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1.
Mol Ecol Resour ; 2020 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32492756

RESUMO

With recent advances in sequencing technology, genomic data are changing how important conservation management decisions are made. Applications such as Close-Kin Mark-Recapture demand large amounts of data to estimate population size and structure, and their full potential can only be realised through ongoing improvements in genotyping strategies. Here we introduce DArTcap, a cost-efficient method that combines DArTseq and sequence capture, and illustrate its use in a high resolution population analysis of Glyphis garricki, a rare, poorly known and threatened euryhaline shark. Clustering analyses and spatial distribution of kin pairs from four different regions across northern Australia and one in Papua New Guinea, representing its entire known range, revealed that each region hosts at least one distinct population. Further structuring is likely within Van Diemen Gulf, the region that included the most rivers sampled, suggesting additional population structuring would be found if other rivers were sampled. Coalescent analyses and spatially explicit modelling suggest that G. garricki experienced a recent range expansion during the opening of the Gulf of Carpentaria following the conclusion of the Last Glacial Maximum. The low migration rates between neighbouring populations of a species that is found only in restricted coastal and riverine habitats show the importance of managing each population separately, including careful monitoring of local and remote anthropogenic activities that may affect their environments. Overall we demonstrated how a carefully chosen SNP panel combined with DArTcap can provide highly accurate kinship inference and also support population structure and historical demography analyses, therefore maximising cost-effectiveness.

2.
BMC Microbiol ; 20(1): 114, 2020 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32404118

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study demonstrates the use of reduced-representation genotyping to provide preliminary identifications for thermophilic bacterial isolates. The approach combines restriction enzyme digestion and PCR with next-generation sequencing to provide thousands of short-read sequences from across the bacterial genomes. Isolates were obtained from compost, hot water systems, and artesian bores of the Great Artesian Basin. Genomic DNA was double-digested with two combinations of restriction enzymes followed by PCR amplification, using a commercial provider of DArTseq™, Diversity Arrays Technology Pty Ltd. (Canberra, Australia). The resulting fragments which formed a reduced-representation of approximately 2.3% of the genome were sequenced. The sequence tags obtained were aligned against all available RefSeq bacterial genome assemblies by BLASTn to identify the nearest reference genome. RESULTS: Based on the preliminary identifications, a total of 99 bacterial isolates were identified to species level, from which 8 isolates were selected for whole-genome sequencing to assess the identification results. Novel species and strains were discovered within this set of isolates. The preliminary identifications obtained by reduced-representation genotyping, as well as identifications obtained by BLASTn alignment of the 16S rRNA gene sequence, were compared with those derived from the whole-genome sequence data, using the same RefSeq sequence database for the three methods. Identifications obtained with reduced-representation sequencing agreed with the identifications provided by whole-genome sequencing in 100% of cases. The identifications produced by BLASTn alignment of 16S rRNA gene sequence to the same database differed from those provided by whole-genome sequencing in 37.5% of cases, and produced ambiguous identifications in 50% of cases. CONCLUSIONS: Previously, this method has been successfully demonstrated for use in bacterial identification for medical microbiology. This study demonstrates the first successful use of DArTseq™ for preliminary identification of thermophilic bacterial isolates, providing results in complete agreement with those obtained from whole-genome sequencing of the same isolates. The growing database of bacterial genome sequences provides an excellent resource for alignment of reduced-representation sequence data for identification purposes, and as the available sequenced genomes continue to grow, the technique will become more effective.

3.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 33, 2020 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31913335

RESUMO

Pea weevil (Bruchus pisorum) is a damaging insect pest affecting pea (Pisum sativum) production worldwide. No resistant cultivars are available, although some levels of incomplete resistance have been identified in Pisum germplasm. To decipher the genetic control underlying the resistance previously identify in P. sativum ssp. syriacum, a recombinant inbred line (RIL F8:9) population was developed. The RIL was genotyped through Diversity Arrays Technology PL's DArTseq platform and screened under field conditions for weevil seed infestation and larval development along 5 environments. A newly integrated genetic linkage map was generated with a subset of 6,540 markers, assembled into seven linkage groups, equivalent to the number of haploid pea chromosomes. An accumulated distance of 2,503 cM was covered with an average density of 2.61 markers cM-1. The linkage map allowed the identification of three QTLs associated to reduced seed infestation along LGs I, II and IV. In addition, a QTL for reduced larval development was also identified in LGIV. Expression of these QTLs varied with the environment, being particularly interesting QTL BpSI.III that was detected in most of the environments studied. This high-saturated pea genetic map has also allowed the identification of seven potential candidate genes co-located with QTLs for marker-assisted selection, providing an opportunity for breeders to generate effective and sustainable strategies for weevil control.

