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1.
CJEM ; 16(4): 314-21, 2014 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25060085

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Drowning is a major public health concern, yet little is known about the characteristics of drowning patients. The objectives of this study were to describe the demographic and clinical characteristics of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) attributed to drowning in Ontario and to compare the characteristics of OHCA attributed to drowning to those of presumed cardiac etiology. METHODS: A retrospective, observational study was carried out of consecutive OHCA patients of drowning etiology in Ontario between August 2006 and July 2011. Bivariate analysis was used to evaluate differences between drowning and presumed cardiac etiologies. RESULTS: A total of 31,763 OHCA patients were identified, and 132 (0.42%) were attributed to drowning. Emergency medical services treated 98 patients, whereas the remaining 34 met the criteria for legislative death. Overall, 5.1% of drowning patients survived to hospital discharge. When compared to patients of presumed cardiac etiology, drowning patients were younger and their arrest was more likely to be unwitnessed, present with a nonshockable initial rhythm, occur in a public location, and receive bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). A nonsignificant trend was noted for drowning cases to more frequently have a public access AED applied. There were no significant differences in the gender ratio or paramedic response times. Drowning patients were more likely to be transported to hospital but had a trend to be less likely to arrive with a return of spontaneous circulation. They were also more likely to be admitted to hospital but had no difference in survival to hospital discharge. CONCLUSIONS: Significant differences exist between OHCA of drowning and presumed cardiac etiologies. Most drownings are unwitnessed, occur in public locations, and present with nonshockable initial rhythms, suggesting that treatment should focus on bystander CPR. Future initiatives should focus on strategies to improve supervision in targeted locations and greater emphasis on bystander-initiated CPR, both of which may reduce drowning mortality.


Assuntos
Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/métodos , Afogamento/epidemiologia , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/métodos , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/etiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ontário/epidemiologia , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/terapia , Alta do Paciente/tendências , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências
2.
PLoS One ; 9(3): e92379, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24664182

RESUMO

AIM: To establish a new and reliable assay for quantification of the soluble fibrin (SF) in combination with that of D-dimer for early diagnosis of venous thromboembolism. METHODS AND SAMPLES: The SF assay is based on D-dimer generated after incubation of plasma with tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA). SF and standard D-dimer assays, run in blind, were used to test 119 untreated outpatients with clinically suspected deep-vein thrombosis (DVT, 49 patients) or pulmonary embolism (PE, 70 patients) consulting at the emergency unit of the hospital. Thromboses were confirmed by current imaging methods such as ultrasonography, scintigraphy, computed tomographic pulmonary angiography (CTPA) and ventilation/perfusion scan. RESULTS: SF assay was validated in 270 healthy volunteers [51.8% males; mean age years ± SD: 41±13; age range 19 to 65]. Among these normal plasmas, SF levels were ≤200 ng/mL in 97.8% of them, and 200-250 ng/mL in the remainder [26-46 years old; 50% males]. ROC curves were used to determine the SF cut-off value for plasma SF positivity, which was found to be 300 ng/mL. In patients with suspected venous thromboembolism, SF sensitivities for DVT and PE (92% and 94%, respectively) were comparable to those of D-dimer (96% and 94%), whereas SF specificities (86% and 95%) were higher than those of D-dimer (50% and 54%). Positive-predictive values for SF (89% and 94%) were again higher than those of D-dimer (70% and 65%) in DVT and PE. The amount of circulating SF normalized rapidly after anticoagulant therapy. CONCLUSION: Results from this small group of patients suggest that the evaluation of plasma SF, in combination with that of D-dimer, represents a potentially useful tool for the early diagnosis of venous thromboembolism, provided that the patients have not been treated previously by anticoagulants.


