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1.
Environ Sci Technol ; 54(10): 5973-5979, 2020 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32343120

RESUMO

The oxidation of nitric oxide to nitrogen dioxide by hydroperoxy (HO2) and organic peroxy radicals (RO2) is responsible for the chemical net ozone production in the troposphere and for the regeneration of hydroxyl radicals, the most important oxidant in the atmosphere. In Summer 2014, a field campaign was conducted in the North China Plain, where increasingly severe ozone pollution has been experienced in the last years. Chemical conditions in the campaign were representative for this area. Radical and trace gas concentrations were measured, allowing for calculating the turnover rates of gas-phase radical reactions. Therefore, the importance of heterogeneous HO2 uptake on aerosol could be experimentally determined. HO2 uptake could have suppressed ozone formation at that time because of the competition with gas-phase reactions that produce ozone. The successful reduction of the aerosol load in the North China Plain in the last years could have led to a significant decrease of HO2 loss on particles, so that ozone-forming reactions could have gained importance in the last years. However, the analysis of the measured radical budget in this campaign shows that HO2 aerosol uptake did not impact radical chemistry for chemical conditions in 2014. Therefore, reduced HO2 uptake on aerosol since then is likely not the reason for the increasing number of ozone pollution events in the North China Plain, contradicting conclusions made from model calculations reported in the literature.

2.
Environ Sci Technol ; 53(18): 10676-10684, 2019 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31418557

RESUMO

In contrast to summer smog, the contribution of photochemistry to the formation of winter haze in northern mid-to-high latitude is generally assumed to be minor due to reduced solar UV and water vapor concentrations. Our comprehensive observations of atmospheric radicals and relevant parameters during several haze events in winter 2016 Beijing, however, reveal surprisingly high hydroxyl radical oxidation rates up to 15 ppbv/h, which is comparable to the high values reported in summer photochemical smog and is two to three times larger than those determined in previous observations during winter in Birmingham (Heard et al. Geophys. Res. Lett. 2004, 31, (18)), Tokyo (Kanaya et al. J. Geophys. Res.: Atmos. 2007, 112, (D21)), and New York (Ren et al. Atmos. Environ. 2006, 40, 252-263). The active photochemistry facilitates the production of secondary pollutants. It is mainly initiated by the photolysis of nitrous acid and ozonolysis of olefins and maintained by an extremely efficiently radical cycling process driven by nitric oxide. This boosted radical recycling generates fast photochemical ozone production rates that are again comparable to those during summer photochemical smog. The formation of ozone, however, is currently masked by its efficient chemical removal by nitrogen oxides contributing to the high level of wintertime particles. The future emission regulations, such as the reduction of nitrogen oxide emissions, therefore are facing the challenge of reducing haze and avoiding an increase in ozone pollution at the same time. Efficient control strategies to mitigate winter haze in Beijing may require measures similar as implemented to avoid photochemical smog in summer.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Ozônio , Pequim , New York , Fotoquímica , Smog
3.
Nature ; 565(7741): 587-593, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30700872

RESUMO

Secondary organic aerosol contributes to the atmospheric particle burden with implications for air quality and climate. Biogenic volatile organic compounds such as terpenoids emitted from plants are important secondary organic aerosol precursors with isoprene dominating the emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds globally. However, the particle mass from isoprene oxidation is generally modest compared to that of other terpenoids. Here we show that isoprene, carbon monoxide and methane can each suppress the instantaneous mass and the overall mass yield derived from monoterpenes in mixtures of atmospheric vapours. We find that isoprene 'scavenges' hydroxyl radicals, preventing their reaction with monoterpenes, and the resulting isoprene peroxy radicals scavenge highly oxygenated monoterpene products. These effects reduce the yield of low-volatility products that would otherwise form secondary organic aerosol. Global model calculations indicate that oxidant and product scavenging can operate effectively in the real atmosphere. Thus highly reactive compounds (such as isoprene) that produce a modest amount of aerosol are not necessarily net producers of secondary organic particle mass and their oxidation in mixtures of atmospheric vapours can suppress both particle number and mass of secondary organic aerosol. We suggest that formation mechanisms of secondary organic aerosol in the atmosphere need to be considered more realistically, accounting for mechanistic interactions between the products of oxidizing precursor molecules (as is recognized to be necessary when modelling ozone production).

4.
Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom ; 33 Suppl 1: 50-59, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29971833

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) represent a significant portion of total atmospheric aerosols. They are generated by the oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and particularly biogenic VOCs (BVOCs). The analysis of such samples is usually performed by targeted methods that often require time-consuming preparation steps that can induce loss of compounds and/or sample contaminations. METHODS: Recently, untargeted methods using high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) have been successfully employed for a broad characterization of chemicals in SOAs. Herein we propose a new application of the direct analysis in real time (DART) ionization method combined with HRMS to quickly detect several hundred chemicals in SOAs collected on a quartz filter without sample preparation or separation techniques. RESULTS: The reproducibility of measurements was good, with several hundred elemental compositions common to three different replicates. The relative standard deviations of the intensities of the chemical families ranged from 6% to 35%, with sufficient sensitivity to allow the unambiguous detection of 4 ng/mm2 of pinic acid. The presence of oligomers and specific tracers was highlighted by MSn (n ≤ 4) experiments, an achievement that is difficult to attain with other ultrahigh-resolution mass spectrometers. Contributions of this untargeted DART-HRMS method were illustrated by the analysis of fresh and aged SOAs from different gaseous precursors such as limonene, a ß-pinene/limonene mixture or scots pines emissions. CONCLUSIONS: The results show that it is possible to use DART-HRMS for the identification of tracers of specific aging reactions, or for the identification of aerosols from specific biogenic precursors.