4.
Pest Manag Sci ; 76(5): 1731-1742, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31758624

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pea (Pisum sativum) is one of the most important temperate grain legumes in the world, and its production is severely constrained by the pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum). Wild relatives, such as P. fulvum, are valuable sources of allelic diversity to improve the genetic resistance of cultivated pea species against A. pisum attack. To unravel the genetic control underlying resistance to the pea aphid attack, a quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis was performed using the previously developed high density integrated genetic linkage map originated from an intraspecific recombinant inbred line (RIL) population (P. fulvum: IFPI3260 × IFPI3251). RESULTS: We accurately evaluated specific resistance responses to pea aphid that allowed the identification, for the first time, of genomic regions that control plant damage and aphid reproduction. Eight QTLs associated with tolerance to pea aphid were identified in LGs I, II, III, IV and V, which individually explained from 17.0% to 51.2% of the phenotypic variation depending on the trait scored, and as a whole from 17.0% to 88.6%. The high density integrated genetic linkage map also allowed the identification of potential candidate genes co-located with the QTLs identified. CONCLUSIONS: Our work shows how the survival of P. fulvum after the pea aphid attack depends on the triggering of a multi-component protection strategy that implies a quantitative tolerance. The genomic regions associated with the tolerance responses of P. fulvum during A. pisum infestation have provided six potential candidate genes that could be useful in marker-assisted selection (MAS) and genomic assisted breeding (GAB) after functional validation in the future. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.

5.
Phytopathology ; 110(4): 881-891, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31855502

RESUMO

Net form net blotch (NFNB), caused by the fungal pathogen Pyrenophora teres f. teres, is an important foliar disease present in all barley-producing regions of the world. This fungus is a hemibiotrophic and heterothallic ascomycete, where sexual recombination can lead to changes in disease expression in the host. Knowledge of the genetic architecture and genes involved in virulence is vital to increase the durability of NFNB resistance in barley cultivars. We used a genome-wide association mapping approach to characterize P. teres f. teres genomic regions associated with virulence in Australian barley cultivars. One hundred eighty-eight P. teres f. teres isolates collected across five Australian states were genotyped using Diversity Arrays Technology sequence markers and phenotyped across 20 different barley genotypes. Association mapping identified 14 different genomic regions associated with virulence, with the majority located on P. teres f. teres chromosomes 3 and 5 and one each present on chromosomes 1, 6, and 9. Four of the regions identified were confirmed by quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping. The QTL regions are discussed in the context of their genomic architecture together with examination of their gene contents, which identified 20 predicted effectors. The number of QTL shown in this study at the population level clearly illustrates a complex genetic basis of P. teres f. teres virulence compared with pure necrotrophs, such as the wheat pathogens Parastagonospora nodorum and Parastagonospora tritici-repentis.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Austrália , Genômica , Hordeum , Doenças das Plantas , Virulência
6.
Front Plant Sci ; 10: 1531, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31824545

RESUMO

Understanding the genetic diversity of Aegilops biuncialis, a valuable source of agronomical useful genes, may significantly facilitate the introgression breeding of wheat. The genetic diversity and population structure of 86 Ae. biuncialis genotypes were investigated by 32700 DArT markers with the simultaneous application of three statistical methods- neighbor-joining clustering, Principal Coordinate Analysis, and the Bayesian approach to classification. The collection of Ae. biuncialis accessions was divided into five groups that correlated well with their eco-geographic habitat: A (North Africa), B (mainly from Balkans), C (Kosovo and Near East), D (Turkey, Crimea, and Peloponnese), and E (Azerbaijan and the Levant region). The diversity between the Ae. biuncialis accessions for a phenological trait (heading time), which is of decisive importance in the adaptation of plants to different eco-geographical environments, was studied over 3 years. A comparison of the intraspecific variation in the heading time trait by means of analysis of variance and principal component analysis revealed four phenotypic categories showing association with the genetic structure and geographic distribution, except for minor differences. The detailed exploration of genetic and phenologic divergence provides an insight into the adaptation capacity of Ae. biuncialis, identifying promising genotypes that could be utilized for wheat improvement.

