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1.
J Med Toxicol ; 16(3): 276-283, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31848906

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Diabetes disproportionately affects American Indians/Alaskan Natives (AI/AN). Bisphenol A (BPA) and arsenic (As), environmental toxicants which may be associated with diabetes, have not been well studied in this population. Our objectives were to determine if urinary BPA and As are associated with diabetes among adults in the Cheyenne River Sioux Tribe (CRST), and to compare their urinary levels with the general US population. METHODS: We performed a case-control study among 276 volunteers. We matched our cases (persons with diabetes) and controls (persons without diabetes) using age. We collected questionnaire data and urine samples which were tested for BPA and speciated As analytes. We used paired t tests and McNemar's chi-square test to compare continuous and categorical variables, respectively, between cases and controls and linear regression to assess the association between self-reported exposures and BPA and As levels. We used conditional logistic regression to investigate the association between case status and BPA and As levels. BPA and As levels among participants were compared with those from the 2011-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). RESULTS: The average age of participants was 46 years. The majority identified as AI/AN race (97%) and 58% were female. The geometric means from CRST participant urine specimens were 1.83 ug/L for BPA and 3.89 ug/L for total As. BPA geometric means of CRST participants were higher than NHANES participants while total As geometric means were lower. BPA and As were not associated with case status. CONCLUSION: The results of this study are consistent with others that have reported no association between diabetes and exposure to BPA or As.


Assuntos
Arsênio/urina , Compostos Benzidrílicos/urina , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etnologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/urina , Índios Norte-Americanos , Fenóis/urina , Adulto , Arsênio/efeitos adversos , Compostos Benzidrílicos/efeitos adversos , Biomarcadores/urina , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenóis/efeitos adversos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , South Dakota/epidemiologia
2.
Sci Total Environ ; 6962019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32636572

RESUMO

Background: People living in coastal communities are at risk for exposure to environmental hazards, including legacy chemicals. We can use databases such as NHANES to assess whether contaminants in coastal communities are present in higher levels than in the United States overall. We can use information from studies of local animal populations to assess which of these contaminants could have been transferred to people from their shared environment. Objective: Our objectives were to examine the POP profiles in human populations in areas where there are published POP profiles in resident dolphins and to compare our results with data from NHANES and the dolphin studies. Methods: We identified three areas where POPs have been analyzed in local resident dolphin populations (total N =73). We identified human communities in the same areas, and asked 27 eligible adults to read and sign a consent form, complete a questionnaire about demographics and seafood consumption, provide nine 10-mL blood samples, and provide one sample of seafood (N = 33). Blood and seafood were analyzed for a suite of POPs similar to those analyzed in published dolphin population studies. We compared the results from human blood analyses with NHANES and with data from the published reports of dolphin studies. Results: Levels and proportions of specific POPs found in people and animals reflect POPs found in the local environment. Compared with the nationally representative data reported in NHANES, the levels of many POPs found in high levels in dolphins were also higher in the corresponding human communities. Conclusions: Contaminants measured in marine animals, such as dolphins, can be used to identify the types and relative levels of environmental contaminants expected to occur in people sharing the same environment. Likewise, contaminants measured in coastal human populations can provide insight into which contaminants may be found in nearby animal populations.


Assuntos
Golfinho Nariz-de-Garrafa , Golfinhos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Inquéritos Nutricionais
3.
Clin Toxicol (Phila) ; 57(1): 10-18, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29989463

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVES: In April 2015, a multistate outbreak of illness linked to synthetic cannabinoid (SC) use was unprecedented in magnitude and severity. We identified Mississippi cases in near-real time, collected information on cases to characterize the outbreak, and identified the causative SC. METHODS: A case was defined as any patient of a Mississippi healthcare facility who was suspected of SC use and presenting with ≥2 of the following symptoms: sweating, severe agitation, or psychosis during April 2-May 3, 2015. Clinicians reported cases to the Mississippi Poison Control Center (MPCC). We used MPCC data to identify cases at the University of Mississippi Medical Center (UMMC) to characterize in further detail, including demographics and clinical findings. Biologic samples were tested for known and unknown SCs by liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF/MS). RESULTS: Clinicians reported 721 cases (11 deaths) statewide; 119 (17%) were UMMC patients with detailed data for further analysis. Twelve (10%) were admitted to an intensive care unit and 2 (2%) died. Aggression (32%), hypertension (33%), and tachycardia (42%) were common. SCs were identified in serum from 39/56 patients (70%); 33/39 patients (85%) tested positive for MAB-CHMINACA (N-(1-amino-3,3-dimethyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl)-1-(cyclohexylmethyl)-1H-indazole-3-carboxamide) or its metabolites. Compared to all patients tested for SCs, those positive for MAB-CHMINACA were more likely to have altered mental status on examination (OR = 3.3, p = .05). CONCLUSION: SC use can cause severe health effects. MAB-CHMINACA was the most commonly detected SC in this outbreak. As new SCs are created, new strategies to optimize surveillance and patient care are needed to address this evolving public health threat.


