Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 20
Filtrar
1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32767286

RESUMO

Adrenal insufficiency (AI) requires life-long treatment with glucocorticoid replacement therapy. Over- or under-substitution carries the risk of increased morbidity in the form of side effects or adrenal crises. Glucocorticoid replacement therapy needs to be flexible with dose adaptation in special situations. This could not be managed by medical personnel on a daily basis, but requires an educated patient who has a good knowledge of the disease, understands his medical therapy and is able to perform situational dose adaptation. The rarity of the disease in combination with the need to respond to stressful situations with rapid glucocorticoid dose adjustment underlines that a well-trained patient is crucial for optimal management of the disease.In this literature review we provide background information further clarifying the need of education in patients with AI including the current shortcomings of medical therapy and of the treatment of patients with AI. We outline the aims of therapeutic patient education, present the concept of structured patient education in Germany, and discuss available results of patient group education programs. Furthermore, we propose strategies how therapeutic patient education for adrenal insufficiency can be organized under COVID-19 pandemic conditions.

2.
Horm Metab Res ; 2020 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32629514

RESUMO

Familial neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus (FNDI) is an autosomal dominant hereditary disorder characterized by severe polydipsia and polyuria that usually presents in early childhood. In this study, we describe a new arginine vasopressin (AVP) gene mutation in an ethnic German family with FNDI and provide an overview of disease-associated AVP-gene mutations that are already described in literature. Three members of a German family with neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus were studied. Isolated DNA from peripheral blood samples was used for mutation analysis by sequencing the whole coding region of AVP-NPII gene. Furthermore, we searched the electronic databases MEDLINE (Pubmed) as well as HGMD, LOVD-ClinVar, db-SNP and genomAD in order to compare our cases to that of other patients with FNDI. Genetic analysis of the patients revealed a novel heterozygote missense mutation in exon 2 of the AVP gene (c.274T>G), which has not yet been described in literature. We identified reports of more than 90 disease-associated mutations in the AVP gene in literature. The novel mutation of the AVP gene seems to cause FNDI in the presented German family. Similar to our newly detected mutation, most mutations causing FNDI are found in exon 2 of the AVP gene coding for neurophysin II. Clinically, it is important to think of FNDI in young children presenting with polydipsia and polyuria.

3.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 8(9): 773-781, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32711725

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cross-sectional imaging regularly results in incidental discovery of adrenal tumours, requiring exclusion of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC). However, differentiation is hampered by poor specificity of imaging characteristics. We aimed to validate a urine steroid metabolomics approach, using steroid profiling as the diagnostic basis for ACC. METHODS: We did a prospective multicentre study in adult participants (age ≥18 years) with newly diagnosed adrenal masses. We assessed the accuracy of diagnostic imaging strategies based on maximum tumour diameter (≥4 cm vs <4 cm), imaging characteristics (positive vs negative), and urine steroid metabolomics (low, medium, or high risk of ACC), separately and in combination, using a reference standard of histopathology and follow-up investigations. With respect to imaging characteristics, we also assessed the diagnostic utility of increasing the unenhanced CT tumour attenuation threshold from the recommended 10 Hounsfield units (HU) to 20 HU. FINDINGS: Of 2169 participants recruited between Jan 17, 2011, and July 15, 2016, we included 2017 from 14 specialist centres in 11 countries in the final analysis. 98 (4·9%) had histopathologically or clinically and biochemically confirmed ACC. Tumours with diameters of 4 cm or larger were identified in 488 participants (24·2%), including 96 of the 98 with ACC (positive predictive value [PPV] 19·7%, 95% CI 16·2-23·5). For imaging characteristics, increasing the unenhanced CT tumour attenuation threshold to 20 HU from the recommended 10 HU increased specificity for ACC (80·0% [95% CI 77·9-82·0] vs 64·0% [61·4-66.4]) while maintaining sensitivity (99·0% [94·4-100·0] vs 100·0% [96·3-100·0]; PPV 19·7%, 16·3-23·5). A urine steroid metabolomics result indicating high risk of ACC had a PPV of 34·6% (95% CI 28·6-41·0). When the three tests were combined, in the order of tumour diameter, positive imaging characteristics, and urine steroid metabolomics, 106 (5·3%) participants had the result maximum tumour diameter of 4 cm or larger, positive imaging characteristics (with the 20 HU cutoff), and urine steroid metabolomics indicating high risk of ACC, for which the PPV was 76·4% (95% CI 67·2-84·1). 70 (3·5%) were classified as being at moderate risk of ACC and 1841 (91·3%) at low risk (negative predictive value 99·7%, 99·4-100·0). INTERPRETATION: An unenhanced CT tumour attenuation cutoff of 20 HU should replace that of 10 HU for exclusion of ACC. A triple test strategy of tumour diameter, imaging characteristics, and urine steroid metabolomics improves detection of ACC, which could shorten time to surgery for patients with ACC and help to avoid unnecessary surgery in patients with benign tumours. FUNDING: European Commission, UK Medical Research Council, Wellcome Trust, and UK National Institute for Health Research, US National Institutes of Health, the Claire Khan Trust Fund at University Hospitals Birmingham Charities, and the Mayo Clinic Foundation for Medical Education and Research.


