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1.
Expert Rev Mol Diagn ; 2021 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33877000

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Prenatal exome sequencing (ES) allows parents the opportunity to obtain a rapid molecular diagnosis of monogenic etiology when their fetus is found to have structural anomalies detected on prenatal ultrasound. Such information can improve antenatal and neonatal counselling, decision making and management, and expand reproductive options in subsequent pregnancies.Areas covered:This review appraises the evidence, from a comprehensive search of bibliographic databases, for the introduction of ES into the fetal medicine care pathway when investigating congenital malformations. The perspectives of clinical geneticists, clinical scientists, fetal medicine specialists and patients are explored in relation to the novel investigation and the benefits and challenges of its use in ongoing pregnancies with particular reference to UK medical practice.Expert opinion:ES provides a genetic diagnosis for more than 1 in 10 fetuses with structural differences on ultrasound and normal conventional tests (karyotype or chromosomal microarray) in carefully selected cases. The diagnostic rate increases for certain phenotypes and can range between 6 and 80% where conventional cytogenetics have not detected a diagnosis. Expert oversight is required to ensure that patients receive high quality, evidence-based care and accurate counselling, supported by a multidisciplinary team familiar with the test and its implications.

2.
Genet Med ; 2021 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33864021

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Several clinical phenotypes including fetal hydrops, central conducting lymphatic anomaly or capillary malformations with arteriovenous malformations 2 (CM-AVM2) have been associated with EPHB4 (Ephrin type B receptor 4) variants, demanding new approaches for deciphering pathogenesis of novel variants of uncertain significance (VUS) identified in EPHB4, and for the identification of differentiated disease mechanisms at the molecular level. METHODS: Ten index cases with various phenotypes, either fetal hydrops, CM-AVM2, or peripheral lower limb lymphedema, whose distinct clinical phenotypes are described in detail in this study, presented with a variant in EPHB4. In vitro functional studies were performed to confirm pathogenicity. RESULTS: Pathogenicity was demonstrated for six of the seven novel EPHB4 VUS investigated. A heterogeneity of molecular disease mechanisms was identified, from loss of protein production or aberrant subcellular localization to total reduction of the phosphorylation capability of the receptor. There was some phenotype-genotype correlation; however, previously unreported intrafamilial overlapping phenotypes such as lymphatic-related fetal hydrops (LRFH) and CM-AVM2 in the same family were observed. CONCLUSION: This study highlights the usefulness of protein expression and subcellular localization studies to predict EPHB4 variant pathogenesis. Our accurate clinical phenotyping expands our interpretation of the Janus-faced spectrum of EPHB4-related disorders, introducing the discovery of cases with overlapping phenotypes.

3.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 279, 2021 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33832462

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency is a global public health issue in women and children and is associated with adverse impacts on child growth, such as rickets. However, prior studies have mainly focused on measuring vitamin D levels in singleton pregnant women and their offspring, and very limited studies have revealed the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in twin pregnant women and their offspring. The aim of this study was to investigate vitamin D levels in twin-pregnant women and their neonates. We also explored the correlation of maternal vitamin D levels with neonatal outcomes and infant growth. METHODS: A prospective subcohort investigation was carried out among 72 dichorionic, diamniotic twin-pregnant mothers and their twin offspring from the Longitudinal Twin Study. Peripheral blood was collected from the mothers in the third trimester, and cord blood was collected from neonates at birth to identify 25[OH]D levels. Data on the characteristics of the mothers and neonates were collected. Infant growth data and food sensitivities were also collected. RESULTS: The average maternal 25[OH]D level was 31.78 ng/mL, with 19.4% being deficient and 20.8% insufficient, while the average neonatal 25[OH]D level was 15.37 ng/mL, with 99.3% being deficiency or insufficient. A positive correlation was found between maternal and neonatal 25[OH]D levels (beta-value: 0.43, 95% CI: 0.37, 0.49). Interestingly, the higher the maternal 25[OH]D level was, the smaller the cotwin birthweight discordance (beta-value: -2.67, 95% CI: - 5.11, - 0.23). In addition, the infants of mothers with vitamin D deficiency were more likely to be allergic to foods at 6 months than those of mothers with vitamin D sufficiency. CONCLUSIONS: Twin neonates were at high risk of vitamin D deficiency, although their mothers' vitamin D deficiency partially improved. Higher maternal vitamin D levels were associated with smaller discordance of cotwin birthweight. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry ChiCTR-OOC-16008203 , 1st April 2016.

