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Environ Int ; 133(Pt A): 105147, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31518932


Exposure to ambient particulate matter is a leading risk factor for environmental public health in India. While Indian authorities implemented several measures to reduce emissions from the power, industry and transportation sectors over the last years, such strategies appear to be insufficient to reduce the ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentration below the Indian National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) of 40 µg/m3 across the country. This study explores pathways towards achieving the NAAQS in India in the context of the dynamics of social and economic development. In addition, to inform action at the subnational levels in India, we estimate the exposure to ambient air pollution in the current legislations and alternative policy scenarios based on simulations with the GAINS integrated assessment model. The analysis reveals that in many of the Indian States emission sources that are outside of their immediate jurisdictions make the dominating contributions to (population-weighted) ambient pollution levels of PM2.5. Consequently, most of the States cannot achieve significant improvements in their air quality and population exposure on their own without emission reductions in the surrounding regions, and any cost-effective strategy requires regionally coordinated approaches. Advanced technical emission control measures could provide NAAQS-compliant air quality for 60% of the Indian population. However, if combined with national sustainable development strategies, an additional 25% population will be provided with clean air, which appears to be a significant co-benefit on air quality (totaling 85%).

Environ Sci Technol ; 53(10): 5576-5584, 2019 05 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31070360


This research links the Integrated MARKAL-EFOM system model of China (China TIMES) and the Greenhouse Gas and Air Pollution Interactions and Synergies model (GAINS) to assess the co-benefits of air quality improvement under the Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) and the well below 2 °C (WBD2) target. Results show that the industry sector and power sector are the key sources necessary to reduce air pollutant emissions, mainly due to the phasing out of fossil fuels. The electrification in the building sector will be another main source by which to decrease PM2.5 emissions. The adoption of various low-carbon constraints and further air pollutant control strategies will significantly alleviate the current air pollution problems in China by reducing the concentration and scope of the air pollutants and reducing the corresponding number of premature deaths. A stricter air pollutant control strategy will lead to increases in air pollutant control costs; however, the low-carbon targets will help reduce these costs in the long run. Compared to the current national policy, within the same air pollutant control strategy, the reduction of air pollutant control cost can cover the incremental CO2 mitigation cost under the NDC target, while this cannot be realized under the WBD2 target.

Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Carbono , China , Clima , Material Particulado , Melhoria de Qualidade
Environ Int ; 125: 236-244, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30731373


Air pollution is one of the most harmful consequences of China's rapid economic development and urbanization. Particularly in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) regions, particulate matter concentrations have consistently exceeded the national air quality standards. Over the last years, China implemented ambitious measures to reduce emissions from the power, industry and transportation sectors, with notable success during the 11th and 12th Five Year Plan (FYP) periods. However, such strategies appear to be insufficient to reduce the ambient PM2.5 concentration below the National Air Quality Standard of 35 µg m-3 across the BTH region within the next 15 years. We find that a comprehensive mitigation strategy for the residential sector in the BTH region would deliver substantial air quality benefits. Beyond the already planned expansion of district heating and natural gas distribution in urban centers and the foreseen curtailment of coal use for households, such a strategy would redirect some natural gas from power generation units towards the residential sector. Rural households would replace biomass for cooking by liquid petroleum gas (LPG) and electricity, and substitute coal for heating by briquettes. Jointly, these measures could reduce the primary PM2.5 and SO2 emissions by 28% and 11%, respectively, and the population-weighted PM2.5 concentrations by 13%, i.e., from 68 µg m-3 to 59 µg m-3. We estimate that such a strategy would reduce premature deaths attributable to ambient and indoor air pollution by almost one third.

Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Poluição do Ar , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental , Habitação , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Pequim , China , Carvão Mineral/análise , Culinária , Calefação , Humanos , Mortalidade Prematura , Material Particulado/análise
Lancet ; 391(10120): 581-630, 2018 02 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29096948