Assuntos
Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/urina , Metabolômica/métodos , Esteroides/urina , Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Achados Incidentais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
4.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 183(2): 119-127, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32580144

RESUMO

Objective: Patients with adrenal insufficiency (AI) suffer from impaired quality of life and are at risk of adrenal crisis (AC) despite established replacement therapy. Patient education is regarded an important measure for prevention of AC and improvement of AI management. A standardized education programme was elaborated for patients with chronic AI in Germany. Design: Longitudinal, prospective, questionnaire-based, multi-centre study. Methods: During 2-h sessions, patients (n = 526) were provided with basic knowledge on AI, equipped with emergency cards and sets and trained in self-injection of hydrocortisone. To evaluate the education programme, patients from eight certified centres completed questionnaires before, immediately after and 6-9 months after training. Results: 399 completed data sets were available for analysis. Questionnaire score-values were significantly higher after patient education, indicating successful knowledge transfer (baseline: 17 ± 7.1 of a maximum score of 29; after training: 23 ± 4.2; P < 0.001), and remained stable over 6-9 months. Female sex, younger age and primary cause of AI were associated with higher baseline scores; after education, age, cause of AI and previous adrenal crisis had a significant main effect on scores. 91% of patients would dare performing self-injection after training, compared to 68% at baseline. An improvement of subjective well-being through participation in the education programme was indicated by 95% of the patients 6-9 months after participation. Conclusion: Patient group education in chronic AI represents a helpful tool for the guidance of patients, their self-assurance and their knowledge on prevention of adrenal crises. Repeated training and adaptation to specific needs, for example, of older patients is needed.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Adrenal/tratamento farmacológico , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/métodos , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/normas , Doença Aguda/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Etiquetas de Emergência Médica , Tratamento de Emergência , Feminino , Alemanha , Terapia de Reposição Hormonal , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/administração & dosagem , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade de Vida , Autoadministração , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
5.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 105(8)2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32424397

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Appropriate management of adrenal insufficiency (AI) in pregnancy can be challenging due to the rarity of the disease and lack of evidence-based recommendations to guide glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid dosage adjustment. OBJECTIVE: Multicenter survey on current clinical approaches in managing AI during pregnancy. DESIGN: Retrospective anonymized data collection from 19 international centers from 2013 to 2019. SETTING AND PATIENTS: 128 pregnancies in 113 women with different causes of AI: Addison disease (44%), secondary AI (25%), congenital adrenal hyperplasia (25%), and acquired AI due to bilateral adrenalectomy (6%). RESULTS: Hydrocortisone (HC) was the most commonly used glucocorticoid in 83% (97/117) of pregnancies. Glucocorticoid dosage was increased at any time during pregnancy in 73/128 (57%) of cases. In these cases, the difference in the daily dose of HC equivalent between baseline and the third trimester was 8.6 ± 5.4 (range 1-30) mg. Fludrocortisone dosage was increased in fewer cases (7/54 during the first trimester, 9/64 during the second trimester, and 9/62 cases during the third trimester). Overall, an adrenal crisis was reported in 9/128 (7%) pregnancies. Cesarean section was the most frequent mode of delivery at 58% (69/118). Fetal complications were reported in 3/120 (3%) and minor maternal complications in 15/120 (13%) pregnancies without fatal outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: This survey confirms good maternal and fetal outcome in women with AI managed in specialized endocrine centers. An emphasis on careful endocrine follow-up and repeated patient education is likely to have reduced the risk of adrenal crisis and resulted in positive outcomes.