4.
PLoS Med ; 18(3): e1003506, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33780463

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Preterm-labour-associated preterm birth is a common cause of perinatal mortality and morbidity in twin pregnancy. We aimed to test the hypothesis that the Arabin pessary would reduce preterm-labour-associated preterm birth by 40% or greater in women with a twin pregnancy and a short cervix. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted an open-label randomised controlled trial in 57 hospital antenatal clinics in the UK and Europe. From 1 April 2015 to 14 February 2019, 2,228 women with a twin pregnancy underwent cervical length screening between 18 weeks 0 days and 20 weeks 6 days of gestation. In total, 503 women with cervical length ≤ 35 mm were randomly assigned to pessary in addition to standard care (n = 250, mean age 32.4 years, mean cervical length 29 mm, with pessary inserted in 230 women [92.0%]) or standard care alone (n = 253, mean age 32.7 years, mean cervical length 30 mm). The pessary was inserted before 21 completed weeks of gestation and removed at between 35 and 36 weeks or before birth if earlier. The primary obstetric outcome, spontaneous onset of labour and birth before 34 weeks 0 days of gestation, was present in 46/250 (18.4%) in the pessary group compared to 52/253 (20.6%) following standard care alone (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.87 [95% CI 0.55-1.38], p = 0.54). The primary neonatal outcome-a composite of any of stillbirth, neonatal death, periventricular leukomalacia, early respiratory morbidity, intraventricular haemorrhage, necrotising enterocolitis, or proven sepsis, from birth to 28 days after the expected date of delivery-was present in 67/500 infants (13.4%) in the pessary group compared to 76/506 (15.0%) following standard care alone (aOR 0.86 [95% CI 0.54-1.36], p = 0.50). The positive and negative likelihood ratios of a short cervix (≤35 mm) to predict preterm birth before 34 weeks were 2.14 and 0.83, respectively. A meta-analysis of data from existing publications (4 studies, 313 women) and from STOPPIT-2 indicated that a cervical pessary does not reduce preterm birth before 34 weeks in women with a short cervix (risk ratio 0.74 [95% CI 0.50-1.11], p = 0.15). No women died in either arm of the study; 4.4% of babies in the Arabin pessary group and 5.5% of babies in the standard treatment group died in utero or in the neonatal period (p = 0.53). Study limitations include lack of power to exclude a smaller than 40% reduction in preterm labour associated preterm birth, and to be conclusive about subgroup analyses. CONCLUSIONS: These results led us to reject our hypothesis that the Arabin pessary would reduce the risk of the primary outcome by 40%. Smaller treatment effects cannot be ruled out. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN Registry ISRCTN 02235181. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02235181.

5.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 241, 2021 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33752627

RESUMO

In this correspondence we thank the authors for highlighting the importance of our work, and agree with the limitations they have raised regarding performing this study.

6.
Prenat Diagn ; 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33720417

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) causes perinatal mortality and morbidity in monochorionic twins. The early recognition of and interventional therapy for TTTS is associated with a more favorable overall prognosis. However, the prediction by the use of ultrasound in the first trimester has relatively poor sensitivity and specificity. This study aimed to identify metabolic biomarkers to aid in ultrasound screening of TTTS. METHODS: Maternal plasma was prospectively collected between 11 and 15 weeks of gestation in apparently uncomplicated monochorionic-diamniotic twin pregnancies. This cohort was divided into: (i) patients who were subsequently diagnosed with TTTS by using ultrasound; (ii) uncomplicated matched controls. Metabolome was profiled by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. RESULTS: The levels of fatty acids, organic acids, oxaloacetic acid, and beta-alanine were significantly lower in the TTTS maternal plasma at 11-15 weeks of gestation, and methionine and glycine were also higher (p < 0.05, FDR<0.12). Generally, in TTTS pregnancies, the metabolisms of amino acid, carbohydrate, cofactors, vitamins, and purine were "down-regulated"; whereas bile secretion and pyrimidine metabolism were "upregulated." CONCLUSIONS: The metabolomics scanning of early gestation maternal plasma may identify those pregnancies that subsequently develop TTTS; in particular, downregulated fatty acid levels may be biologically plausible to be implicated in the pathogenesis of TTTS.