Assuntos
Canabinoides/toxicidade , Drogas Ilícitas/toxicidade , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Medicamentos Sintéticos/toxicidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Surtos de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Centros de Controle de Intoxicações/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Pública , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
4.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 67(30): 815-818, 2018 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30070980

RESUMO

Tianeptine (marketed as Coaxil or Stablon) is an atypical tricyclic drug used as an antidepressant in Europe, Asia, and Latin America. In the United States, tianeptine is not approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for medical use and is an unscheduled pharmaceutical agent* (1). Animal and human studies show that tianeptine is an opioid receptor agonist (2). Several case studies have reported severe adverse effects and even death from recreational abuse of tianeptine (3-5). To characterize tianeptine exposures in the United States, CDC analyzed all exposure calls related to tianeptine reported by poison control centers to the National Poison Data System (NPDS)† during 2000-2017. Tianeptine exposure calls, including those for intentional abuse or misuse, increased across the United States during 2014-2017, suggesting a possible emerging public health risk. Most tianeptine exposures occurred among persons aged 21-40 years and resulted in moderate outcomes. Neurologic, cardiovascular, and gastrointestinal signs and symptoms were the most commonly reported health effects, with some effects mimicking opioid toxicity. A substantial number of tianeptine exposure calls also reported clinical effects of withdrawal. Among 83 tianeptine exposures with noted coexposures, the most commonly reported coexposures were to phenibut, ethanol, benzodiazepines, and opioids.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Notificação de Reações Adversas a Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Centros de Controle de Intoxicações/estatística & dados numéricos , Tiazepinas/envenenamento , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
Prehosp Disaster Med ; 33(3): 256-265, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29669608

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The Flint Community Resilience Group (Flint, Michigan USA) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC; Atlanta, Georgia USA) assessed behavioral health concerns among community members to determine the impact of lead contamination of the Flint, Michigan water supply. METHODS: A Community Assessment for Public Health Emergency Response (CASPER) was conducted from May 17 through May 19, 2016 using a multi-stage cluster sampling design to select households and individuals to interview. RESULTS: One-half of households felt overlooked by decision makers. The majority of households self-reported that at least one member experienced more behavioral health concerns than usual. The prevalence of negative quality of life indicators and financial concerns in Flint was higher than previously reported in the Michigan 2012 and 2014 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) survey. CONCLUSIONS: The following can be considered to guide recovery efforts in Flint: identifying additional resources for behavioral health interventions and conducting follow-up behavioral health assessments to evaluate changes in behavioral health concerns over time; considering the impact of household economic factors when implementing behavioral health interventions; and ensuring community involvement and engagement in recovery efforts to ease community stress and anxiety. FortenberryGZ, ReynoldsP, BurrerSL, Johnson-LawrenceV, WangA, SchnallA, PullinsP, KieszakS, BayleyegnT, WolkinA. Assessment of behavioral health concerns in the community affected by the Flint water crisis - Michigan (USA) 2016. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2018;33(3):256-265.


Assuntos
Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Intoxicação por Chumbo , Comportamento Problema , Água/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Sistema de Vigilância de Fator de Risco Comportamental , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Demografia/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Intoxicação por Chumbo/psicologia , Masculino , Michigan , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Autorrelato , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
6.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 66(8): 223-226, 2017 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28253227