6.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 105(1)2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31613324

RESUMO

CONTEXT: An important clinical feature of Cushing's syndrome (CS) is proximal muscle myopathy caused by glucocorticoid induced protein metabolism. However, interindividual differences cannot be explained solely by the pure extent of hypercortisolemia. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) polymorphisms (BclI, N363S, ER22/23EK and A3669G), which influence peripheral glucocorticoid sensitivity on muscular function in endogenous CS. METHODS: 205 patients with proven endogenous CS (128 central, 77 adrenal) from 3 centers of the German Cushing's Registry and 125 subjects, in whom CS was ruled out, were included. All subjects were assessed for grip strength (via hand grip dynamometer) and performed a chair-rising test (CRT). DNA samples were obtained from peripheral blood leukocytes for GR genotyping. RESULTS: In patients with active CS, normalized handgrip strength of the dominant and nondominant hand was higher in A3669G minor allele than in wildtype carriers (P = .006 and P = .021, respectively). CS patients in remission and ruled-out CS showed no differences in handgrip strength regarding A3669G minor allele and wildtype carriers. Male CS patients harboring the ER22/23EK wildtype presented lower hand grip strength than minor allele carriers (P = .049 dominant hand; P = .027 nondominant hand). The other polymorphisms did not influence handgrip strength. CRT showed no differences regarding GR polymorphisms carrier status. CONCLUSION: Handgrip strength seems to be more susceptible to hypercortisolism in A3669G wildtype than in A3669G minor allele carriers. This might partially explain the inter-individual differences of glucocorticoid-induced myopathy in patients with endogenous CS. ER22/23EK polymorphism seems to exert sex-specific differences.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31543864

RESUMO

Background: Sex differences in clinical picture of ACTH-dependent Cushing's syndrome are controversial, except for the known higher prevalence in females. We compared a broad range of potential differences to enable a more accurate understanding of the clinical picture of sex-specific ACTH-dependent Cushing's syndrome. Methods: Cohort study including consecutive patients with ACTH-dependent Cushing's syndrome from Leiden and Berlin diagnosed between 2000 and 2016. We compared clinical presentation, biochemical parameters, diagnostic tests, surgical outcome, and comorbidities between men and women. Results: We included 130 patients: 37 males and 93 females. With similar cortisol concentrations, ACTH concentrations were higher in males than females at time of diagnosis (median: 116 vs. 57 ng/L). The prevalence of osteoporosis was higher in males than in females (48.6 vs. 25.0%), persisting after surgery, with more vertebral fractures (16.2 vs. 5.4%) before surgery. Males showed more anemia (75.9 vs. 36.8%) after surgery. There were no differences in etiology, pituitary tumor size, diagnostic and therapeutic strategy, or surgical outcome between sexes. Conclusions: Based on this study, males and females with ACTH-dependent Cushing's syndrome present different clinical patterns. However, these differences do not justify different diagnostic strategies or treatment based on sex, considering the similar surgical outcome. Clinicians should be alert to diagnose accompanying osteoporosis (with fractures) in male patients with ACTH-dependent Cushing's syndrome.

8.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 181(2): 201-210, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31167165

RESUMO

Background: Adrenal crisis, the most feared complication of adrenal insufficiency, is a potentially life-threatening state of acute glucocorticoid deficiency. After successful surgery for Cushing's syndrome, many patients develop (transient) adrenal insufficiency. The incidence of adrenal crisis in patients treated for hypercortisolism is unknown. Methods: Cohort study included consecutive patients with Cushing's syndrome with adrenal insufficiency after surgery from Leiden and Berlin from 2000 to 2015. We summarized the incidence of adrenal crisis, compared patients with and without adrenal crisis regarding potential risk factors for its occurrence and assessed the effect of better education in time on incidence of adrenal crisis. Results: We included 106 patients, of whom 19 patients had a total of 41 adrenal crises. There were 9.0 crises per 100 patient-years at risk (95% confidence interval (CI): 6.7-12.0). All crises occurred while on hydrocortisone replacement. The risk ratio for a recurrent crisis was 2.3 (95% CI: 1.2-4.6). No clear change in incidence of adrenal crisis due to better education in time was observed. There was no difference in recurrence rate between patients with, and without any crisis, but patients with adrenal crisis had more often pituitary deficiencies. Conclusions: The incidence of adrenal crises after treatment for Cushing's syndrome is substantial, and patients who suffered from an adrenal crisis have higher risk for recurrent crisis. Adrenal crisis tends to present early after remission of Cushing's syndrome, which is probably the period of severest HPA axis suppression, despite in general higher hydrocortisone replacement doses for withdrawal complaints in this period. Additional pituitary hormone deficiencies may be a risk marker for increased risk of adrenal crisis. However, further risk factor analysis is needed to identify risks for a first crisis. Effective education methods to prevent adrenal crises should be identified and implemented, including stress instructions by trained nursing staff before hospital discharge.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Adrenal/metabolismo , Síndrome de Cushing/metabolismo , Síndrome de Cushing/cirurgia , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/metabolismo , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/metabolismo , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/metabolismo , Adolescente , Insuficiência Adrenal/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Adrenal/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Síndrome de Cushing/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) ; 91(2): 256-262, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31050815