7.
J Pediatr Urol ; 17(2): 193-199, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33583743

RESUMO

In-utero vesica-amniotic shunting for fetal lower urinary obstruction (LUTO) is known to improve perinatal survival. More recently, studies including centres performing fetal cystoscopy, have suggested benefit on longer-term survival and renal outcome - within the limitations of small numbers and limited follow-up. These interventions carry significant risk, and therefore patient selection, and optimal timing, are key. The aim of this article is to explore ways of improving the accuracy of prenatal diagnosis, and of identifying risk factors for fetal and postnatal renal failure. The next step is that of using established staging and classification systems to select the patient group that may benefit from intervention, based on published outcomes. Several factors come into play when selecting the timing of intervention, especially if the aim is that of renal, and not only pulmonary, preservation. Lastly, current technologies and their shortfalls are discussed.

8.
Clin Nutr ; 2021 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33640207

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is the most common metabolic disturbance during pregnancy and leads to an altered metabolic profile of human breast milk (HBM). The association between HBM metabolites and neonatal growth in GDM pregnancies has not been thoroughly investigated. AIMS: The primary aim was to quantify differences in the HBM metabolome between normal and GDM pregnancies. The secondary aim was to identify metabolites associated with neonatal growth during the first year postpartum. METHODS: In the present study, mothers intending to exclusively breastfeed (BF) and their newborns (mother-infant pairs) were recruited at delivery (n = 129 normal pregnancies and n = 98 GDM pregnancies). HBM samples (colostrum, transition milk, and mature milk) from mothers with normal pregnancies (n = 50) and GDM pregnancies (n = 50) were subjected to metabolomic profiling via liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis revealed the metabolomic fingerprints of GDM-associated mature HBM. Correlations between metabolites and neonatal body weight gain (BWG) were evaluated by Spearman correlation analysis. RESULTS: In total, 620 metabolites were identified in each HBM sample; 253 compounds had the same variation patterns, whereas 38 compounds had significantly different pattern transitions between the GDM and normal groups. Moreover, 12, 49 and 28 metabolites exhibited significant differences in the 3 milk types between the 2 groups. Twenty-two metabolites were confirmed by ROC analysis as metabolomic fingerprints in the mature BM of GDM patients. Ten compounds were significantly negatively correlated with neonatal growth, and only 2 unsaturated lipids (eicosatrienoic acid (FA 20:3) and lysophosphatidylcholine (LysoPC) (22:6)) were positively correlated with neonatal BWG. CONCLUSIONS: GDM is associated with alterations in the HBM metabolome. Only a small subset of compounds are associated with neonatal body weight (BW). TRIAL REGISTRATION: ChiCTR-ROC-17011508. Prospectively registered on 26 May 2017 (http://www.chictr.org.cn/listbycreater.aspx).

9.
Fetal Diagn Ther ; : 1-8, 2021 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33550297

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The objective was to evaluate: (i) the proportion of prenatally diagnosed congenital heart disease (CHD) associated with an abnormal quantitative fluorescence-PCR (QF-PCR), chromosome microarray (CMA), and exome sequencing (ES) result; and (ii) the diagnostic yield of these technologies based on CHD category and presence of extra-cardiac anomalies (ECAs). METHODS: This prospective cohort study was set across 12 UK foetal medicine centres. All cases underwent QF-PCR, CMA, and ES, and the diagnostic yield in n = 147 cases of prenatally diagnosed CHD was assessed. RESULTS: In 34.7% (n = 51/147), a genetic diagnosis was obtained. Using a stepwise testing strategy, the diagnostic yield for QF-PCR, CMA, and ES was 15.6% (n = 23/147), 13.7% (n = 17/124), and 10.2% (n = 11/107), respectively. Abnormal QF-PCR/shunt (septal) defects 31.4% (n = 11/35), p = 0.046, and abnormal CMA/conotruncal anomalies 22.7% (n = 10/44), p = 0.04, had significant associations. Monogenic variants were commonest in complex CHD 36.4% (n = 4/11). Multisystem CHD had a greater diagnostic yield overall compared to isolated OR 2.41 (95% CI, 1.1-5.1), particularly in association with brain and gastrointestinal tract anomalies. The proportion of variants of uncertain significance was 4.7% (n = 5/107) with ES, with none in the CMA group. CONCLUSION: In the era of prenatal ES, there remains an important role for QF-PCR and CMA. Identification of monogenic pathologic variants further allows delineation of prognosis in CHD.