Assuntos
Análise Química do Sangue/métodos , Produtos de Degradação da Fibrina e do Fibrinogênio/química , Produtos de Degradação da Fibrina e do Fibrinogênio/metabolismo , Tromboembolia Venosa/sangue , Tromboembolia Venosa/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Análise Química do Sangue/normas , Diagnóstico Precoce , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Embolia Pulmonar/sangue , Embolia Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Valores de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Solubilidade , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tecidual/farmacologia , Tromboembolia Venosa/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto Jovem
3.
Drug Saf ; 36(12): 1159-68, 2013 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24163273

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the relation of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) to self-use of medications. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and severity of ADRs related to self-medication (ADR-SM) among emergency department (ED) patients and to describe their main characteristics. METHODS: A prospective, cross-sectional, observational study was conducted over a period of 8 weeks (1 March to 20 April 2010), in the ED of 11 French academic hospitals. Adult patients presenting to the ED during randomization periods were included, with the exception of cases of self-drug poisoning, inability to complete self-medication questionnaire, or refusal. Clinical outcomes were assessed as well as history of self-medication behaviours and all drugs taken. All doubtful files and those related to ADR-SM were systematically reviewed by an expert committee. RESULTS: A total of 3,027 of 4,661 patients presenting to the ED met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 84.4 % declared a self-medication behaviour, 63.7 % took at least one non-prescribed drug during the previous 2 weeks and 59.9 % took a prescribed medication. A total of 296 patients experienced an ADR (9.78 %), of which 52 (1.72 %) were related to self-medication. Those ADRs related to self-medication included prescribed drugs (n = 19), non-prescribed drugs (n = 17), treatment discontinuation (n = 14), and interactions between non-prescribed and prescribed drugs (n = 2). The ADRs attributed to non-prescribed drugs represented 1 % of all patients taking non-prescribed drugs (n = 1,927). ADR severity was significantly lower for those related to self-medication (p = .032). CONCLUSION: Self-medication is frequent; its potential toxicity should not be neglected, taking into account the rate of adverse drug reactions in about 1 % of ED patient.


Assuntos
Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Automedicação/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medicamentos sem Prescrição , Estudos Prospectivos
4.
PLoS One ; 8(4): e62686, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23638133

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We assessed the EDs' characteristics associated with the offer and acceptance rates of a nontargeted HIV rapid-test screening in 29 Emergency Departments (EDs) in the metropolitan Paris region (11.7 million inhabitants), where half of France's new HIV cases are diagnosed annually. METHODS: EDs nurses offered testing to all patients 18-64-year-old, able to provide consent, either with or without supplemental staff (hybrid staff model or indigenous staff model). The EDS' characteristics collected included structural characteristics (location, type, size), daily workload (patients' number and severity, length of stay in hours), staff's participation (training, support to the intervention, leadership), type of week day (weekends vs weekdays) and time (in days). Associations between these variables and the staff model, the offer and acceptance rates were studied using multilevel modeling. RESULTS: Indigenous staff model was more frequent in EDs with a lower daily patient flow and a higher staff support score to the intervention. In indigenous-model EDs, the offer rate was associated with the patient flow (OR = 0.838, 95% CI = 0.773-0.908), was lower during weekends (OR = 0.623, 95% CI = 0.581-0.667) and decreased over time (OR = 0.978, 95% CI = 0.975-0.981). Similar results were found in hybrid-model EDs. Acceptance was poorly associated with EDs characteristics in indigenous-model EDs while in hybrid-model EDs it was lower during weekends (OR = 0.713, 95% CI = 0.623-0.816) and increased after the first positive test (OR = 1.526, 95% CI = 1.142-2.038). The EDs' characteristics explained respectively 38.5% and 15% of the total variance in the offer rate across indigenous model-EDs and hybrid model-EDs vs 12% and 1% for the acceptance rate. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest the need for taking into account EDs' characteristics while considering the implementation of an ED-based HIV screening program. Strategies allowing the optimization of human resources' utilization such as HIV targeted screening in the EDs might be privileged.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , França , HIV/enzimologia , Transcriptase Reversa do HIV/análise , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
8.
Arch Intern Med ; 172(1): 12-20, 2012 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22025095