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with adrenal insufficiency (AI) require lifelong glucocorticoid (GC) replacement. AI patients need to adjust GC dosage in response to stressful events and illness in order to prevent life-threatening adrenal crisis (AC). AIM: To evaluate self-management of patients with AI. METHODS: Four German centres, which are using patient's diary as part of their routine clinical practice, instructed AI patients to prospectively document any discomfort, intercurrent illness or stressful events as well as changes in GC therapy on a daily basis. Diaries of 80 patients (44 females, 52.9 ± 15.9 years, 34 primary AI) were collected and analysed. A symptom score sheet was used to evaluate severity of discomfort. RESULTS: In total, 34 074 patient days (93.4 years) were recorded. 4622 days with discomfort were documented. On 35% of those days (n = 1621), patients increased their GC dose (4.8% of all days). Patients who recorded discomfort had a median of four episodes of discomfort, which lasted a median of 2 days. Women documented significantly more episodes of discomfort than men (P = 0.014). Low-to-median symptom scores resulted in GC increase by 50%-60%, whereas high symptom scores and/or fever resulted in doubling GC daily dose. However, dose increase was only 55% in situations indicating gastrointestinal (GI) infection. CONCLUSION: Severe discomfort did not always result in dose increase, especially in GI infection. However, low symptom scores resulted in an inappropriate GC increase in some patients. This underscores an urgent need for improved training methods. Keeping daily records might be a useful tool for continued and individualized patient education.

10.
Endocr Connect ; 7(6): 811-818, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29720511

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Patients with primary adrenal insufficiency (PAI) or congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) receive life-long glucocorticoid (GC) therapy. Daily GC doses are often above the physiological cortisol production rate and can cause long-term morbidities such as osteoporosis. No prospective trial has investigated the long-term effect of different GC therapies on bone mineral density (BMD) in those patients. OBJECTIVES: To determine if patients on hydrocortisone (HC) or prednisolone show changes in BMD after follow-up of 5.5 years. To investigate if BMD is altered after switching from immediate- to modified-release HC. DESIGN AND PATIENTS: Prospective, observational, longitudinal study with evaluation of BMD by DXA at visit1, after 2.2 ± 0.4 (visit2) and after 5.5 ± 0.8 years (visit3) included 36 PAI and 8 CAH patients. Thirteen patients received prednisolone (age 52.5 ± 14.8 years; 8 women) and 31 patients received immediate-release HC (age 48.9 ± 15.8 years; 22 women). Twelve patients on immediate-release switched to modified-release HC at visit2. RESULTS: Prednisolone showed significantly lower Z-scores compared to HC at femoral neck (-0.85 ± 0.80 vs -0.25 ± 1.16, P < 0.05), trochanter (-0.96 ± 0.62 vs 0.51 ± 1.07, P < 0.05) and total hip (-0.78 ± 0.55 vs 0.36 ± 1.04, P < 0.05), but not at lumbar spine, throughout the study. Prednisolone dose decreased by 8% over study time, but no significant effect was seen on BMD. BMD did not change significantly after switching from immediate- to modified-release HC. CONCLUSIONS: The use of prednisolone as hormone replacement therapy results in significantly lower BMD compared to HC. Patients on low-dose HC replacement therapy showed unchanged Z-scores within the normal reference range during the study period.

11.
Endocr Connect ; 6(8): 685-691, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28954735

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Patients with primary adrenal insufficiency (PAI) or congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) are at a high risk of adrenal crisis (AC). Glucocorticoid sensitivity is at least partially genetically determined by polymorphisms of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). OBJECTIVES: To determine if a number of intercurrent illnesses and AC are associated with the GR gene polymorphism BclI in patients with PAI and CAH. DESIGN AND PATIENTS: This prospective, longitudinal study over 37.7 ± 10.1 months included 47 PAI and 25 CAH patients. During the study period, intercurrent illness episodes and AC were documented. RESULTS: The study period covered 223 patient years in which 21 AC occurred (9.4 AC/100 pat years). There were no significant differences between BclI polymorphisms (CC (n = 29), CG (n = 34) and GG (n = 9)) regarding BMI, hydrocortisone equivalent daily dose and blood pressure. We did not find a difference in the number of intercurrent illnesses/patient year among BclI polymorphisms (CC (1.5 ± 1.4/pat year), CG (1.2 ± 1.2/pat year) and GG (1.6 ± 2.2/pat year)). The occurrence of AC was not significantly different among the homozygous (GG) genotype (32.5 AC/100 pat years), the CC genotype (6.7 AC/100 pat years) and the CG genotype (4.9 AC/100 pat years). Concomitant hypothyroidism was the highest in the GG genotype group (5/9), compared to others (CC (11/29) and CG (11/34)). CONCLUSIONS: Although sample sizes were relatively small and results should be interpreted with caution, this study suggests that the GR gene polymorphism BclI may not be associated with the frequencies of intercurrent illnesses and AC.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26605043