10.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 171: 108623, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33316314

RESUMO

AIMS: To evaluate the influence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) on the perinatal outcomes of twin pregnancies and its impact on fetal growth profiles of twin offspring from 6 weeks to 12 months of corrected age. METHODS: A longitudinal cohort study was conducted among pregnant women with twins and their twin offspring. All information on perinatal outcomes and child growth trajectories from 6 weeks to 12 months of corrected age were obtained and analyzed using a general linear model and logistic regression models. RESULTS: GDM was not correlated with adverse perinatal outcomes of twin pregnancies; however, in monochorionic diamniotic (MCDA), but not dichorionic diamniotic (DCDA) twin pregnancies, GDM was correlated with gestational hypertension disorder and a fetus being small for gestational age (OR, 2.68; 95% CI 1.16-6.04 and OR, 0.35; 95% CI 0.16-0.76, respectively). In both MCDA and DCDA groups, GDM was positively associated with a higher risk of childhood overweight at 6 months of corrected age (2.32 [1.05, 5.09] and 2.00 [1.13, 3.53]). CONCLUSIONS: GDM had a greater impact on MCDA twin pregnancies in terms of maternal gestational hypertension disease and small for gestational age of newborns. Additionally, twin offspring exposed to GDM had a higher risk of being overweight at 6 months of corrected age irrespective of chorionicity. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ChiCTR-OOC-16008203.


Assuntos
Diabetes Gestacional/fisiopatologia , China , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Doenças do Recém-Nascido , Estudos Longitudinais , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Gravidez de Gêmeos , Estudos Prospectivos
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33128783

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Consanguineous unions occur when a couple are related outside marriage and is associated with adverse genetic and perinatal outcomes for affected offspring. The objectives of this study were to evaluate: (i) background characteristics, (ii) uptake of prenatal and postnatal investigation and (iii) diagnostic outcomes of UK consanguineous couples presenting with a fetal structural anomaly. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This was a retrospective and partly prospective cohort study comparing consanguineous (n = 62) and non-consanguineous (n = 218) pregnancies with current or previous fetal structural anomalies reviewed in a UK prenatal genetic clinic from 2008 to 2019. Outcomes were compared using odds ratios (OR). RESULTS: Most consanguineous couples were of Pakistani ethnicity (odds ratio [OR] 29, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 13-62) and required use of an interpreter [OR 9, 95% CI 4-20). In the consanguineous group, the uptake of prenatal invasive testing was lower (OR 0.4, 95% CI 0.2-0.7) and the number declining follow up was greater (OR 10, 95% CI 3-34) than in the non-consanguineous group. This likely explained the lower proportion of consanguineous couples where a final definitive unifying diagnosis to explain the fetal structural anomalies was reached (OR 0.3, 95% CI 0.2-0.6). When a diagnosis was obtained in this group, it was always postnatal and most often using genomic sequencing technologies (OR 6, 95% CI 1-27). The risk of perinatal death was greater (OR 3, 95% CI 1-6) in the consanguineous group, as was the risk of fetal structural anomaly recurrence in a subsequent pregnancy (OR 4, 95% CI 1-13). There was no difference in the uptake of perinatal autopsy or termination of pregnancy between groups. CONCLUSIONS: Consanguineous couples are a vulnerable group in the prenatal setting. Although adverse perinatal outcomes in this group are more common secondary to congenital anomalies, despite the evolution of genomic sequencing technologies, due to a lower uptake of prenatal testing it is less likely that a unifying diagnosis is obtained and recurrence can occur. There is a need for proactive genetic counseling and education from the multidisciplinary team, addressing language barriers as well as religious and cultural beliefs in an attempt to optimize reproductive options.