RESUMO

Hand sanitizers are effective and inexpensive products that can reduce microorganisms on the skin, but ingestion or improper use can be associated with health risks. Many hand sanitizers contain up to 60%-95% ethanol or isopropyl alcohol by volume, and are often combined with scents that might be appealing to young children. Recent reports have identified serious consequences, including apnea, acidosis, and coma in young children who swallowed alcohol-based (alcohol) hand sanitizer (1-3). Poison control centers collect data on intentional and unintentional exposures to hand sanitizer solutions resulting from various routes of exposure, including ingestion, inhalation, and dermal and ocular exposures. To characterize exposures of children aged ≤12 years to alcohol hand sanitizers, CDC analyzed data reported to the National Poison Data System (NPDS).* The major route of exposure to both alcohol and nonalcohol-based (nonalcohol) hand sanitizers was ingestion. The majority of intentional exposures to alcohol hand sanitizers occurred in children aged 6-12 years. Alcohol hand sanitizer exposures were associated with worse outcomes than were nonalcohol hand sanitizer exposures. Caregivers and health care providers should be aware of the potential dangers associated with hand sanitizer ingestion. Children using alcohol hand sanitizers should be supervised and these products should be kept out of reach from children when not in use.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Alimentos , Etanol/envenenamento , Higienizadores de Mão/envenenamento , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Bases de Dados Factuais , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Centros de Controle de Intoxicações , Envenenamento/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
7.
Drug Test Anal ; 9(1): 68-74, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27367536

RESUMO

In September 2013, the Hawaii Department of Health (HDOH) was notified of seven adults who developed acute hepatitis after taking OxyELITE Pro™, a weight loss and sports dietary supplement. CDC assisted HDOH with their investigation, then conducted case-finding outside of Hawaii with FDA and the Department of Defense (DoD). We defined cases as acute hepatitis of unknown etiology that occurred from April 1, 2013, through December 5, 2013, following exposure to a weight loss or muscle-building dietary supplement, such as OxyELITE Pro™. We conducted case-finding through multiple sources, including data from poison centers (National Poison Data System [NPDS]) and FDA MedWatch. We identified 40 case-patients in 23 states and two military bases with acute hepatitis of unknown etiology and exposure to a weight loss or muscle building dietary supplement. Of 35 case-patients who reported their race, 15 (42.9%) reported white and 9 (25.7%) reported Asian. Commonly reported symptoms included jaundice, fatigue, and dark urine. Twenty-five (62.5%) case-patients reported taking OxyELITE Pro™. Of these 25 patients, 17 of 22 (77.3%) with available data were hospitalized and 1 received a liver transplant. NPDS and FDA MedWatch each captured seven (17.5%) case-patients. Improving the ability to search surveillance systems like NPDS and FDA MedWatch for individual and grouped dietary supplements, as well as coordinating case-finding with DoD, may benefit ongoing surveillance efforts and future outbreak responses involving adverse health effects from dietary supplements. This investigation highlights opportunities and challenges in using multiple sources to identify cases of suspected supplement associated adverse events. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.


Assuntos
Anabolizantes/toxicidade , Fármacos Antiobesidade/toxicidade , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/etiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais/toxicidade , Hepatite/etiologia , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/patologia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/terapia , Feminino , Hepatite/patologia , Hepatite/terapia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
J Med Toxicol ; 12(4): 350-357, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27352081

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: E-cigarette use is increasing, and the long-term impact on public health is unclear. We described the acute adverse health effects from e-cigarette exposures reported to U.S. poison centers. METHODS: We compared monthly counts and demographic, exposure, and health effects data of calls about e-cigarettes and conventional cigarettes made to poison centers from September 2010 through December 2014. RESULTS: Monthly e-cigarette calls increased from 1 in September 2010, peaked at 401 in April 2014, and declined to 295 in December 2014. Monthly conventional cigarette calls during the same period ranged from 302 to 514. E-cigarette calls were more likely than conventional cigarette calls to report adverse health effects, including vomiting, eye irritation, and nausea. Five e-cigarette calls reported major health effects, such as respiratory failure, and there were two deaths associated with e-cigarette calls. CONCLUSION: E-cigarette calls to U.S. poison centers increased over the study period, and were more likely than conventional cigarettes to report adverse health effects. It is important for health care providers and the public to be aware of potential acute health effects from e-cigarettes. Developing strategies to monitor and prevent poisonings from these novel devices is critical.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Linhas Diretas/estatística & dados numéricos , Centros de Controle de Intoxicações/estatística & dados numéricos , Produtos do Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Exposição por Inalação/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Nicotina/efeitos adversos , Saúde Pública , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
9.
Int J Circumpolar Health ; 73: 25760, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25442219