Assuntos
Aerossóis/análise , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Monoterpenos/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Aerossóis/química , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/química , Monoterpenos/química , Oxirredução , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química
10.
Sci Data ; 4: 170003, 2017 03 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28291234

RESUMO

Cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) number concentrations alongside with submicrometer particle number size distributions and particle chemical composition have been measured at atmospheric observatories of the Aerosols, Clouds, and Trace gases Research InfraStructure (ACTRIS) as well as other international sites over multiple years. Here, harmonized data records from 11 observatories are summarized, spanning 98,677 instrument hours for CCN data, 157,880 for particle number size distributions, and 70,817 for chemical composition data. The observatories represent nine different environments, e.g., Arctic, Atlantic, Pacific and Mediterranean maritime, boreal forest, or high alpine atmospheric conditions. This is a unique collection of aerosol particle properties most relevant for studying aerosol-cloud interactions which constitute the largest uncertainty in anthropogenic radiative forcing of the climate. The dataset is appropriate for comprehensive aerosol characterization (e.g., closure studies of CCN), model-measurement intercomparison and satellite retrieval method evaluation, among others. Data have been acquired and processed following international recommendations for quality assurance and have undergone multiple stages of quality assessment.

11.
Atmos Chem Phys ; 17(3): 2103-2162, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30147712

RESUMO

Oxidation of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) by the nitrate radical (NO3) represents one of the important interactions between anthropogenic emissions related to combustion and natural emissions from the biosphere. This interaction has been recognized for more than 3 decades, during which time a large body of research has emerged from laboratory, field, and modeling studies. NO3-BVOC reactions influence air quality, climate and visibility through regional and global budgets for reactive nitrogen (particularly organic nitrates), ozone, and organic aerosol. Despite its long history of research and the significance of this topic in atmospheric chemistry, a number of important uncertainties remain. These include an incomplete understanding of the rates, mechanisms, and organic aerosol yields for NO3-BVOC reactions, lack of constraints on the role of heterogeneous oxidative processes associated with the NO3 radical, the difficulty of characterizing the spatial distributions of BVOC and NO3 within the poorly mixed nocturnal atmosphere, and the challenge of constructing appropriate boundary layer schemes and non-photochemical mechanisms for use in state-of-the-art chemical transport and chemistry-climate models. This review is the result of a workshop of the same title held at the Georgia Institute of Technology in June 2015. The first half of the review summarizes the current literature on NO3-BVOC chemistry, with a particular focus on recent advances in instrumentation and models, and in organic nitrate and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation chemistry. Building on this current understanding, the second half of the review outlines impacts of NO3-BVOC chemistry on air quality and climate, and suggests critical research needs to better constrain this interaction to improve the predictive capabilities of atmospheric models.

12.
Sci Rep ; 6: 35038, 2016 10 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27733773

RESUMO

Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) accounts for a dominant fraction of the submicron atmospheric particle mass, but knowledge of the formation, composition and climate effects of SOA is incomplete and limits our understanding of overall aerosol effects in the atmosphere. Organic oligomers were discovered as dominant components in SOA over a decade ago in laboratory experiments and have since been proposed to play a dominant role in many aerosol processes. However, it remains unclear whether oligomers are relevant under ambient atmospheric conditions because they are often not clearly observed in field samples. Here we resolve this long-standing discrepancy by showing that elevated SOA mass is one of the key drivers of oligomer formation in the ambient atmosphere and laboratory experiments. We show for the first time that a specific organic compound class in aerosols, oligomers, is strongly correlated with cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activities of SOA particles. These findings might have important implications for future climate scenarios where increased temperatures cause higher biogenic volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions, which in turn lead to higher SOA mass formation and significant changes in SOA composition. Such processes would need to be considered in climate models for a realistic representation of future aerosol-climate-biosphere feedbacks.