13.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239477, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32956426

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Report maternal, fetal and neonatal complications associated with single intrauterine fetal death (sIUFD) in monochorionic twin pregnancies. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING: UK. POPULATION: 81 monochorionic twin pregnancies with sIUFD after 14 weeks gestation, irrespective of cause. METHODS: UKOSS reporters submitted data collection forms using data from hospital records. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Aetiology of sIUFD; surviving co-twin outcomes: perinatal mortality, central nervous system (CNS) imaging, gestation and mode of delivery, neonatal outcomes; post-mortem findings; maternal outcomes. RESULTS: The commonest aetiology was twin-twin transfusion syndrome (38/81, 47%), "spontaneous" sIUFD (22/81, 27%) was second commonest. Death of the co-twin was common (10/70, 14%). Preterm birth (<37 weeks gestation) was the commonest adverse outcome (77%): half were spontaneous and half iatrogenic. Only 46/75 (61%) cases had antenatal CNS imaging, of which 33 cases had known results of which 7/33 (21%) had radiological findings suggestive of neurological damage. Postnatal CNS imaging revealed an additional 7 babies with CNS abnormalities, all born at <36 weeks, including all 4 babies exhibiting abnormal CNS signs. Major maternal morbidity was relatively common, with 6% requiring ITU admission, all related to infection. CONCLUSIONS: Monochorionic twin pregnancies with single IUD are complex and require specialist care. Further research is required regarding optimal gestation at delivery of the surviving co-twin, preterm birth prevention, and classifying the cause of death in twin pregnancies. Awareness of the importance of CNS imaging, and follow-up, needs improvement.


Assuntos
Morte Fetal , Gêmeos Monozigóticos , Adulto , Corioamnionite/epidemiologia , Feminino , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/etiologia , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/mortalidade , Transfusão Feto-Fetal/mortalidade , Transfusão Feto-Fetal/terapia , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil , Recém-Nascido , Nascimento Vivo , Masculino , Malformações do Sistema Nervoso/diagnóstico por imagem , Malformações do Sistema Nervoso/embriologia , Malformações do Sistema Nervoso/epidemiologia , Mortalidade Perinatal , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Redução de Gravidez Multifetal , Gravidez de Gêmeos , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/etiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Transtornos Puerperais/epidemiologia , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
14.
Br J Haematol ; 2020 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32794242

RESUMO

Haemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN) remains an important cause of fetal mortality with potential neonatal and longer-term morbidity. HDFN is caused by maternal red cell alloimmunisation, with IgG antibodies crossing the placenta to destroy fetal erythroid cells expressing the involved antigen. Intrauterine fetal blood transfusion is the therapy of choice for severe fetal anaemia. Despite a strong evidence base and technical advances, invasive fetal therapy carries risk of miscarriage and preterm birth. Procedure-related risks are increased when invasive, in utero transfusion is instituted prior to 22 weeks to treat severe early-onset fetal anaemia. This review focuses upon this cohort of HDFN and discusses intravenous immunoglobin (IVIg) and novel monoclonal antibody (M281, nipocalimab) treatments which, if started at the end of the first trimester, may attenuate the transplacental passage and fetal effects of IgG antibodies. Such therapy has the ability to improve fetal survival in this severe presentation of HDFN when early in utero transfusion may be required and may have wider implications for the perinatal management in general.

15.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 2020 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730900