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exposure to environmental chemicals may impair endocrine system function. Alaska Native (AN) women may be at higher risk of exposure to these endocrine disrupting chemicals, which may contribute to breast cancer in this population. OBJECTIVE: To measure the association between exposure to select environmental chemicals and breast cancer among AN women. DESIGN: A case-control study of 170 women (75 cases, 95 controls) recruited from the AN Medical Center from 1999 to 2002. Participants provided urine and serum samples. Serum was analyzed for 9 persistent pesticides, 34 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, and 8 polybrominated diethyl ether (PBDE) congeners. Urine was analyzed for 10 phthalate metabolites. We calculated geometric means (GM) and compared cases and controls using logistic regression. RESULTS: Serum concentrations of most pesticides and 3 indicator PCB congeners (PCB-138/158; PCB-153, PCB-180) were lower in case women than controls. BDE-47 was significantly higher in case women (GM=38.8 ng/g lipid) than controls (GM=25.1 ng/g lipid) (p=0.04). Persistent pesticides, PCBs, and most phthalate metabolites were not associated with case status in univariate logistic regression. The odds of being a case were higher for those with urinary mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) concentrations that were above the median; this relationship was seen in both univariate (OR 2.16, 95% CI 1.16-4.05, p=0.02) and multivariable (OR 2.43, 95% CI 1.13-5.25, p=0.02) logistic regression. Women with oestrogen receptor (ER)-/progesterone receptor (PR)-tumour types tended to have higher concentrations of persistent pesticides than did ER+/PR+ women, although these differences were not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to the parent compound of the phthalate metabolite MEHP may be associated with breast cancer. However, our study is limited by small sample size and an inability to control for the confounding effects of body mass index. The association between BDE-47 and breast cancer warrants further investigation.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Ambientais/química , Grupos Populacionais/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alaska/epidemiologia , Análise de Variância , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Incidência , Modelos Logísticos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Ácidos Ftálicos/efeitos adversos , Bifenilos Policlorados/efeitos adversos , Valores de Referência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco
10.
JAMA Intern Med ; 174(6): 912-7, 2014 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24819553

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: At least 13 medication-associated diethylene glycol (DEG) mass poisonings have occurred since 1937. To our knowledge, this is the first longitudinal study characterizing long-term health outcomes among survivors beyond the acute poisoning period. OBJECTIVE: To characterize renal and neurologic outcomes among survivors of a 2006 DEG mass-poisoning event in Panama for 2 years after exposure. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This prospective longitudinal study used descriptive statistics and mixed-effects repeated-measures analysis to evaluate DEG-poisoned survivors at 4 consecutive 6-month intervals (0, 6, 12, and 18 months). Case patients included outbreak survivors with a history of (1) ingestion of DEG-contaminated medication, (2) hospitalization for DEG poisoning, and (3) an unexplained serum creatinine level of 1.5 mg/dL or higher (to convert to micromoles per liter, multiply by 88.4) during acute illness or unexplained exacerbation of preexisting end-stage renal disease. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Demographics, mortality, dialysis dependence, renal function, neurologic signs and symptoms, and nerve conduction studies. RESULTS: Of the 32 patients enrolled, 5 (15.6%) died and 1 was lost to follow-up, leaving 26 patients at 18 months. Three (9.4%) missed 1 or more evaluations. The median age was 62 years (range, 15-88 years), and 59.4% were female. Three (9.4%) patients had preexisting renal failure. Enrollment evaluations occurred at a median of 108 days (range, 65-154 days) after acute illness. The median serum creatinine level for the 22 patients who were not dialysis dependent at time 0 was 5.9 mg/dL (range, 1.8-17.1 mg/dL) during acute illness and 1.8 mg/dL (range, 0.9-5.9 mg/dL) at time 0. Among non-dialysis-dependent patients, there were no significant differences in the log of serum creatinine or estimated glomerular filtration rate over time. The number of patients with subjective generalized weakness declined significantly over time (P < .001). A similar finding was observed for any sensory loss (P = .05). The most common deficits at enrollment were bilateral lower extremity numbness in 13 patients (40.6%) and peripheral facial nerve motor deficits in 7 (21.9%). All patients with neurologic deficits at enrollment demonstrated improvement in motor function over time. Among 28 patients (90.3%) with abnormal nerve conduction study findings at enrollment, 10 (35.7%) had motor axonal involvement, the most common primary abnormality. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Neurologic findings of survivors tended to improve over time. Renal function generally improved among non-dialysis-dependent patients between acute illness and the first evaluation with little variability thereafter. No evidence of delayed-onset neurologic or renal disease was observed.