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To lower the number of undiagnosed infections and to improve early detection, international health agencies have promoted nontargeted human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) screening in health care settings, including emergency departments (EDs). This strategy remains controversial and has yet to be tested on a large scale. We assessed the public health impact of nontargeted HIV-rapid test (RT) screening among ED patients in the metropolitan area of Paris (11.7 million inhabitants), where half of France's new HIV cases are diagnosed annually. METHODS: During a randomly assigned 6-week period for each of the 29 participating EDs, 18- to 64-year-old patients who were able to provide consent for HIV testing were offered a fingerstick whole-blood HIV RT. Main outcome measures were the number of patients tested for HIV and their characteristics vs those of the general metropolitan Paris population and the proportion of newly diagnosed HIV-positive patients among those tested and their characteristics vs those from the national HIV case surveillance. RESULTS: Among 138,691 visits, there were 78,411 eligible patients, 20,962 of whom (27.0%) were offered HIV RT; 13,229 (63.1%) accepted testing and 12,754 (16.3%) were tested. The ED patients' characteristics reflected the general population distribution. Eighteen patients received new HIV diagnoses (0.14%; 95% confidence interval, 0.08%-0.22%). Like national HIV case surveillance patients, they belonged to a high-risk group (n = 17), were previously tested (n = 12), and were either symptomatic or had a CD4 lymphocyte count lower than 350/µL, suggesting late-stage infections (n = 8); 12 patients were linked to care. CONCLUSIONS: Nontargeted HIV testing in EDs was feasible but identified only a few new HIV diagnoses, often at late stages, and, unexpectedly, most patients belonged to a high-risk group. Our findings do not support the implementation of nontargeted screening of the general population in EDs.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Programas de Rastreamento , Adolescente , Adulto , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paris/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
Am J Emerg Med ; 30(5): 741-8, 2012 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22169586

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although heatstroke is often associated with dehydration, the clinical significance of serum sodium abnormalities in patients with heat-related illness during heat wave has been poorly documented. METHOD: We evaluated 1263 patients (age, 82±15 years; body temperature, 40.1°C+1.2°C) admitted to emergency departments during the August 2003 heat wave in Paris, having a core temperature greater than 38.5°C and measurement of serum sodium concentrations. Patients were classified according to our previously described risk score of death. RESULTS: Hyponatremia (<135 mmol/L) was reported in 409 (32%) and hypernatremia (>145 mmol/L) in 220 patients (17%). One-year survival was significantly decreased in patients with hypernatremia (45%; P=.004) but not in those with hyponatremia (58%; P=.86) as compared with patients with serum sodium concentration in the reference range (57%). Using Cox regression, only hypernatremia was an independent prognostic factor (hazard ratio, 1.35; 95% confidence interval, 1.09-1.36) when risk score was taken into account. Using logistic regression, 2 variables were independently associated with hyponatremia (heatstroke severity score and blood urea nitrogen-creatinine ratio<100). Conversely, 5 variables were independently associated with hypernatremia (living in an institution, dementia, serum creatinine>120 µmol/L, a blood urea nitrogen-creatinine ratio >100, and absence of long-term diuretic intake). CONCLUSIONS: Serum sodium abnormalities are frequently observed in patients with a nonexertional heatstroke during heat wave; however, only hypernatremia should be considered as an independent risk factor of death. Rapid measurement of serum sodium concentration is mandatory to appropriately guide electrolyte resuscitation.