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Twin anemia polycythemia sequence is a chronic form of unbalanced fetofetal transfusion through minuscule placental anastomoses in monochorionic twins, leading to anemia in the donor and polycythemia in the recipient. Owing to the low incidence of twin anemia polycythemia sequence, data on diagnosis, management, and outcome are limited. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the diagnosis, management, and outcome in a large international cohort of spontaneous twin anemia polycythemia sequence. STUDY DESIGN: Data from the international twin anemia polycythemia sequence registry, retrospectively collected between 2014 and 2019, were used for this study. A total of 17 fetal therapy centers contributed to the data collection. The primary outcomes were perinatal mortality and severe neonatal morbidity. Secondary outcomes included a risk factor analysis for perinatal mortality and severe neonatal morbidity. RESULTS: A total of 249 cases of spontaneous twin anemia polycythemia sequence were included in this study, 219 (88%) of which were diagnosed antenatally and 30 (12%) postnatally. Twin anemia polycythemia sequence was diagnosed antenatally at a median gestational age of 23.7 weeks (interquartile range, 9.7-28.8; range, 15.1-35.3). Antenatal management included laser surgery in 39% (86 of 219), expectant management in 23% (51 of 219), delivery in 16% (34 of 219), intrauterine transfusion (with partial exchange transfusion) in 12% (26 of 219), selective feticide in 8% (18 of 219), and termination of pregnancy in 1% (3 of 219) of cases. Perinatal mortality rate was 15% (72 of 493) for the total group, 22% (54 of 243) for donors, and 7% (18 of 242) for recipients (P<.001). Severe neonatal morbidity occurred in 33% (141 of 432) of twins with twin anemia polycythemia sequence and was similar for donors (32%; 63 of 196) and recipients (33%; 75 of 228) (P=.628). Independent risk factors for spontaneous perinatal mortality were donor status (odds ratio, 3.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.9-7.5; P<.001), antenatal twin anemia polycythemia sequence stage (odds ratio, 6.3; 95% confidence interval, 1.4-27.8; P=.016 [stage 2]; odds ratio, 9.6; 95% confidence interval, 2.1-45.5; P=.005 [stage 3]; odds ratio, 20.9; 95% confidence interval, 3.0-146.4; P=.002 [stage 4]), and gestational age at birth (odds ratio, 0.8; 95% confidence interval, 0.7-0.9; P=.001). Independent risk factors for severe neonatal morbidity were antenatal twin anemia polycythemia sequence stage 4 (odds ratio, 7.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.4-43.3; P=.018) and gestational age at birth (odds ratio, 1.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.5-2.1, P<.001). CONCLUSION: Spontaneous twin anemia polycythemia sequence can develop at any time in pregnancy from the beginning of the second trimester to the end of the third trimester. Management for twin anemia polycythemia sequence varies considerably, with laser surgery being the most frequent intervention. Perinatal mortality and severe neonatal morbidity were high, the former especially so in the donor twins.

16.
Biol Reprod ; 103(4): 866-879, 2020 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32582940

RESUMO

Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is a condition in which a newborn fails to achieve his or her prospective hereditary growth potential. This condition is associated with high newborn mortality, second only to that associated with premature birth. FGR is associated with maternal, fetal, and placental abnormalities. Although the placenta is considered to be an important organ for supplying nutrition for fetal growth, research on FGR is limited, and treatment through the placenta remains challenging, as neither proper uterine intervention nor its pathogenesis have been fully elucidated. Yes-associated protein (YAP), as the effector of the Hippo pathway, is widely known to regulate organ growth and cancer development. Therefore, the correlation of the placenta and YAP was investigated to elucidate the pathogenic mechanism of FGR. Placental samples from humans and mice were collected for histological and biomechanical analysis. After investigating the location and role of YAP in the placenta by immunohistochemistry, we observed that YAP and cytokeratin 7 have corresponding locations in human and mouse placentas. Moreover, phosphorylated YAP (p-YAP) was upregulated in FGR and gradually increased as gestational age increased during pregnancy. Cell function experiments and mRNA-Seq demonstrated impaired YAP activity mediated by extracellular signal-regulated kinase inhibition. Established FGR-like mice also recapitulated a number of the features of human FGR. The results of this study may help to elucidate the association of FGR development with YAP and provide an intrauterine target that may be helpful in alleviating placental dysfunction.

17.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 105(8)2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32593174