Assuntos
Etilenoglicóis/envenenamento , Falência Renal Crônica/induzido quimicamente , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/induzido quimicamente , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Contaminação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Falência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/epidemiologia , Panamá/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
11.
Int J Circumpolar Health ; 73(1): 25760, 2014 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28417697

RESUMO

Background Exposure to environmental chemicals may impair endocrine system function. Alaska Native (AN) women may be at higher risk of exposure to these endocrine disrupting chemicals, which may contribute to breast cancer in this population. Objective To measure the association between exposure to select environmental chemicals and breast cancer among AN women. Design A case-control study of 170 women (75 cases, 95 controls) recruited from the AN Medical Center from 1999 to 2002. Participants provided urine and serum samples. Serum was analyzed for 9 persistent pesticides, 34 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, and 8 polybrominated diethyl ether (PBDE) congeners. Urine was analyzed for 10 phthalate metabolites. We calculated geometric means (GM) and compared cases and controls using logistic regression. Results Serum concentrations of most pesticides and 3 indicator PCB congeners (PCB-138/158; PCB-153, PCB-180) were lower in case women than controls. BDE-47 was significantly higher in case women (GM=38.8 ng/g lipid) than controls (GM=25.1 ng/g lipid) (p=0.04). Persistent pesticides, PCBs, and most phthalate metabolites were not associated with case status in univariate logistic regression. The odds of being a case were higher for those with urinary mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) concentrations that were above the median; this relationship was seen in both univariate (OR 2.16, 95% CI 1.16-4.05, p=0.02) and multivariable (OR 2.43, 95% CI 1.13-5.25, p=0.02) logistic regression. Women with oestrogen receptor (ER)-/progesterone receptor (PR)-tumour types tended to have higher concentrations of persistent pesticides than did ER+/PR+ women, although these differences were not statistically significant. Conclusions Exposure to the parent compound of the phthalate metabolite MEHP may be associated with breast cancer. However, our study is limited by small sample size and an inability to control for the confounding effects of body mass index. The association between BDE-47 and breast cancer warrants further investigation.

12.
J Community Health ; 39(1): 90-8, 2014 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23934476

RESUMO

Heat-related illnesses (HRI) are the most frequent cause of environmental exposure-related injury treated in US emergency departments (ED). While most individuals with HRI evaluated in EDs are discharged to home, understanding predictors of individuals hospitalized with HRI may help public health practitioners and medical providers identify high risk groups who would benefit from educational outreach. We analyzed data collected by the Georgia Department of Public Health, Office of Health Indicators for Planning, regarding ED and hospital discharges for HRI, as identified by ICD-9 codes, between 2002 and 2008 to determine characteristics of individuals receiving care in EDs. Temperature data from CDC's Environmental Public Health Tracking Network were linked to the dataset to determine if ED visits occurred during an extreme heat event (EHE). A multivariable logistic regression model was developed to determine characteristics predicting hospitalization versus ED discharge using demographic characteristics, comorbid conditions, socioeconomic status, the public health district of residence, and the presence of an EHE. Men represented the majority of ED visits (75 %) and hospitalizations (78 %). In the multivariable model, the odds of admission versus ED discharge with an associated HRI increased with age among both men and women, and odds were higher among residents of specific public health districts, particularly in the southern part of the state. Educational efforts targeting the specific risk groups identified by this study may help reduce the burden of hospitalization due to HRI in the state of Georgia.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/epidemiologia , Temperatura Alta/efeitos adversos , Admissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Estações do Ano , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Comorbidade , Feminino , Georgia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Características de Residência , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
13.
Environ Health Perspect ; 119(12): 1794-9, 2011 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21843999

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aflatoxin, a potent fungal toxin, contaminates 25% of crops worldwide. Since 2004, 477 aflatoxin poisonings associated with eating contaminated maize have been documented in Eastern Kenya, with a case-fatality rate of 40%. OBJECTIVE: We characterized maize aflatoxin contamination during the high-risk season (April-June) after the major harvests in 2005, 2006 (aflatoxicosis outbreak years), and 2007 (a non-outbreak year). METHODS: Households were randomly selected each year from the region in Kenya where outbreaks have consistently occurred. At each household, we obtained at least one maize sample (n = 716) for aflatoxin analysis using immunoaffinity methods and administered a questionnaire to determine the source (i.e., homegrown, purchased, or relief) and amount of maize in the household. RESULTS: During the years of outbreaks in 2005 and 2006, 41% and 51% of maize samples, respectively, had aflatoxin levels above the Kenyan regulatory limit of 20 ppb in grains that were for human consumption. In 2007 (non-outbreak year), 16% of samples were above the 20-ppb limit. In addition, geometric mean (GM) aflatoxin levels were significantly higher in 2005 (GM = 12.92, maximum = 48,000 ppb) and 2006 (GM = 26.03, maximum = 24,400 ppb) compared with 2007 (GM = 1.95, maximum = 2,500 ppb) (p-value < 0.001). In all 3 years combined, maize aflatoxin levels were significantly higher in homegrown maize (GM = 17.96) when compared with purchased maize (GM = 3.64) or relief maize (GM = 0.73) (p-value < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Aflatoxin contamination is extreme within this region, and homegrown maize is the primary source of contamination. Prevention measures should focus on reducing homegrown maize contamination at the household level to avert future outbreaks.