16.
Faraday Discuss ; 189: 407-37, 2016 07 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27117015

RESUMO

The analysis of the individual composition of hydrocarbon (VOC) mixtures enables us to transform observed VOC-concentrations into their respective total VOC-reactivity versus OH radicals (RVOC = Σ(kOH+VOCi × [VOCi])). This is particularly useful because local ozone production essentially depends on this single parameter rather than on the details of the underlying hydrocarbon mixture (Klemp et al., Schriften des Forschungszentrums Jülich, Energy & Environment, 2012, 21). The VOC composition also enables us to pin down the major emission source of hydrocarbons in urban areas to be petrol cars with temporarily reduced catalyst efficiency (the so-called cold-start situation) whereas the source of nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2) is expected to be nowadays dominated by diesel cars. The observations in the vicinity of main roads in German cities show a decrease in the ratio of OH reactivities of VOC and NO2 (RVOC/RNO2) by a factor of 7.5 over the time period 1994-2014. This is larger than the expected decrease of a factor of 2.9 taking estimated trends of VOC and NOx traffic emissions in Germany (Umweltbundesamt Deutschland, National Trend Tables for the German Atmospheric Emission Reporting, 2015), during this time period. The observed reduction in the RVOC/RNO2 ratio leads to a drastic decrease in local ozone production driven by the reduction in hydrocarbons. The analysis reveals that the overall reduction of ozone production benefits from the low decrease of NOx emissions from road traffic which is a consequence of the eventual absence of catalytic converters for nitrogen oxide removal in diesel cars up to now.

17.
Science ; 348(6241): 1326, 2015 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26089508

RESUMO

Ye et al. have determined a maximum nitrous acid (HONO) yield of 3% for the reaction HO2·H2O + NO2, which is much lower than the yield used in our work. This finding, however, does not affect our main result that HONO in the investigated Po Valley region is mainly from a gas-phase source that consumes nitrogen oxides.

18.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 17(22): 14796-804, 2015 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25975709

RESUMO

The composition of secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) formed by ß-pinene ozonolysis was experimentally investigated in the Juelich aerosol chamber. Partitioning of oxidation products between gas and particles was measured through concurrent concentration measurements in both phases. Partitioning coefficients (Kp) of 2.23 × 10(-5) ± 3.20 × 10(-6) m(3) µg(-1) for nopinone, 4.86 × 10(-4) ± 1.80 × 10(-4) m(3) µg(-1) for apoverbenone, 6.84 × 10(-4) ± 1.52 × 10(-4) m(3) µg(-1) for oxonopinone and 2.00 × 10(-3) ± 1.13 × 10(-3) m(3) µg(-1) for hydroxynopinone were derived, showing higher values for more oxygenated species. The observed Kp values were compared with values predicted using two different semi-empirical approaches. Both methods led to an underestimation of the partitioning coefficients with systematic differences between the methods. Assuming that the deviation between the experiment and the model is due to non-ideality of the mixed solution in particles, activity coefficients of 4.82 × 10(-2) for nopinone, 2.17 × 10(-3) for apoverbenone, 3.09 × 10(-1) for oxonopinone and 7.74 × 10(-1) for hydroxynopinone would result using the vapour pressure estimation technique that leads to higher Kp. We discuss that such large non-ideality for nopinone could arise due to particle phase processes lowering the effective nopinone vapour pressure such as diol- or dimer formation. The observed high partitioning coefficients compared to modelled results imply an underestimation of SOA mass by applying equilibrium conditions.

19.
Environ Sci Technol ; 48(11): 6168-76, 2014 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24810838

RESUMO

Formation and evolution of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) from biogenic VOCs influences the Earth's radiative balance. We have examined the photo-oxidation and aging of boreal terpene mixtures in the SAPHIR simulation chamber. Changes in thermal properties and chemical composition, deduced from mass spectrometric measurements, were providing information on the aging of biogenic SOA produced under ambient solar conditions. Effects of precursor mixture, concentration, and photochemical oxidation levels (OH exposure) were evaluated. OH exposure was found to be the major driver in the long term photochemical transformations, i.e., reaction times of several hours up to days, of SOA and its thermal properties, whereas the initial concentrations and terpenoid mixtures had only minor influence. The volatility distributions were parametrized using a sigmoidal function to determine TVFR0.5 (the temperature yielding a 50% particle volume fraction remaining) and the steepness of the volatility distribution. TVFR0.5 increased by 0.3±0.1% (ca. 1 K), while the steepness increased by 0.9±0.3% per hour of 1×10(6) cm(-3) OH exposure. Thus, aging reduces volatility and increases homogeneity of the vapor pressure distribution, presumably because highly volatile fractions become increasingly susceptible to gas phase oxidation, while less volatile fractions are less reactive with gas phase OH.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/química , Terpenos/química , Aerossóis/análise , Aerossóis/química , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Gases/química , Oxirredução , Processos Fotoquímicos , Terpenos/análise , Volatilização
20.
Science ; 344(6181): 292-6, 2014 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24744373

RESUMO

Gaseous nitrous acid (HONO) is an important precursor of tropospheric hydroxyl radicals (OH). OH is responsible for atmospheric self-cleansing and controls the concentrations of greenhouse gases like methane and ozone. Due to lack of measurements, vertical distributions of HONO and its sources in the troposphere remain unclear. Here, we present a set of observations of HONO and its budget made onboard a Zeppelin airship. In a sunlit layer separated from Earth's surface processes by temperature inversion, we found high HONO concentrations providing evidence for a strong gas-phase source of HONO consuming nitrogen oxides and potentially hydrogen oxide radicals. The observed properties of this production process suggest that the generally assumed impact of HONO on the abundance of OH in the troposphere is substantially overestimated.

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