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence of and factors associated with different thyroid dysfunction phenotypes in women who are asymptomatic preconception. DESIGN: Observational cohort study. SETTING: A total of 49 hospitals across the United Kingdom between 2011 and 2016. PARTICIPANTS: Women aged 16 to 41years with history of miscarriage or subfertility trying for a pregnancy. METHODS: Prevalences and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using the binomial exact method. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify risk factors for thyroid disease. INTERVENTION: None. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Rates of thyroid dysfunction. RESULTS: Thyroid function and thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb) data were available for 19213 and 19237 women, respectively. The prevalence of abnormal thyroid function was 4.8% (95% CI, 4.5-5.1); euthyroidism was defined as levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) of 0.44 to 4.50 mIU/L and free thyroxine (fT4) of 10 to 21 pmol/L. Overt hypothyroidism (TSH > 4.50 mIU/L, fT4 < 10 pmol/L) was present in 0.2% of women (95% CI, 0.1-0.3) and overt hyperthyroidism (TSH < 0.44 mIU/L, fT4 > 21 pmol/L) was present in 0.3% (95% CI, 0.2-0.3). The prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) using an upper TSH concentration of 4.50 mIU/L was 2.4% (95% CI, 2.1-2.6). Lowering the upper TSH to 2.50 mIU/L resulted in higher rates of SCH, 19.9% (95% CI, 19.3-20.5). Multiple regression analyses showed increased odds of SCH (TSH > 4.50 mIU/L) with body mass index (BMI) ≥ 35.0 kg/m2 (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.71; 95% CI, 1.13-2.57; P = 0.01) and Asian ethnicity (aOR 1.76; 95% CI, 1.31-2.37; P < 0.001), and increased odds of SCH (TSH ≥ 2.50 mIU/L) with subfertility (aOR 1.16; 95% CI, 1.04-1.29; P = 0.008). TPOAb positivity was prevalent in 9.5% of women (95% CI, 9.1-9.9). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of undiagnosed overt thyroid disease is low. SCH and TPOAb are common, particularly in women with higher BMI or of Asian ethnicity. A TSH cutoff of 2.50 mIU/L to define SCH results in a significant proportion of women potentially requiring levothyroxine treatment.

18.
J Clin Med ; 9(6)2020 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32517071

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the management and outcome in the post-laser twin anemia polycythemia sequence (TAPS). Data of the international TAPS Registry, collected between 2014 and 2019, were used for this study. The primary outcomes were perinatal mortality and severe neonatal morbidity. Secondary outcomes included a risk factor analysis for perinatal mortality and severe neonatal morbidity. A total of 164 post-laser TAPS pregnancies were included, of which 92% (151/164) were diagnosed antenatally and 8% (13/164) postnatally. The median number of days between laser for TTTS and detection of TAPS was 14 (IQR: 7-28, range: 1-119). Antenatal management included expectant management in 43% (62/151), intrauterine transfusion with or without partial exchange transfusion in 29% (44/151), repeated laser surgery in 15% (24/151), selective feticide in 7% (11/151), delivery in 6% (9/151), and termination of pregnancy in 1% (1/151). The median gestational age (GA) at birth was 31.7 weeks (IQR: 28.6-33.7; range: 19.0-41.3). The perinatal mortality rate was 25% (83/327) for the total group, 37% (61/164) for donors, and 14% (22/163) for recipients (p < 0.001). Severe neonatal morbidity was detected in 40% (105/263) of the cohort and was similar for donors (43%; 51/118) and recipients (37%; 54/145), p = 0.568. Independent risk factors for spontaneous perinatal mortality were antenatal TAPS Stage 4 (OR = 3.4, 95%CI 1.4-26.0, p = 0.015), TAPS donor status (OR = 4.2, 95%CI 2.1-8.3, p < 0.001), and GA at birth (OR = 0.8, 95%CI 0.7-0.9, p = 0.001). Severe neonatal morbidity was significantly associated with GA at birth (OR = 1.5, 95%CI 1.3-1.7, p < 0.001). In conclusion, post-laser TAPS most often occurs within one month after laser for TTTS, but may develop up to 17 weeks after initial surgery. Management is mostly expectant, but varies greatly, highlighting the lack of consensus on the optimal treatment and heterogeneity of the condition. Perinatal outcome is poor, particularly due to the high rate of perinatal mortality in donor twins.

19.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 223(4): 609-610, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32497613
20.
Hypertens Pregnancy ; 39(3): 361-369, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32456489

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To add to the growing evidence on SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy, so as to better inform clinical decision making and optimize patient outcomes. METHODS: A systematic search of relevant databases was perfomed on 25 March 2020 and a repeat search, on 10 April 2020. Reports of pregnant patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection at any time during their pregnancy were reviewed and summarized . RESULTS: We summarized the outcomes of a total of 155 pregnant women and 118 neonates. The evidence suggests a similar rate of severe COVID-19 cases in pregnant women and the general population. The frequency of cesarean deliveries is high, against guidelines recommendations. CONCLUSION: Limited data on COVID-19 during preganacy, associated with a wide variation in the methodology make accurate data interpretation difficult.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/terapia , Prognóstico , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
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