Assuntos
Aflatoxinas/análise , Aspergillus/metabolismo , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Zea mays/química , Aflatoxinas/envenenamento , Estudos Transversais , Características da Família , Fluorometria , Contaminação de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Quênia/epidemiologia , Limite de Detecção , Inquéritos e Questionários , Zea mays/microbiologia
14.
Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol ; 25(1): 75-87, 2011 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21133972

RESUMO

This study describes the timing of puberty in 8- to 14-year-old boys enrolled in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) and identifies factors associated with earlier achievement of advanced pubic hair stages. Women were enrolled during pregnancy and their offspring were followed prospectively. We analysed self-reported pubic hair Tanner staging collected annually. We used survival models to estimate median age of attainment of pubic hair stage >1, stage >2 and stage >3 of pubic hair development. We also constructed multivariable logistic regression models to identify factors associated with earlier achievement of pubic hair stages. Approximately 5% of the boys reported Tanner pubic hair stage >1 at age 8; 99% of boys were at stage >1 by age 14. The estimated median ages of entry into stages of pubic hair development were 11.4 years [95% confidence interval (CI) 11.3, 11.4] for stage >1, 12.7 years [95% CI 12.7, 12.8] for stage >2 and 13.5 years [95% CI 13.5, 13.6] for stage >3. Predictors of younger age at Tanner stage >1 included low birthweight, younger maternal age at delivery and being taller at age 8. Associations were found between younger age at attainment of stage >2 and gestational diabetes and taller or heavier body size at age 8. Being taller or heavier at age 8 also predicted younger age at Tanner stage >3. The results give added support to the strong influence of pre-adolescent body size on male pubertal development; the tallest and heaviest boys at 8 years achieved each stage earlier and the shortest boys later. Age at attainment of pubic hair Tanner stages in the ALSPAC cohort are similar to ages reported in other European studies that were conducted during overlapping time periods. This cohort will continue to be followed for maturational information until age 17.


Assuntos
Genitália Masculina/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Puberdade/fisiologia , Maturidade Sexual/fisiologia , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez , Valores de Referência , Caracteres Sexuais , Meio Social , Fatores de Tempo , Reino Unido
15.
J Anal Toxicol ; 34(3): 129-34, 2010 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20406536

RESUMO

This study's goal was to determine cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), total mercury (THg), and inorganic mercury (IHg) levels in human cadavers to compare measured levels with established reference ranges for living persons and to determine whether blood levels varied with time from death to sample collection or by body collection site. Subjects (n = 66) recruited from the Fulton County Medical Examiner's Office in Atlanta, GA, were 20 years of age or older, had no penetrating trauma, no obvious source of environmental contamination of the vasculature, and had whole blood accessible from the femoral (F) site, the cardiac (C) site, or both. Geometric mean results were as follows: 2.59 microg/L F-Cd; 11.81 microg/L C-Cd; 1.03 microg/L F-THg; 2.01 microg/L C-THg; 0.29 microg/L F-IHg; 0.49 microg/L C-IHg; 1.78 microg/dL F-Pb; and 1.87 microg/dL C-Pb. Both F- and C-Cd levels as well as C-THg levels were significantly higher than reference values among living persons (C- and F-Cd, p < 0.0001 and C-THg, p = 0.0001, respectively). Based on regression modeling, as the postmortem interval increased, blood Cd levels increased (p < 0.006). Postmortem blood Cd concentrations were elevated compared to population values and varied with respect to sampling location and postmortem interval.