7.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0226365, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31830141

RESUMO

Bi-allelic Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) markers are widely used in population genetic studies. In most studies, sequences either side of the SNPs remain unused, although these sequences contain information beyond that used in population genetic studies. In this study, we show how these sequence tags either side of a single nucleotide polymorphism can be used for comparative genome analysis. We used DArTseq (Diversity Array Technology) derived SNP data for a non-model Australian native freshwater fish, Macquaria ambigua, to identify genes linked to SNP associated sequence tags, and to discover homologies with evolutionarily conserved genes and genomic regions. We concatenated 6,776 SNP sequence tags to create a hypothetical genome (representing 0.1-0.3% of the actual genome), which we used to find sequence homologies with 12 model fish species using the Ensembl genome browser with stringent filtering parameters. We identified sequence homologies for 17 evolutionarily conserved genes (cd9b, plk2b, rhot1b, sh3pxd2aa, si:ch211-148f13.1, si:dkey-166d12.2, zgc:66447, atp8a2, clvs2, lyst, mkln1, mnd1, piga, pik3ca, plagl2, rnf6, sec63) along with an ancestral evolutionarily conserved syntenic block (euteleostomi Block_210). Our analysis also revealed repetitive sequences covering approximately 12% of the hypothetical genome where DNA transposon, LTR and non-LTR retrotransposons were most abundant. A hierarchical pattern of the number of sequence homologies with phylogenetically close species validated the approach for repeatability. This new approach of using SNP associated sequence tags for comparative genome analysis may provide insight into the genome evolution of non-model species where whole genome sequences are unavailable.


Assuntos
Hibridização Genômica Comparativa/métodos , Peixes/genética , Genética Populacional , Genoma , Genômica/métodos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Animais , Peixes/classificação , Filogenia
8.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 19657, 2019 12 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31873115

RESUMO

Key message: Several AC Proteus derived genomic regions (QTLs, SNPs) have been identified which may prove useful for further development of high yielding high protein cultivars and allele-specific marker developments. High seed protein content is a trait which is typically difficult to introgress into soybean without an accompanying reduction in seed yield. In a previous study, 'AC Proteus' was used as a high protein source and was found to produce populations that did not exhibit the typical association between high protein and low yield. Five high x low protein RIL populations and a high x high protein RIL population were evaluated by either quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis or bulk segregant analyses (BSA) following phenotyping in the field. QTL analysis in one population using SSR, DArT and DArTseq markers found two QTLs for seed protein content on chromosomes 15 and 20. The BSA analyses suggested multiple genomic regions are involved with high protein content across the five populations, including the two previously mentioned QTLs. In an alternative approach to identify high protein genes, pedigree analysis identified SNPs for which the allele associated with high protein was retained in seven high protein descendants of AC Proteus on chromosomes 2, 17 and 18. Aside from the two identified QTLs (five genomic regions in total considering the two with highly elevated test statistic, but below the statistical threshold and the one with epistatic interactions) which were some distance from Meta-QTL regions and which were also supported by our BSA analysis within five populations. These high protein regions may prove useful for further development of high yielding high protein cultivars.