Assuntos
Golpe de Calor/sangue , Sódio/sangue , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Golpe de Calor/diagnóstico , Golpe de Calor/mortalidade , Golpe de Calor/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Hipernatremia/sangue , Hipernatremia/complicações , Hipernatremia/fisiopatologia , Hiponatremia/sangue , Hiponatremia/complicações , Hiponatremia/fisiopatologia , Incidência , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco , Sódio/fisiologia
11.
Biomarkers ; 16(4): 355-63, 2011 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21595569

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Mid-regional pro-atrial natriuretic peptide (MRproANP) increases during systemic infections and could possibly correlate with bacteremia. METHODS: We determined the characteristics of MRproANP for accuracy to detect positive blood culture. RESULTS: Bacteremia was positive in 58 (15%) of 347 patients. MRproANP levels increased in patients with bacteremia (98.4 pmol/L [interquartile range (IQR) 68.2-153.1] vs. 66.4 pmol/L [IQR 51.0-90.3], p <0.01). Performance of MRproANP to predict bacteremia [AUC = 0.69, 95%CI: 0.61-0.77] was equivalent to C-reactive protein (0.66 [95%CI: 0.59-0.74], p = 0.53) but less accurate than procalcitonin (0.78 [95%CI: 0.72-0.84], p <0.001). CONCLUSION: Although MRproANP increased in bacteremic patients with acute pyelonephritis, results of likelihood ratios discarded its use at bedside to predict bacteremia.


Assuntos
Fator Natriurético Atrial/sangue , Bacteriemia/patologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Pielonefrite/microbiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Bacteriemia/diagnóstico , Bacteriemia/etiologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Calcitonina/sangue , Peptídeo Relacionado com Gene de Calcitonina , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Precursores de Proteínas/sangue , Pielonefrite/complicações
20.
Crit Care ; 14(2): R68, 2010.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20403164

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Febrile neutropenia (FN) is common in cancer patients receiving myelotoxic therapy. The procedures to treat FN are well established in oncology, but it is unclear whether management is adequate in the emergency department (ED). METHODS: This prospective, multicentre, observational study was carried out in 47 French EDs for 6 months. Patients were adults presenting at the ED with FN after myelotoxic treatment for cancer. Severity of infection was defined according to Bone criteria for severe sepsis and septic shock (SS/SSh) and risk was determined according to Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer (MASCC) criteria. The end point was the implementation of guidelines. Management of patients with SS/SSh required: (i) adequate intravenous (IV) antimicrobial therapy for the first 90 min (broad-spectrum beta-lactam with or without an aminoglycoside); (ii) fluid challenge (500 mL); (iii) lactate measurement; (iv) at least one blood culture; and (v) hospitalization. Management of patients without SS/SSh required: (1) no initiation of granulocyte - cell stimulating factor (G-CSF); (2) adequate IV antimicrobial therapy (broad-spectrum beta-lactam) and hospitalization if the patient was high-risk according to MASCC criteria; (3) adequate oral antimicrobial therapy (quinolone or amoxicillin/clavulanate or cephalosporin) and hospital discharge if the patient was low-risk. RESULTS: 198 patients were enrolled; 89 patients had SS/SSh, of whom 19 received adequate antimicrobial therapy within 90 min and 42 received appropriate fluid challenge. Blood cultures were obtained from 87 and lactate concentration was measured in 29. Overall, only 6 (7%) patients with SS/SSh received adequate management. Among 108 patients without SS/SSh, 38 (35%) were high-risk and 70 (65%) low-risk. In the high-risk group, adequate antimicrobial therapy was given to 31 patients, G-CSF was initiated in 4 and 35 were hospitalized. In the low-risk group, 4 patients received adequate oral antimicrobial therapy, IV antimicrobial therapy was prescribed in 59, G-CSF was initiated in 12 and six patients were discharged. Adequate management was given to 26/38 (68%) high-risk and 1/70 low-risk patients. Factors associated with adequate management were absence of SS/SSh (P = 0.0009) and high-risk according to MASCC criteria (P < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: In this French sample of cancer patients presenting to the ED with FN, management was often inadequate and severity was under-evaluated in the critically ill.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/normas , Febre/tratamento farmacológico , Neutropenia/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Febre/diagnóstico , França , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neutropenia/diagnóstico , Observação , Estudos Prospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
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