Assuntos
Cádmio/sangue , Chumbo/sangue , Mercúrio/sangue , Mudanças Depois da Morte , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Artéria Femoral/química , Átrios do Coração/química , Humanos , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valores de Referência , Espectrofotometria Atômica , Veias Cavas/química , Adulto Jovem
16.
Toxicon ; 55(5): 909-21, 2010 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19615396

RESUMO

We conducted a study of recreational exposure to microcystins among 81 children and adults planning recreational activities on either of three California reservoirs, two with significant, ongoing blooms of toxin-producing cyanobacteria, including Microcystis aeruginosa (Bloom Lakes), and one without a toxin-producing algal bloom (Control Lake). We analyzed water samples for algal taxonomy, microcystin concentrations, and potential respiratory viruses (adenoviruses and enteroviruses). We measured microcystins in personal air samples, nasal swabs, and blood samples. We interviewed study participants for demographic and health symptoms information. We found highly variable microcystin concentrations in Bloom Lakes (<10 microg/L to >500 microg/L); microcystin was not detected in the Control Lake. We did not detect adenoviruses or enteroviruses in any of the lakes. Low microcystin concentrations were found in personal air samples (<0.1 ng/m(3) [limit of detection]-2.89 ng/m(3)) and nasal swabs (<0.1 ng [limit of detection]-5 ng). Microcystin concentrations in the water-soluble fraction of all plasma samples were below the limit of detection (1.0 microg/L). Our findings indicate that recreational activities in water bodies that experience toxin-producing cyanobacterial blooms can generate aerosolized cyanotoxins, making inhalation a potential route of exposure. Future studies should include collecting nasal swabs to assess upper respiratory tract deposition of toxin-containing aerosols droplets.


Assuntos
Proliferação Nociva de Algas , Microcistinas/efeitos adversos , Microcystis/metabolismo , Recreação/fisiologia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , California , Criança , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Feminino , Água Doce/química , Humanos , Masculino , Microcistinas/análise , Microcystis/classificação , Microcystis/isolamento & purificação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Microbiologia da Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol ; 20(3): 281-7, 2010 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19293845

RESUMO

Perchlorate exposure may be higher in infants compared with older persons, due to diet (infant formula) and body weight versus intake considerations. Our primary objective was to quantitatively assess perchlorate concentrations in commercially available powdered infant formulas (PIFs). Secondary objectives were: (1) to estimate exposure in infants under different dosing scenarios and compare them with the perchlorate reference dose (RfD); (2) estimate the perchlorate concentration in water used for preparing PIFs that would result in a dose exceeding the RfD; and (3) estimate iodine intakes from PIFs. We quantified perchlorate levels in three samples (different lot numbers) of reconstituted PIF (using perchlorate-free water) from commercial brands of PIF in each of the following categories: bovine milk-based with lactose, soy-based, bovine milk-based but lactose-free, and elemental (typically consisting of synthetic amino acids). Exposure modeling was conducted to determine whether the RfD might be exceeded in 48 dosing scenarios that were dependent on age, centile energy intake per unit of body weight, body weight percentile, and PIF perchlorate concentration. We obtained three different samples in each of the five brands of bovine- and soy-based PIF, three different samples in each of the three brands of lactose-free PIF, and three different samples in two brands of elemental PIF. The results were as follows: bovine milk-based with lactose (1.72 microg/l, range: 0.68-5.05); soy-based (0.21 microg/l, range: 0.10-0.44); lactose-free (0.27 microg/l, range: 0.03-0.93); and elemental (0.18 microg/l, range: 0.08-0.4). Bovine milk-based PIFs with lactose had a significantly higher concentration of perchlorate (P<0.05) compared with all. Perchlorate was a contaminant of all commercially available PIFs tested. Bovine milk-based PIFs with lactose had a significantly higher perchlorate concentration perchlorate than soy, lactose-free, and elemental PIFs. The perchlorate RfD may be exceeded when certain bovine milk-based PIFs are ingested and/or when PIFs are reconstituted with perchlorate-contaminated water.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Fórmulas Infantis/química , Percloratos/análise , Fatores Etários , Animais , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Bovinos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Contaminação de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Lactose/análise , Leite Humano/química , Nível de Efeito Adverso não Observado , Percloratos/administração & dosagem , Percloratos/toxicidade , Valores de Referência , Medição de Risco , Leite de Soja/química
18.
Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol ; 23(5): 492-504, 2009 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19689500