9.
BMC Genet ; 20(1): 68, 2019 08 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31412771

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus L.) is a promising grain legume for productive and sustainable crop rotations. It has the advantages of high tolerance to soil acidity and excellent seed quality, but its current yield potential is poor, especially in low rainfall environments. Key adaptation traits such as phenology and enhanced stress tolerance are often complex and controlled by several genes. Genomic-enabled technologies may help to improve our basic understanding of these traits and to provide selective markers in breeding. However, in yellow lupin there are very limited genomic resources to support research and no published information is available on the genetic control of adaptation traits. RESULTS: We aimed to address these deficiencies by developing the first linkage map for yellow lupin and conducting quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis of yield under well-watered (WW) and water-deficit (WT) conditions. Two next-generation sequencing marker approaches - genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) and Diversity Array Technology (DArT) sequencing - were employed to genotype a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population developed from a bi-parental cross between wild and domesticated parents. A total of 2,458 filtered single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and presence / absence variation (PAV) markers were used to develop a genetic map comprising 40 linkage groups, the first reported for this species. A number of significant QTLs controlling total biomass and 100-seed weight under two water (WW and WD) regimes were found on linkage groups YL-03, YL-09 and YL-26 that together explained 9 and 28% of total phenotypic variability. QTLs associated with length of the reproductive phase and time to flower were found on YL-01, YL-21, YL-35 and YL-40 that together explained a total of 12 and 44% of total phenotypic variation. CONCLUSION: These genomic resources and the QTL information offer significant potential for use in marker-assisted selection in yellow lupin.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Cromossômico , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Grão Comestível/genética , Lupinus/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Análise de Variância , Ligação Genética , Marcadores Genéticos , Genótipo , Endogamia , Fenótipo , Melhoramento Vegetal
10.
Front Genet ; 10: 597, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31275363

RESUMO

Rohu (Labeo rohita) is a significant freshwater aquaculture species with approximately 1.8 Mt produced annually. Fin clips obtained from the founders of a newly established Bangladesh-based breeding population (∼140 fish from each of the Halda, Jamuna, and Padma rivers) were used to identify 9157 SNPs and 14 411 silicoDArT markers using the Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) genotyping-by-sequencing platform known as DArTseq. After quality control, 1985 SNPs were retained and used to examine population structure within and among river systems. Examination of genomic relationships revealed evidence of full- and half-sibling relationships among founders. Accordingly, sibship and dummy parents were assigned within each river population using a maximum likelihood approach with COLONY software. Founders that had no dummy parents in common were then identified for population genetic analyses. Only 40 unique dummy parents and 17 founders with no common dummy parents were identified from the Halda river, compared with 206 (96) from the Jamuna and 184 (83) from the Padma. Overall pairwise FST estimates among rivers were low (<0.005) and the optimum number of clusters using unsupervised K-means clustering was one, indicating little genetic divergence among the river populations in our SNPs. These results suggest that observed sibship among founders should be accounted for in future pedigree-based analyses and it cannot be assumed that fertilized spawn collections are representative samples of river populations.

11.
Bioinformatics ; 35(20): 4147-4155, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30903186

RESUMO

MOTIVATION: Modern genomic breeding methods rely heavily on very large amounts of phenotyping and genotyping data, presenting new challenges in effective data management and integration. Recently, the size and complexity of datasets have increased significantly, with the result that data are often stored on multiple systems. As analyses of interest increasingly require aggregation of datasets from diverse sources, data exchange between disparate systems becomes a challenge. RESULTS: To facilitate interoperability among breeding applications, we present the public plant Breeding Application Programming Interface (BrAPI). BrAPI is a standardized web service API specification. The development of BrAPI is a collaborative, community-based initiative involving a growing global community of over a hundred participants representing several dozen institutions and companies. Development of such a standard is recognized as critical to a number of important large breeding system initiatives as a foundational technology. The focus of the first version of the API is on providing services for connecting systems and retrieving basic breeding data including germplasm, study, observation, and marker data. A number of BrAPI-enabled applications, termed BrAPPs, have been written, that take advantage of the emerging support of BrAPI by many databases. AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION: More information on BrAPI, including links to the specification, test suites, BrAPPs, and sample implementations is available at https://brapi.org/. The BrAPI specification and the developer tools are provided as free and open source.

12.
PeerJ ; 7: e6449, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30775188

RESUMO

In vertebrates, sex determination occurs along a continuum from strictly genotypic (GSD), where sex is entirely guided by genes, to strictly environmental (ESD), where rearing conditions, like temperature, determine phenotypic sex. Along this continuum are taxa which have combined genetic and environmental contributions to sex determination (GSD + EE), where some individuals experience environmental effects which cause them to sex reverse and develop their phenotypic sex opposite their genotypic sex. Amphibians are often assumed to be strictly GSD with sex reversal typically considered abnormal. Despite calls to understand the relative natural and anthropogenic causes of amphibian sex reversal, sex reversal has not been closely studied across populations of any wild amphibian, particularly in contrasting environmental conditions. Here, we use sex-linked molecular markers to discover sex reversal in wild populations of green frogs (Rana clamitans) inhabiting ponds in either undeveloped, forested landscapes or in suburban neighborhoods. Our work here begins to suggest that sex reversal may be common within and across green frog populations, occurring in 12 of 16 populations and with frequencies of 2-16% of individuals sampled within populations. Additionally, our results also suggest that intersex phenotypic males and sex reversal are not correlated with each other and are also not correlated with suburban land use. While sex reversal and intersex are often considered aberrant responses to human activities and associated pollution, we found no such associations here. Our data perhaps begin to suggest that, relative to what is often suggested, sex reversal may be a relatively natural process in amphibians. Future research should focus on assessing interactions between genes and the environment to understand the molecular and exogenous basis of sex determination in green frogs and in other amphibians.