RESUMO

UNLABELLED: Parathyroid carcinoma is a rare disease leading to severe hypercalcemia due to hyperparathyroidism. Surgery is the primary treatment option. A more progressive form of the disease is characterized by parathyrotoxicosis, and subsequent hypercalcemia is the most common cause of death. We report a case presenting with severe hypercalcemia due to parathyrotoxicosis from parathyroid carcinoma treated for the first time using the monoclonal antibody denosumab as a rescue therapy and present long-term follow-up data. The 71-year-old patient presented with severe hypercalcemia due to metastatic parathyroid carcinoma. Despite undergoing treatment with bisphosphonates, cinacalcet hydrochloride, and forced diuresis, the patient`s condition deteriorated rapidly due to resistant hypercalcemia. Surgery performed because of spinal metastasis and forced diuresis lowered calcium levels, albeit they remained in the hypercalcemic range and significantly increased when forced diuresis was stopped. Considering a palliative situation to overcome hypercalcemia, we decided to administer denosumab, a monoclonal antibody that binds to the receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand. After a single subcutaneous administration of 60 mg denosumab, calcium levels normalized within one day. Subsequent denosumab injections led to permanent control of serum calcium for more than 2 years despite rising parathyroid hormone levels and repeated surgeries. Together with recent cases in the literature supporting our observation, we believe that denosumab is relevant for future trials and represents an effective tool to control hypercalcemia in patients with advanced stages of parathyroid cancer. LEARNING POINTS: Severe hypercalcemia is the most common cause of death in patients with parathyroid carcinoma.The monoclonal antibody denosumab rapidly lowered severely elevated serum calcium levels due to parathyrotoxicosis.Denosumab was effective in the long-term treatment of hypercalcemia despite progression of parathyroid carcinoma.

13.
Am J Hypertens ; 25(6): 697-703, 2012 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22402471

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sex-specific differences in blood pressure (BP) suggest an important modulating role of testosterone in the kidney. However, little is known about the interaction between androgens and the mineralocorticoid aldosterone. Our objective was to determine the effects of testosterone in gonadectomized male and female rats on a low-salt diet, and to determine the effect of androgen receptor (AR) blockade by flutamide on BP and on aldosterone levels. METHODS: Normotensive male and female Wistar rats were gonadectomized and put on a low-salt diet. They were treated for 16 days with testosterone or placebo. In addition, the animals received the AR antagonist flutamide or placebo, respectively. BP was measured by tail-cuff method, 24-h urine samples were collected in metabolic cages and blood was collected for hormonal measurements. RESULTS: Testosterone increased BP in males and females, and this effect could be blocked by flutamide. Flutamide treatment itself significantly increased aldosterone levels in male but not in female rats. These elevated aldosterone levels could be lowered by testosterone treatment during AR blockade. Accordingly to aldosterone levels, flutamide increased in males the serum sodium/potassium to urinary sodium/potassium ratio, an in vivo indicator of renal aldosterone action. CONCLUSIONS: Testosterone regulates BP in male and female gonadectomized rats via the AR. Flutamide by itself exerts influence over aldosterone in the absence of gonadal steroid replacement suggesting AR involvement in renal sodium handling. These flutamide effects were sex-specific and not seen in female rats.