RESUMO

This study describes the timing of puberty in 8- to 13-year-old girls enrolled in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) and identifies factors associated with earlier achievement of menarche. Women were enrolled during pregnancy and their offspring were followed prospectively. We analysed self-reported Tanner staging and menstrual status information collected annually from daughters up to age 13. We used survival models to estimate median age of attainment of stage >1 and stage >2 of breast and pubic hair development and of menarche. We also constructed multivariable logistic regression models to identify factors associated with earlier achievement of menarche. About 12% of girls reported Tanner breast stage >1 at age 8; 98% of girls were above stage 1 by age 13. For pubic hair, 5% and 95% of girls had attained a stage >1 by 8 and 13 years, respectively. The estimated median age of entry into stage >1 of breast development was 10.14 years (95% confidence interval [CI], 10.08, 10.19), and for pubic hair development the median age was 10.92 years [95% CI, 10.87, 10.97]. One girl (out of 2953) had attained menarche by age 8; 60% had attained menarche by age 13. The estimated median age at menarche was 12.93 years [95% CI, 12.89, 12.98]. Prenatal predictors of menarche by age 11 (12% of girls) included earlier maternal age at menarche, high maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index, smoking during the third trimester, and non-white race; the single postnatal predictor was the girl's body size at 8 years. Age at attainment of breast and pubic hair Tanner stage and age at menarche in the ALSPAC cohort are similar to ages reported in other European studies that were conducted during overlapping time periods. The results also give added support to the strong influence of maternal maturation, pre-adolescent body size and race on the timing of a girl's menarche. This cohort will continue to be followed for maturational information until age 17.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Sexual/fisiologia , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Criança , Intervalos de Confiança , Feminino , Humanos , Menarca/fisiologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
19.
Mar Drugs ; 6(2): 389-406, 2008 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18728733

RESUMO

We measured microcystins in blood from people at risk for swallowing water or inhaling spray while swimming, water skiing, jet skiing, or boating during an algal bloom. We monitored water samples from a small lake as a Microcystis aeruginosa bloom developed. We recruited 97 people planning recreational activities in that lake and seven others who volunteered to recreate in a nearby bloom-free lake. We conducted our field study within a week of finding a 10-microg/L microcystin concentration. We analyzed water, air, and human blood samples for water quality, potential human pathogens, algal taxonomy, and microcystin concentrations. We interviewed study participants for demographic and current health symptom information. Water samples were assayed for potential respiratory viruses (adenoviruses and enteroviruses), but none were detected. We did find low concentrations of Escherichia coli, indicating fecal contamination. We found low levels of microcystins (2 microg/L to 5 microg/L) in the water and (<0.1 ng/m(3)) in the aerosol samples. Blood levels of microcystins for all participants were below the limit of detection (0.147 microg/L). Given this low exposure level, study participants reported no symptom increases following recreational exposure to microcystins. This is the first study to report that water-based recreational activities can expose people to very low concentrations of aerosol-borne microcystins; we recently conducted another field study to assess exposures to higher concentrations of these algal toxins.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/análise , Eutrofização , Água Doce/microbiologia , Microcistinas/toxicidade , Microcystis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Recreação , Adolescente , Adulto , Aerossóis , Idoso , Criança , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Microcistinas/administração & dosagem , Microcistinas/sangue , Microcystis/isolamento & purificação , Microcystis/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saúde Pública , Estados Unidos , Vento , Adulto Jovem
20.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 17(7): 1653-7, 2008 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18628416

RESUMO

Essential to the conduct of epidemiologic studies examining aflatoxin exposure and the risk of heptocellular carcinoma, impaired growth, and acute toxicity has been the development of quantitative biomarkers of exposure to aflatoxins, particularly aflatoxin B(1). In this study, identical serum sample sets were analyzed for aflatoxin-albumin adducts by ELISA, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection (HPLC-f), and HPLC with isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS). The human samples analyzed were from an acute aflatoxicosis outbreak in Kenya in 2004 (n = 102) and the measured values ranged from 0.018 to 67.0, nondetectable to 13.6, and 0.002 to 17.7 ng/mg albumin for the respective methods. The Deming regression slopes for the HPLC-f and ELISA concentrations as a function of the IDMS concentrations were 0.71 (r(2) = 0.95) and 3.3 (r(2) = 0.96), respectively. When the samples were classified as cases or controls, based on clinical diagnosis, all methods were predictive of outcome (P < 0.01). Further, to evaluate assay precision, duplicate samples were prepared at three levels by dilution of an exposed human sample and were analyzed on three separate days. Excluding one assay value by ELISA and one assay by HPLC-f, the overall relative SD were 8.7%, 10.5%, and 9.4% for IDMS, HPLC-f, and ELISA, respectively. IDMS was the most sensitive technique and HPLC-f was the least sensitive method. Overall, this study shows an excellent correlation between three independent methodologies conducted in different laboratories and supports the validation of these technologies for assessment of human exposure to this environmental toxin and carcinogen.


Assuntos
Aflatoxina B1/análise , Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Lisina/análise , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Aflatoxina B1/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/química , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/epidemiologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/etiologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Incidência , Quênia/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/química , Neoplasias Hepáticas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/etiologia , Lisina/efeitos adversos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
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