13.
N Biotechnol ; 48: 12-19, 2019 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29526810

RESUMO

Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is a staple food for a significant part of the world's population. The growing demand on its production can be satisfied by improving yield and resistance to biotic and abiotic stress. Knowledge of the genome sequence would aid in discovering genes and QTLs underlying these traits and provide a basis for genomics-assisted breeding. Physical maps and BAC clones associated with them have been valuable resources from which to generate a reference genome of bread wheat and to assist map-based gene cloning. As a part of a joint effort coordinated by the International Wheat Genome Sequencing Consortium, we have constructed a BAC-based physical map of bread wheat chromosome arm 7DS consisting of 895 contigs and covering 94% of its estimated length. By anchoring BAC contigs to one radiation hybrid map and three high resolution genetic maps, we assigned 73% of the assembly to a distinct genomic position. This map integration, interconnecting a total of 1713 markers with ordered and sequenced BAC clones from a minimal tiling path, provides a tool to speed up gene cloning in wheat. The process of physical map assembly included the integration of the 7DS physical map with a whole-genome physical map of Aegilops tauschii and a 7DS Bionano genome map, which together enabled efficient scaffolding of physical-map contigs, even in the non-recombining region of the genetic centromere. Moreover, this approach facilitated a comparison of bread wheat and its ancestor at BAC-contig level and revealed a reconstructed region in the 7DS pericentromere.


Assuntos
Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Triticum/genética , Aegilops/genética , Centrômero/genética , Cromossomos Artificiais Bacterianos/genética , Clonagem Molecular , Genes de Plantas , Genoma de Planta , Hibridização Genética , Mapeamento Físico do Cromossomo/métodos , Melhoramento Vegetal
14.
Front Plant Sci ; 9: 1343, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30386350

RESUMO

Male sterility is of high importance in hybrid seed production of hot and sweet peppers. Genic (or nuclear) male sterility (GMS) is a simply inherited (usually monogenic recessive) and highly stable trait. However, one major disadvantage of using GMS is 1:1 segregation of male sterile to male fertile plants in every subsequent generation. Molecular markers tightly linked to genic male sterility (ms) genes would facilitate an efficient and rapid transfer of ms genes into different genetic backgrounds through marker-assisted backcrossing. The two non-allelic genic male sterility genes ms3 and ms w in hot and sweet pepper backgrounds, respectively, are monogenic recessive. Genotyping by sequencing (GBS) in an F2 population segregating for ms3 gene in hot pepper and in an F6 inbred near-isogenic line (NIL) population segregating for ms w gene in sweet pepper yielded 9,713 and 7,453 single nucleotide polymorphism markers, respectively. Four candidate SNPs co-segregating with ms3 gene and one co-segregating with ms w gene were identified by bulk segregant analysis and physically mapped to chromosomes 1 and 5, respectively. In hot pepper, two markers [HPGMS2 (CAPS) and HPGMS3 (dCAPS)] located 3.83 cM away from the ms3 gene and in sweet pepper the dCAPS marker SPGMS1 co-segregated (completely linked) with the ms w gene were developed. These markers will increase the efficacy of the male sterility genes for pepper breeding, as they can be useful in developing the genic male sterile lines in parental inbred lines of commercial hybrids through marker-assisted backcrossing, hybrid seed production, and genetic purity testing of hybrid seeds.