Assuntos
Aldosterona/sangue , Aldosterona/urina , Antagonistas de Receptores de Andrógenos/farmacologia , Flutamida/farmacologia , Orquiectomia , Ovariectomia , Caracteres Sexuais , Animais , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Dieta Hipossódica , Feminino , Masculino , Modelos Animais , Potássio/sangue , Potássio/urina , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Receptores Androgênicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores Androgênicos/fisiologia , Sódio/sangue , Sódio/urina , Testosterona/farmacologia
14.
Nephron Clin Pract ; 119(2): c97-c104, 2011.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21677444

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of different renal diseases in rodent models. However, in human kidney disease, TLR4 expression and regulation is not well understood. We hypothesized that renal TLR4 expression plays a role in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and is associated with proteinuria, kidney function, histological diagnosis, and inflammatory mediators. METHODS: We quantified TLR4 mRNA as well as expression of macrophage chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), transforming growth factor-ß1 (TGF-ß1) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in human kidney biopsies from 70 patients with CKD. We measured kidney function, urinary MCP-1 protein excretion, and the amount of chronic damage. Macrophage load was quantified by CD68 and vascularization by CD34 immunostaining. RESULTS: TLR4 expression correlated significantly with MCP-1 and TGF-ß1 expression. High TLR4 expression was associated with high IL-6 expression. TLR4 expression was significantly upregulated in patients with severe proteinuria, and in patients with chronic ischemic renal damage and IgA nephropathy, when compared to patients with thin glomerular basement membrane disease. TLR4 expression did not correlate with creatinine clearance, renal outcome, macrophage load or chronic damage. CONCLUSIONS: We show for the first time that renal TLR4 expression was significantly associated with the pro-inflammatory marker MCP-1 and the profibrotic molecule TGF-ß1 in kidney biopsies from patients with CKD, suggesting that increased expression of TLR4 is an important feature of CKD.


Assuntos
Nefropatias Diabéticas/metabolismo , Glomerulonefrite por IGA/metabolismo , Isquemia/metabolismo , Rim/irrigação sanguínea , RNA Mensageiro/análise , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Análise de Variância , Quimiocina CCL2/análise , Quimiocina CCL2/urina , Doença Crônica , Creatinina/urina , Nefropatias Diabéticas/patologia , Feminino , Glomerulonefrite por IGA/patologia , Humanos , Interleucina-1/análise , Isquemia/patologia , Macrófagos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/análise , Regulação para Cima , Adulto Jovem
15.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 19(12): 2322-6, 2011 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21593806

RESUMO

Glucose-6-phosphate transporter (G6PT) and microsomal glucose-6-phosphatase-α (G6Pase-α) perform the terminal step in glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis. Deficiency of these proteins leads to glycogen storage diseases. Partial inhibition of G6Pase in rats results in increased hepatic triglyceride content and de novo lipogenesis leading to hepatic steatosis. Hepatic steatosis represents hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome. We investigated molecular mechanisms that may explain the relationship between fatty liver and G6Pase-α in humans in detail. A total of 27 patients (11 men, 16 women) underwent liver biopsy. Histological diagnosis identified nonfatty liver in seven patients and nonalcoholic fatty liver in 20 patients. We quantified G6Pase-α and G6PT mRNA expression by real-time PCR. Anthropometric measurements and analysis of plasma lipids and liver enzymes were performed. Patients with fatty liver showed no significant differences in age, HOMA(IR) (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance), BMI, liver enzymes or waist-to-hip ratio compared to those with nonfatty liver, but total plasma cholesterol levels and liver fat content were higher in patients with fatty liver (P < 0.05). G6Pase-α and G6PT mRNA expressions were significantly downregulated in fatty compared to histologically normal liver (P < 0.05). G6Pase-α and G6PT mRNA expressions correlated positively (R(2) = 0.406 P < 0.05). Both expressions did not correlate with age, BMI, aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, γ-glutamyl transferase, triglycerides or glucose levels. Our data suggest that expression of hepatic G6Pase-α and G6PT are closely interlinked. Downregulation of G6Pase-α in fatty liver might be associated with hepatic fat accumulation and pathogenesis of hepatic steatosis.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Antiporters/metabolismo , Colesterol/sangue , Fígado Gorduroso/metabolismo , Glucose-6-Fosfatase/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte de Monossacarídeos/metabolismo , Sobrepeso/complicações , Adulto , Antiporters/sangue , Antiporters/genética , Biópsia , Regulação para Baixo , Fígado Gorduroso/etiologia , Fígado Gorduroso/genética , Feminino , Glucose-6-Fosfatase/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas de Transporte de Monossacarídeos/sangue , Proteínas de Transporte de Monossacarídeos/genética , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Sobrepeso/genética , Sobrepeso/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
16.
Am J Med Genet A ; 152A(11): 2749-55, 2010 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20979188

