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Terapia Ocupacional , Razão de Chances , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde
14.
Am J Occup Ther ; 62(1): 106-17, 2008.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18254437

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study describes how occupational therapists who reported using the Model of Human Occupation (MOHO) actually use the concepts and tools of this model in everyday practice as well as identifies supports and barriers to its use. METHOD: A systematic random sample of 1,000 occupational therapists was surveyed as to what theories they used in their practice. Those using MOHO (430) were sent a detailed questionnaire; 259 therapists (60.2%) responded to the survey questionnaire. RESULTS: More than 80% of respondents indicated that they used MOHO in their practice at least some of the time. Therapists reported that MOHO supports holistic, occupation-focused, client-centered, and evidence-based practice. They reported finding MOHO concepts useful for treatment planning and intervention. Most saw the major barrier to using MOHO as their own lack of knowledge. CONCLUSION: Making resources more readily available and accessible to therapists might enhance the extent to which they use conceptual models such as MOHO.


Assuntos
Modelos Teóricos , Terapia Ocupacional/métodos , Ocupações , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia Ocupacional/normas
15.
Occup Ther Health Care ; 22(2-3): 1-24, 2008.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23941369

RESUMO

This paper documents efforts in Canada, France, Finland, Germany, Hispanoamerica, Israel, Japan, The Netherlands, and Taiwan to disseminate the Model of Human Occupation (MOHO). We aim to characterize the challenges involved, the strategies used, and the impact of these efforts in diverse cultural and social conditions.

16.
Occup Ther Health Care ; 22(2-3): 125-38, 2008.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23941379

RESUMO

The occupational role of a university student can create challenges that negatively affect subjective well-being. Cultural factors can make these problems particularly acute for students from Arab backgrounds. This study examined the relationship between variables derived from the Model of Human Occupation (MOHO) and Jordanian university students' subjective well-being. Using cluster sampling, a total of 670 participants were recruited from the undergraduate student body at the University of Jordan. Data were collected from these students using the Role checklist, the Occupational Self-Assessment, the Affectometer 2, and the Satisfaction with Life Scale. As hypothesized, reported roles, valuation of roles, perceived competence in volition, habituation, performance capacity/skills, and the environment were significantly correlated with subjective well-being. A discriminant analysis using the most strongly correlated items significantly classified students into known groups of high and low subjective well-being. Overall, MOHO-based variables offered an effective explanation of factors that influence subjective well-being in Jordanian university students.

17.
Phys Occup Ther Pediatr ; 27(4): 67-85, 2007.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18032150

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability and validity of the Short Child Occupational Profile (SCOPE; version 2.0). The SCOPE is an occupation focused, client-centered, theory driven assessment developed out of a practice/academic partnership. In this study, twenty practitioners from occupational therapy, physical therapy, speech therapy, and social work completed thirty-five SCOPE assessments with clients' ages two years, four months to twenty-one years with both physical and intellectual disabilities. All therapists rated one common client. Rasch analysis using Facets was used to analyze the items. Results reveal that the SCOPE items coalesce to represent the construct of occupational participation in a valid manner and that most clients can be measured in a valid way by those items. Therapists used the SCOPE in a similar way and analysis demonstrated there was limited variability among therapists. The SCOPE discriminated between clients who had varying levels of occupational participation. The results indicate a need to do minor revisions to the assessment in order to maximize the psychometric properties and enhance clinicians' understanding of the items and rating scale terms.


Assuntos
Avaliação da Deficiência , Crianças com Deficiência/reabilitação , Terapia Ocupacional/instrumentação , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Gravação de Videoteipe
18.
Scand J Occup Ther ; 14(4): 258-64, 2007 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17852960

RESUMO

This study aims to determine the utility of the narrative slope in predicting the vocational/productive outcomes of participants. For 65 participants living in supportive facilities for adults with HIV/AIDS in the United States, narrative slopes, based on the Occupational Performance History Interview II, were constructed and classified as progressive, stable, or regressive. Information regarding participants' productive activities was collected at discharge from intervention programming, and at 3-month intervals, up to 9 months. Data were analyzed to examine the relationship between narrative slope and engagement in employment and other productive activity post-intervention. Demographic variables were also analyzed. None of the demographic factors significantly correlated to outcomes. It was found that a more positive narrative slope was predictive of a higher likelihood of being employed or engaged in other productive activity.


Assuntos
Avaliação da Deficiência , Emprego , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Narração , Reabilitação Vocacional , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Estados Unidos
20.
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...