15.
Mol Ecol ; 27(24): 5195-5213, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30403418

RESUMO

Understanding the evolutionary history of diversifying lineages and the delineation of evolutionarily significant units and species remains major challenges for evolutionary biology. Low-cost representational sampling of the genome for single nucleotide polymorphisms shows great potential at the temporal scales that are typically the focus of species delimitation and phylogeography. We apply these markers to a case study of a freshwater turtle, Emydura macquarii, whose systematics has so far defied resolution, to bring to light a dynamic system of substantive allopatric lineages diverging on independent evolutionary trajectories, but held back in the process of speciation by low level and episodic exchange of alleles across drainage divides on various timescales. In the context of low-level episodic gene flow, speciation is often reticulate, rather than a bifurcating process. We argue that species delimitation needs to take into account the pattern of ancestry and descent of diverging lineages in allopatry together with the recent and contemporary processes of dispersal and gene flow that retard and obscure that divergence. Underpinned by a strong focus on lineage diagnosability, this combined approach provides a means for addressing the challenges of incompletely isolated populations with uncommon, but recurrent gene flow in studies of species delimitation, a situation likely to be frequently encountered. Taxonomic decisions in cases of allopatry often require subjective judgements. Our strategy, which adds an additional level of objectivity before that subjectivity is applied, reduces the risk of taxonomic inflation that can accompany lineage approaches to species delimitation.


Assuntos
Fluxo Gênico , Especiação Genética , Genética Populacional , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Tartarugas/genética , Animais , Austrália , Marcadores Genéticos , Genótipo , Modelos Genéticos , Filogeografia
16.
PLoS One ; 13(8): e0203465, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30169500

RESUMO

Macadamia (Macadamia integrifolia, M. tetraphylla and hybrids) is an Australian native nut crop and has a significant economic value in the food industries worldwide. Long juvenility along with traditional breeding strategies impede quick genetic improvement of this crop. The existing cultivars constitute only second to fourth generation of the wild germplasm in the rainforest. The utilisation of molecular markers for genomic selection and genome-wide association studies may accelerate genetic gains. Identification of a robust, reproducible, and cost-effective marker system is instrumental in increasing the efficiency of genomic studies. This study is the first to report the potential of two ultra-high-throughput diversity array technology (DArT) markers (silicoDArT and SNP) in macadamia. Both markers were used to identify the genetic diversity and population structure in 80 macadamia cultivars. Parentage analysis of 25 scions in a rootstock trial was conducted to confirm plant identity where recorded identities did not corroborate with phenotypic field observations. A total of 22,280 silicoDArT and 7,332 SNP markers were reported, of which 11,526 silicoDArT and 3,956 SNP markers were used for analyses after screening with quality control parameters including >95% call rate, >95% reproducibility, and >0.05 one ratio. The average polymorphic information content (PIC) values of silicoDArT and SNP markers were 0.29 and 0.21, respectively. Genetic variance among the cultivars ranged from 0.003 to 0.738 in silicoDArT and 0.004 to 0.412 in SNP markers. Four distinct population groups were identified from SNP data analysis. Most of the accessions used in this study were descended from two or more populations. Cluster analysis clearly separated genotypes of distinct origins, such as the Hawaii Agricultural Experiment Station and Hidden Valley Plantation accessions. Two wild accessions of Macadamia jansenii and M. ternifolia were found to be distantly related to the cultivars. Wild germplasm individuals and their hybrids with cv. '660' formed separate clusters, suggesting that crossing between wild and cultivated genepools can extend genetic diversity. DArTseq-based SNP markers were successfully utilized to confirm the genetic identity of 25 scions in a rootstock trial. Our study suggests that DArT platforms are a robust system for the facilitation of genomic studies with regard to macadamia.


Assuntos
Marcadores Genéticos/genética , Genoma de Planta/genética , Macadamia/genética , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos/métodos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Austrália , Análise por Conglomerados , Variação Genética/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Genômica/métodos , Genótipo , Filogenia , Melhoramento Vegetal/métodos
17.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 2638, 2018 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29980662

RESUMO

Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) is a major crop for sugar and bioenergy production. Its highly polyploid, aneuploid, heterozygous, and interspecific genome poses major challenges for producing a reference sequence. We exploited colinearity with sorghum to produce a BAC-based monoploid genome sequence of sugarcane. A minimum tiling path of 4660 sugarcane BAC that best covers the gene-rich part of the sorghum genome was selected based on whole-genome profiling, sequenced, and assembled in a 382-Mb single tiling path of a high-quality sequence. A total of 25,316 protein-coding gene models are predicted, 17% of which display no colinearity with their sorghum orthologs. We show that the two species, S. officinarum and S. spontaneum, involved in modern cultivars differ by their transposable elements and by a few large chromosomal rearrangements, explaining their distinct genome size and distinct basic chromosome numbers while also suggesting that polyploidization arose in both lineages after their divergence.