RESUMO

We report on a 25-year-old woman with pronounced generalized lipodystrophy and a progeroid aspect since birth, who also had Marfan syndrome (MFS; fulfilling the Ghent criteria) with mild skeletal features, dilated aortic bulb, dural ectasia, bilateral subluxation of the lens, and severe myopia in addition to the severe generalized lipodystrophy. She lacked insulin resistance, hypertriglyceridemia, hepatic steatosis, and diabetes. Mutation analysis in the gene encoding fibrillin 1 (FBN1) revealed a novel de novo heterozygous deletion, c.8155_8156del2 in exon 64. The severe generalized lipodystrophy in this patient with progeroid features has not previously been described in other patients with MFS and FBN1 mutations. We did not find a mutation in genes known to be associated with congenital lipodystrophy (APGAT2, BSCL2, CAV1, PTRF-CAVIN, PPARG, LMNB2) or with Hutchinson-Gilford progeria (ZMPSTE24, LMNA/C). Other progeria syndromes were considered unlikely because premature greying, hypogonadism, and scleroderma-like skin disease were not present. Our patient shows striking similarity to two patients who have been published in this journal by O'Neill et al. [O'Neill et al. (2007); Am J Med Genet Part A 143A:1421-1430] with the diagnosis of neonatal progeroid syndrome (NPS). This condition also known as Wiedemann-Rautenstrauch syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by accelerated aging and lipodystrophy from birth, poor postnatal weight gain, and characteristic facial features. The course is usually progressive with early lethality. However this entity seems heterogeneous. We suggest that our patient and the two similar cases described before represent a new entity, a subgroup of MFS with overlapping features to NPS syndrome.


Assuntos
Mutação da Fase de Leitura/genética , Lipodistrofia/complicações , Síndrome de Marfan/complicações , Síndrome de Marfan/genética , Proteínas dos Microfilamentos/genética , Progéria/complicações , Progéria/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição da Gordura Corporal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Impedância Elétrica , Feminino , Fibrilina-1 , Fibrilinas , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Lipodistrofia/genética , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Síndrome de Marfan/fisiopatologia , Gravidez , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Receptor do Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta Tipo I , Receptor do Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta Tipo II , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento Transformadores beta/genética , Adulto Jovem
17.
Pituitary ; 12(1): 57-69, 2009.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18176844

RESUMO

Corticotroph pituitary carcinomas are tumors, defined by the presence of distant metastases that determine their poor prognosis. The diagnosis and therapy of malignant corticotroph adenomas remains a clinical challenge. The molecular mechanisms of malignant transformation of pituitary adenomas are unclear, although they are believed to arise in an adenoma-to-carcinoma sequence. We describe two cases of malignant Cushing's disease with metastases in liver and bone, respectively. The primary pituitary tumors were treated by a combination of radiotherapy and transsphenoidal surgery, but recurred several times in both patients. The time interval between the diagnosis of Cushing's disease and the discovery of metastases was 32 and 17 years, respectively. In the first case the patient died within 6 months after diagnosis of metastasis, whereas the second patient is alive at a follow-up of 2 years after the discovery of the metastasis. Furthermore, we reviewed all available cases of corticotroph pituitary carcinomas reported in the literature and analyzed their clinical features and therapeutical management. In conclusion, frequent relapses of Cushing's disease, aggressive growth of macroadenoma, Nelson's syndrome after adrenalectomy or persistently high ACTH levels should prompt the clinician to consider the possibility of pituitary corticotroph carcinomas.


Assuntos
Adenoma Hipofisário Secretor de ACT/diagnóstico , Adenoma Hipofisário Secretor de ACT/patologia , Hipersecreção Hipofisária de ACTH/complicações , Adenoma Hipofisário Secretor de ACT/metabolismo , Adulto , Humanos , Hipersecreção Hipofisária de ACTH/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) ; 70(4): 554-60, 2009 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18665910

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease represents the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is the progressive form of liver injury. The pathophysiology that leads to NASH is not well understood. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesize that an altered cortisol metabolism in the liver may be a pathogenetic factor. DESIGN AND PATIENTS: 75 patients (28 men, 47 women) underwent liver biopsy for elevation in liver enzymes. Histological diagnosis identified normal liver in eight, fatty liver in 20, NASH grade 1 in 22, grade 2 in nine, grade 3 in three patients, and other forms of hepatitis or cirrhosis in 13 patients. We quantified hepatic 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type1 (11beta-HSD1) and hexose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase (H6PDH) mRNA expression by real-time PCR. In addition, analysis of 24 h urinary excretion of cortisol metabolites using GCMS was performed and compared with healthy controls. RESULTS: 11beta-HSD1 mRNA expression correlated significantly (R2= 0.809; P < 0.001) with H6PDH mRNA expression, negatively with waist-to-hip ratio in women (R2= 0.394; P= 0.005), but not with urinary (THF + 5alpha-THF)/THE ratio, total cortisol metabolite excretion, age, BMI, degree of fatty liver or NASH stages. Total cortisol metabolite excretion was increased in patients with fatty liver or NASH compared with healthy controls. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that expression of hepatic 11beta-HSD1 and H6PDH are closely interlinked. 11beta-HSD1 gene expression does not seem to be involved in the pathogenesis of fatty liver or NASH. However, those patients showed an increased 5alpha- and 5beta-reduction of cortisol leading to an increased cortisol turnover rate and an activation of the HPA axis.