Assuntos
Genoma de Planta/genética , Mosaicismo , Ploidias , Saccharum/genética , Sequência de Bases , Cromossomos Artificiais Bacterianos/genética , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Elementos de DNA Transponíveis/genética , Amplificação de Genes , Variação Estrutural do Genoma , Modelos Genéticos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Sorghum/genética
18.
Nat Ecol Evol ; 2(8): 1258-1267, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29988164

RESUMO

Metabolic processes in eukaryotic cells depend on interactions between mitochondrial and nuclear gene products (mitonuclear interactions). These interactions could have a direct role in population divergence. Here, we study mitonuclear co-evolution in a widespread bird that experienced population divergence followed by bidirectional mitochondrial introgression into different nuclear backgrounds. Using >60,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms, we quantify patterns of nuclear genetic differentiation between populations that occupy areas with different climates and harbour deeply divergent mitochondrial lineages despite ongoing nuclear gene flow. We find that strong genetic differentiation and sequence divergence in a region of ~15.4 megabases on chromosome 1A mirror the geographic pattern of mitochondrial DNA divergence. This result is seen in two different transects representing populations with different nuclear backgrounds. The chromosome 1A region is enriched for genes performing mitochondrial functions (N-mt genes). Molecular signatures of selective sweeps in this region alongside those in the mitochondrial genome suggest a history of adaptive mitonuclear co-introgression. Moreover, evidence for large linkage disequilibrium blocks in this genomic region suggests that low recombination could facilitate functional interactions between co-evolved nuclear alleles. Our results are consistent with mitonuclear co-evolution as an important mechanism for population divergence and local adaptation.


Assuntos
Clima , Tentilhões/genética , Genoma Mitocondrial , Animais , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Evolução Molecular , Família Multigênica , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
19.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 8428, 2018 05 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29849048

RESUMO

Identification of bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones containing specific sequences is a prerequisite for many applications, such as physical map anchoring or gene cloning. Existing BAC library screening strategies are either low-throughput or require a considerable initial input of resources for platform establishment. We describe a high-throughput, reliable, and cost-effective BAC library screening approach deploying genotyping platforms which are independent from the availability of sequence information: a genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) method DArTSeq and the microarray-based Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT). The performance of these methods was tested in a very large and complex rye genome. The DArTseq approach delivered superior results: a several fold higher efficiency of addressing genetic markers to BAC clones and anchoring of BAC clones to genetic map and also a higher reliability. Considering the sequence independence of the platform, the DArTseq-based library screening can be proposed as an attractive method to speed up genomics research in resource poor species.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Artificiais Bacterianos/genética , Técnicas de Genotipagem/métodos , Secale/genética , Análise de Sequência , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Clonagem Molecular , Genoma de Planta/genética
20.
Genes (Basel) ; 9(6)2018 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29921830

RESUMO

In addition to its wide geographical distribution, osteoglossiform fishes represent one of the most ancient freshwater teleost lineages; making it an important group for systematic and evolutionary studies. These fishes had a Gondwanan origin and their past distribution may have contributed to the diversity present in this group. However, cytogenetic and genomic data are still scarce, making it difficult to track evolutionary trajectories within this order. In addition, their wide distribution, with groups endemic to different continents, hinders an integrative study that allows a globalized view of its evolutionary process. Here, we performed a detailed chromosomal analysis in Notopteridae fishes, using conventional and advanced molecular cytogenetic methods. Moreover, the genetic distances of examined species were assessed by genotyping using diversity arrays technology sequencing (DArTseq). These data provided a clear picture of the genetic diversity between African and Asian Notopteridae species, and were highly consistent with the chromosomal, geographical, and historical data, enlightening their evolutionary diversification. Here, we discuss the impact of continental drift and split of Pangea on their recent diversity, as well as the contribution to biogeographical models that explain their distribution, highlighting the role of the Indian subcontinent in the evolutionary process within the family.

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