Assuntos
11-beta-Hidroxiesteroide Desidrogenase Tipo 1/metabolismo , Fígado Gorduroso/metabolismo , Fígado/enzimologia , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , 11-beta-Hidroxiesteroide Desidrogenase Tipo 1/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Biópsia , Desidrogenases de Carboidrato/genética , Desidrogenases de Carboidrato/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Progressão da Doença , Fígado Gorduroso/patologia , Fígado Gorduroso/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/urina , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/fisiologia , Fígado/patologia , Testes de Função Hepática , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/fisiologia
19.
Kidney Blood Press Res ; 31(2): 71-9, 2008.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18319594

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is substantial evidence that androgens may play a role in determining sex-specific blood pressure. Men are at higher risk for developing coronary heart disease or hypertension compared to premenopausal women. However, effects of androgens on the renal and cardiovascular system are complex. This review provides a critical overview of testosterone actions. METHODS: We searched Pubmed library for experimental, animal and clinical studies, using the keywords 'blood pressure', 'hypertension', 'testosterone' and 'androgens'. RESULTS: While acute administration of testosterone seems to decrease vascular tone, the long-term net effect of androgens appears to be vasoconstriction via upregulation of thromboxane A2 expression, norepinephrine synthesis, angiotensin II expression, and endothelin-1 action. Furthermore, androgens cause cardiac hypertrophy, promote atherosclerosis, vascular remodelling and stimulate renal prohypertensive processes involving the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Androgens seem to promote oxidative stress in the kidney and may also play a role in the differentiation of brain areas involved in blood pressure regulation. CONCLUSION: The effects of sex steroids on different parts of the renal-vascular system are complex and often contradictory. In sum, net effects of androgen action seem to be vasoconstriction, atherosclerosis and stimulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Therefore, androgens may determine blood pressure and the prevalence of cardiovascular disease.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina/fisiologia , Testosterona/fisiologia , Animais , Aterosclerose/fisiopatologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais , Vasoconstrição/fisiologia
20.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 157(1): 39-46, 2007 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17609400

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: TSH-secreting pituitary tumors (TSH-omas) are a rare cause of hyperthyroidism and account for <1% of all pituitary adenomas. Failure to recognize the presence of a TSH-oma may result in dramatic consequences such as thyroid ablation that may cause further growth in pituitary tumor. The primary goal of the treatment of TSH-omas is to remove the pituitary tumor. Medical treatment includes dopaminergic agonists or somatostatin analogs. METHODS AND RESULTS: We report five cases of TSH-oma diagnosed between 1997 and 2006 and review the literature. All the patients are females with an age range from 54 to 65 years at diagnosis. Four of the five patients had at least one event of thyroid surgery due to goiter or nodule of unknown dignity. Three of the five patients had a stroke before the diagnosis of TSH-oma, probably due to hypertension, or smoking and contraceptive treatment. One patient with invasive tumor growth received stereotactic radiotherapy (and developed panhypopituitarism after operation), another patient received somatostatin analogs preoperatively and successfully underwent transsphenoidal operation. Three of the five patients received dopaminergic agonists (bromocriptine 5 mg daily or cabergoline 0.5-0.75 mg per week), because they refused surgical therapy or the tumor was stable under dopaminergic therapy. All patients have been followed-up for 2.5-8 years. A normalization of circulating thyroid hormone levels was achieved in all patients. The patient who underwent operation shows no recurrence of the disease. The other patients have a stable pituitary mass without signs of growth. CONCLUSION: We report the successful long-term treatment of TSH-omas with different therapies.


Assuntos
Adenoma/terapia , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/terapia , Tireotropina/metabolismo , Adenoma/metabolismo , Adenoma/cirurgia , Idoso , Algoritmos , Agonistas de Dopamina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Assistência de Longa Duração , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/cirurgia , Somatostatina/análogos & derivados , Somatostatina/uso terapêutico
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA