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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639847

RESUMO

Evidence suggests that changes in alcohol consumption during the first months of the COVID-19 pandemic were unevenly distributed over consumer groups. We investigated possible inter-country differences in how changes in alcohol consumption are contingent on initial consumption (before or at the start of the pandemic), and how changes in consumption translate into possible changes in the prevalence of heavy drinking. We used data from the European Survey on Alcohol use and COVID-19 (ESAC) conducted in Czechia, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Norway, Poland, Spain, and the UK (N = 31921). Past-year alcohol consumption and changes in consumption were measured by AUDIT-C. Drinking habits were compared according to percentiles of pre-pandemic consumption levels, below versus above the 90th percentile. Across countries, drinkers in the highest 10% for pre-pandemic consumption increased their drinking during the pandemic, whereas absolute changes among those initially drinking below this level were modest. The percentage of people reporting >28 alcohol units/week increased significantly in seven of eight countries. During the first months of the COVID-19 pandemic, alcohol consumption in the upper decile of the drinkers increased as did the prevalence of heavy drinkers, in contrast with a declining consumption in other groups in the sample.


Assuntos
Intoxicação Alcoólica , COVID-19 , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34682678

RESUMO

This paper explores trends in beverage preference in adolescents, identifies related regional differences, and examines cluster differences in key drinking measures. Data were obtained from the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs (ESPAD), covering 24 European countries between 1999 and 2019. Trends in the distribution of alcoholic beverages on the participants' most recent drinking occasion were analysed by sex and country using fractional multinomial logit regression. Clusters of countries based on trends and predicted beverage proportions were compared regarding the prevalence of drinkers, mean alcohol volume and prevalence of heavy drinking. Four distinct clusters each among girls and boys emerged. Among girls, there was not one type of beverage that was preferred across clusters, but the proportion of cider/alcopops strongly increased over time in most clusters. Among boys, the proportion of beer decreased, but was dominant across time in all clusters. Only northern European countries formed a geographically defined region with the highest prevalence of heavy drinking and average alcohol volume in both genders. Adolescent beverage preferences are associated with mean alcohol volume and heavy drinking at a country-level. Future approaches to drinking cultures need to take subpopulations such as adolescents into account.

3.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0255594, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34352012

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Implementation of evidence-based care for heavy drinking and depression remains low in global health systems. We tested the impact of providing community support, training, and clinical packages of varied intensity on depression screening and management for heavy drinking patients in Latin American primary healthcare. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Quasi-experimental study involving 58 primary healthcare units in Colombia, Mexico and Peru randomized to receive: (1) usual care (control); (2) training using a brief clinical package; (3) community support plus training using a brief clinical package; (4) community support plus training using a standard clinical package. Outcomes were proportion of: (1) heavy drinking patients screened for depression; (2) screen-positive patients receiving appropriate support; (3) all consulting patients screened for depression, irrespective of drinking status. RESULTS: 550/615 identified heavy drinkers were screened for depression (89.4%). 147/230 patients screening positive for depression received appropriate support (64%). Amongst identified heavy drinkers, adjusting for country, sex, age and provider profession, provision of community support and training had no impact on depression activity rates. Intensity of clinical package also did not affect delivery rates, with comparable performance for brief and standard versions. However, amongst all consulting patients, training providers resulted in significantly higher rates of alcohol measurement and in turn higher depression screening rates; 2.7 times higher compared to those not trained. CONCLUSIONS: Training using a brief clinical package increased depression screening rates in Latin American primary healthcare. It is not possible to determine the effectiveness of community support on depression activity rates due to the impact of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Alcoólicos/psicologia , Depressão/terapia , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/prevenção & controle , Intoxicação Alcoólica/psicologia , Alcoolismo/diagnóstico , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Atenção à Saúde , Depressão/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , México/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peru/epidemiologia , Atenção Primária à Saúde/métodos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/tendências , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Detecção do Abuso de Substâncias/métodos
4.
Int J Methods Psychiatr Res ; : e1892, 2021 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34449127

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To examine (1) how a rapid data collection using a convenience sample fares in estimating change in alcohol consumption when compared to more conventional data sources, and (2) how alcohol consumption changed in Finland and Norway during the first months of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Three different types of data sources were used for the 2nd quarter of 2020 and 2019: sales statistics combined with data on unrecorded consumption; the rapid European Alcohol Use and COVID-19 (ESAC) survey (Finland: n = 3800, Norway: n = 17,092); and conventional population surveys (Finland: n = 2345, Norway: n1 = 1328, n2 = 2189, n3 = 25,708). Survey measures of change were retrospective self-reports. RESULTS: The statistics indicate that alcohol consumption decreased in Finland by 9%, while little change was observed in Norway. In all surveys, reporting a decrease in alcohol use was more common than reporting an increase (ratios 2-2.6 in Finland, 1.3-2 in Norway). Compared to conventional surveys, in the ESAC survey fewer respondents reported no change and past-year alcohol consumption was higher. CONCLUSION: The rapid survey using convenience sampling gave similar results on change in drinking as conventional surveys but higher past-year drinking, suggesting self-selection effects. Aspects of the pandemic driving alcohol consumption down were equally strong or stronger than those driving it up.

5.
Addiction ; 2021 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34109685

RESUMO

AIMS: To investigate changes in alcohol consumption during the first months of the COVID-19 pandemic in Europe as well as its associations with income and experiences of distress related to the pandemic. DESIGN: Cross-sectional on-line survey conducted between 24 April and 22 July 2020. SETTING: Twenty-one European countries. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 31 964 adults reporting past-year drinking. MEASUREMENTS: Changes in alcohol consumption were measured by asking respondents about changes over the previous month in their drinking frequency, the quantity they consumed and incidence of heavy episodic drinking events. Individual indicators were combined into an aggregated consumption-change score and scaled to a possible range of -1 to +1. Using this score as the outcome, multi-level linear regressions tested changes in overall drinking, taking into account sampling weights and baseline alcohol consumption [Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT-C)] and country of residence serving as random intercept. Similar models were conducted for each single consumption-change indicator. FINDINGS: The aggregated consumption-change score indicated an average decrease in alcohol consumption of -0.14 [95% confidence interval (CI) = -0.18, -0.10]. Statistically significant decreases in consumption were found in all countries, except Ireland (-0.08, 95% CI = -0.17, 0.01) and the United Kingdom (+0.10, 95% CI = 0.03, 0.17). Decreases in drinking were mainly driven by a reduced frequency of heavy episodic drinking events (-0.17, 95% CI = -0.20, -0.14). Declines in consumption were less marked among those with low- or average incomes and those experiencing distress. CONCLUSIONS: On average, alcohol consumption appears to have declined during the first months of the COVID-19 pandemic in Europe. Both reduced availability of alcohol and increased distress may have affected consumption, although the former seems to have had a greater impact in terms of immediate effects.

6.
Int J Methods Psychiatr Res ; 30(3): e1875, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33951258

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This contribution provides insights into the methodology of a pan-European population-based online survey, performed without external funding during the COVID-19 pandemic. We present the impact of different dissemination strategies to collect data from a non-probabilistic convenience sample and outline post-stratification weighting schemes, to provide guidance for future multi-country survey studies. METHODS: Description and comparison of dissemination strategies for five exemplary countries (Czechia, Germany, Lithuania, Norway, Spain) participating in the Alcohol Use and COVID-19 Survey. Comparison of the sample distribution with the country's actual population distribution according to sociodemographics, and development of weighting schemes. RESULTS: The dissemination of online surveys through national newspapers, paid social media adverts and dissemination with the support of national health ministries turned out to be the most effective strategies. Monitoring the responses and adapting dissemination strategies to reach under-represented groups, and the application of sample weights were helpful to achieve an analytic sample matching the respective general population profiles. CONCLUSION: Reaching a large pan-European convenience sample, including most European countries, in a short time was feasible, with the support of a broad scientific network.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , República Tcheca/epidemiologia , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lituânia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Noruega/epidemiologia , Espanha/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
7.
Pharmacoeconomics ; 39(7): 809-822, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33970445

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alcohol-attributable costs to society are captured by cost-of-illness studies, however estimates are often not comparable, e.g. due to the omission of relevant cost components. In this contribution we (1) summarize the societal costs attributable to alcohol use, and (2) estimate the total costs under the assumption that all cost components are considered. METHODS: A systematic review and meta-analyses were conducted for studies reporting costs from alcohol consumption for the years 2000 and later, using the EMBASE and MEDLINE databases. Cost estimates were converted into 2019 international dollars (Int$) per adult and into percentage of gross domestic product (GDP). For each study, weights were calculated to correct for the exclusion of cost indicators. RESULTS: Of 1708 studies identified, 29 were included, and the mean costs of alcohol use amounted to 817.6 Int$ per adult (95% confidence interval [CI] 601.8-1033.4), equivalent to 1.5% of the GDP (95% CI 1.2-1.7%). Adjusting for omission of cost components, the economic costs of alcohol consumption were estimated to amount to 1306 Int$ per adult (95% CI 873-1738), or 2.6% (95% CI 2.0-3.1%) of the GDP. About one-third of costs (38.8%) were incurred through direct costs, while the majority of costs were due to losses in productivity (61.2%). DISCUSSION: The identified cost studies were mainly conducted in high-income settings, with high heterogeneity in the employed methodology. Accounting for some methodological variations, our findings demonstrate that alcohol use continues to incur a high level of cost to many societies. REGISTRATION: PROSPERO #CRD42020139594.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Adulto , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Humanos
8.
Alcohol Clin Exp Res ; 45(5): 899-911, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33970504

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We summarize research on the public stigmatization of persons with alcohol use disorder (AUD) in comparison with other mental health conditions and embed the results into a conceptual framework of the stigma process. METHODS: We conducted a systematic search using Embase, MEDLINE, PubMed and PsycINFO (via Ovid), and Web of Science for population-based studies on the public stigma in AUD and at least 1 other mental health condition, published between October 1, 2010 and December 20, 2020, thus including all studies published since the last systematic review on this topic. The study is registered with PROSPERO (registration number: CRD42020173054). RESULTS: We identified 20,561 records, of which 24 met the inclusion criteria, reporting results from 16 unique studies conducted in 9 different countries. Compared to substance-unrelated mental disorders, persons with AUD were generally less likely to be considered mentally ill, while they were perceived as being more dangerous and responsible for their condition. Further, the public desire for social distance was consistently higher for people with AUD. We found no consistent differences in the public stigma toward persons with AUD in comparison with other substance use disorders. CONCLUSION: The stigmatization of persons with AUD remains comparatively high and is distinct from that of other substance-unrelated disorders.

9.
Expert Rev Pharmacoecon Outcomes Res ; 21(5): 869-876, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33899647

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This contribution gives an overview on estimating the economic impact of substance use (SU) and substance use disorders (SUDs) from a societal perspective. AREAS COVERED: In this Expert Review, we first discuss the scope of the economic costs of SU to society and the methods used to estimate them. In general, cost studies should not be limited to SUDs, but should also include costs related to the consequences of any type of SU to achieve a comprehensive picture of the societal burden. Further, estimating potentially avoidable costs will increase the value of cost studies. Importantly, methodologically sound cost studies shed light on the magnitude of societal problems related to SU and can be used as a reference point to evaluate regulatory policies and other preventive measures. The area of estimating potential economic benefits of SU is understudied and lacks a theoretical and methodological framework. EXPERT OPINION: Overall, economic studies on the impact of SU and SUDs can strongly contribute to better-informed decision-making in the creation of regulatory and control policies. The least developed area of research refers to a consensus methodology that could be used in studies which compare economic costs to potential economic benefits.


Assuntos
Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/economia , Política de Saúde , Humanos
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33923567

RESUMO

Little is known about possible changes in alcohol consumption distribution during the COVID-19 pandemic. We estimated how individual changes in alcohol consumption during the pandemic translated into changes in: (i) mean consumption; (ii) dispersion of consumption distribution; and (iii) prevalence of heavy drinkers. We employed data from two independent web-surveys of Norwegian adults collected between April and July 2020 and limited to those reporting past year alcohol consumption (N1 = 15,267, N2 = 1195). Self-reports of changes in drinking behavior were quantified, assuming change being relative to baseline consumption level. During the pandemic, we found a small increase (Survey 1) or no change (Survey 2) in estimated mean alcohol consumption (which parallels to total consumption). However, in both surveys, the dispersion of the distribution increased significantly (p < 0.001). For most respondents, an average modest decline in consumption was found. However, the small fraction with the highest baseline consumption increased their consumption substantially, and in effect, the proportion of heavy drinkers increased markedly (p < 0.001). In conclusion, quantifications of reported changes in alcohol consumption during the pandemic suggest that the upper 5 to 10% of the drinkers increased their consumption and hence the prevalence of heavy drinkers increased, despite little or no change in total alcohol consumption.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Humanos , Noruega/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy ; 16(1): 36, 2021 04 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33902668

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 reached Europe in early 2020 and disrupted the private and public life of its citizens, with potential implications for substance use. The objective of this study was to describe possible changes in substance use in the first months of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in Europe. METHODS: Data were obtained from a cross-sectional online survey of 36,538 adult substance users from 21 European countries conducted between April 24 and July 22 of 2020. Self-perceived changes in substance use were measured by asking respondents whether their use had decreased (slightly or substantially), increased (slightly or substantially), or not changed during the past month. The survey covered alcohol (frequency, quantity, and heavy episodic drinking occasions), tobacco, cannabis, and other illicit drug use. Sample weighted data were descriptively analysed and compared across substances. RESULTS: Across all countries, use of all substances remained unchanged for around half of the respondents, while the remainder reported either a decrease or increase in their substance use. For alcohol use, overall, a larger proportion of respondents indicated a decrease than those reporting an increase. In contrast, more respondents reported increases in their tobacco and cannabis use during the previous month compared to those reporting decreased use. No distinct direction of change was reported for other substance use. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest changes in use of alcohol, tobacco and cannabis during the initial months of the pandemic in several European countries. This study offers initial insights into changes in substance use. Other data sources, such as sales statistics, should be used to corroborate these preliminary findings.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Abuso de Maconha/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
12.
Alcohol Clin Exp Res ; 45(4): 802-807, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33667019

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with alcohol use disorder (AUD) are likely to suffer disproportionate harms related to the COVID-19 pandemic and related policy measures. While many surveys have been conducted, most are focused on drinking changes in the general population and validation with biological markers is lacking. METHOD: We performed a retrospective cohort study among patients with AUD attending a urine drug screening program. With mixed-effects logistic regression models, we assessed the probability of screening positive for ethyl glucuronide according to patients' main clinical characteristics and time of analysis (either prior to or after a lockdown was implemented in Spain). RESULTS: A total of 362 patients provided 2,040 urine samples (1,295 prior to lockdown, 745 during lockdown). The mean age of participants was 52.0 years (SD 12.6), and 69.2% were men. Of the 43% of patients tested for other drugs 22% screened positive. After adjusting for all covariates, the odds of screening positive for ethyl glucuronide during lockdown almost doubled (OR = 1.99, 95% CI 1.20 to 3.33, p = 0.008). Other significant covariates included testing positive for other drugs (OR = 10.79, 95% CI 4.60 to 26.97) and length of treatment (OR = 0.59, 95% CI 0.47 to 0.74). CONCLUSIONS: Our data support an association between the lockdown due to COVID-19 and increased alcohol use in patients with AUD. Thus, addiction healthcare systems could face significant challenges ahead. In light of these findings, it is essential to evaluate prospectively how patients with AUD are affected by the pandemic and how health systems respond to their needs.


Assuntos
Abstinência de Álcool/tendências , Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Quarentena/tendências , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Abstinência de Álcool/psicologia , Alcoolismo/psicologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Quarentena/psicologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Espanha/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
Addiction ; 116(8): 2016-2025, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33464658

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: In recent decades, alcohol drinking in the European Union has been characterized by increasing homogenization of levels of drinking coupled with an overall decrease. This study examined whether we can still distinguish distinct practices of drinking by addressing two research questions: (1) are drinking practices still characterized by the choice of a certain alcoholic beverage; and (2) how do drinking practices vary across countries? DESIGN: Cross-sectional study: latent-class analyses of drinking variables and fractional response regression analyses of individual characteristics for individual-level class endorsement probabilities, respectively. SETTING: Nineteen European countries and one autonomous community. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 27 170 past-year drinkers aged 18-65 years in 2015. MEASUREMENTS: Data were collected through the Standardized European Alcohol Survey included frequency of past-year drinking, pure alcohol intake per drink day, occurrence of monthly risky single-occasion drinking and preferred beverage, together with socio-demographic data. FINDINGS: Three latent classes were identified: (1) light to moderate drinking without risky single-occasion drinking [prevalence: 68.0%, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 66.7-69.3], (2) infrequent heavy drinking (prevalence: 12.6%, 95% CI = 11.5-13.7) and (3) regular drinking with at least monthly risky single-occasion drinking (prevalence: 19.4%, 95% CI = 18.1-20.9). Drinking classes differed considerably in beverage preference, with women reporting a generally higher share of wine and men of beer drinking. Light to moderate drinking without risky single-occasion drinking was the predominant drinking practice in all locations except for Lithuania, where infrequent heavy drinking (class 2) was equally popular. Socio-demographic factors and individual alcohol harm experiences (rapid alcohol on-line screen) explained up to 20.5% of the variability in class endorsement. CONCLUSIONS: Beverage preference appears to remain a decisive indicator for distinguishing Europeans' drinking practices. In most European countries, multiple drinking practices appear to be present.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Bebidas Alcoólicas , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Cerveja , Estudos Transversais , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
15.
Drug Alcohol Rev ; 40(2): 176-178, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32959438

RESUMO

Responding to the commentaries on a recent paper on the elusiveness of representativeness in general population alcohol surveys, we can summarise that there is agreement that the status quo of current alcohol surveys is scientifically no longer defensible. Current surveys cannot per se be assumed to yield representative results for the general populations of countries based on a probabilistic sampling alone. Alternatives are discussed and-as for any survey-creative ideas on validating key results on indicators or hypotheses need to be developed and used. This will inevitably lead away from omnibus surveys to more focused studies requiring more complex methodological tools. While there may not be obvious solutions for every problem related to alcohol use prevention and policy or treatment use disorders, and it may take years to find solutions for some of the issues, continued use of the methodology of the status quo will surely fail to answer the questions posed by modern societies concerning these issues.

16.
Eur Addict Res ; 27(3): 189-197, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33271557

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Prevention of cancer has been identified as a major public health priority for Europe, and alcohol is a leading risk factor for various types of cancer. This contribution estimates the number of cancer cases that could have potentially been averted in 2018 in 4 European countries if an increase in alcohol excise taxation had been applied. METHODS: Current country and beverage-specific excise taxation of 4 member states of the WHO European Region (Germany, Italy, Kazakhstan, and Sweden) was used as a baseline, and the potential impacts of increases of 20, 50, and 100% to current excise duties were modelled. A sensitivity analysis was performed, replacing the current tax rates in the 4 countries by those levied in Finland. The resulting increase in tax was assumed to be fully incorporated into the consumer price, and beverage-specific price elasticities of demand were obtained from meta-analyses, assuming less elasticity for heavy drinkers. Model estimates were applied to cancer incidence rates for the year 2018. RESULTS: In the 4 countries, >35,000 cancer cases in 2018 were caused by alcohol consumption, with the highest rate of alcohol-attributable cancers recorded in Germany and the lowest in Sweden. An increase in excise duties on alcohol would have significantly reduced these numbers, with between 3 and 7% of all alcohol-attributable cancer cases being averted if taxation had been increased by 100%. If the 4 countries were to adopt an excise taxation level equivalent to the one currently imposed in Finland, an even higher proportion of alcohol-attributable cancers could be avoided, with Germany alone experiencing 1,600 fewer cancer cases in 1 year. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSION: Increasing excise duties can markedly reduce cancer incidence in European countries.

17.
Drug Alcohol Rev ; 40(2): 161-165, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32830351

RESUMO

Population survey research is limited by biases introduced through the exclusion of sub-populations from the sampling frame and by non-response bias. This is a particular problem for alcohol surveys, where populations such as the homeless and the institutionalised-who consume on average more alcohol than the general population-are usually excluded, and where people who respond to alcohol surveys tend to consume less alcohol than those who do not. These biases lead to the underestimation of alcohol consumption at the population level, which can be corrected for by triangulating alcohol consumption data with population data sources (i.e. taxation and production). Other methods which account for the biases inherent in surveys include triangulation with outcomes (e.g. traffic injuries), calculation of estimates for groups which are outside common sampling frames, and combining probabilistic sampling with new methodologies, such as computer-assisted web interviews. In particular, population surveys do not attract sufficient participation numbers for certain groups, such as the marginalised urban male youths. In this situation, it may be helpful to add estimates generated via respondent-driven sampling or non-probabilistic web panels restricted to a specific group to such population surveys. Additionally, computer-assisted web interviews perform better for sensitive questions, such as those about personal alcohol use. In sum, based on the objectives, the future of survey will need to include statistical modelling, adding data from external sources for validation and combining data from various types of surveys.

18.
J Stud Alcohol Drugs ; 81(6): 762-769, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33308406

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The harm caused to individuals because of the consumption of alcohol by others has been shown to be a significant problem in Europe. The current study investigates gender differences in the experience of alcohol's harm to others (AHTO), taking the victim-perpetrator relationship and social inequality (gender and income inequality) into account. METHOD: Data were obtained from the Standardized European Alcohol Survey in 2015, which comprised 28,182 individuals from 17 jurisdictions. AHTO was indicated by the experience of at least one harmful event in the past year because of another person's drinking. Multinomial logistic regression models were run to examine AHTO (a) by a known person's drinking, (b) by a stranger's drinking, and (c) by both a known person's and a stranger's drinking. Survey-weighted regressions were performed for gender, the Gender Inequality Index, and the Gini index, and the respective Gender × Inequality interactions. RESULTS: Women were more likely than men to experience AHTO because of a known person's drinking, whereas men were at a higher risk of harm resulting from a stranger's drinking, or by both a known person's and a stranger's drinking. Independent of the victim-perpetrator relationship, AHTO was related to higher levels of gender and income inequality. With increasing income inequality, gender differences in the experience of harm because of a known person's drinking or a stranger's drinking declined as the risk of reporting the former among men and the latter among women increases more steeply than by the opposite gender. CONCLUSIONS: As higher levels of AHTO were observed in jurisdictions with greater social inequality, reducing alcohol consumption and social inequalities should be key interventions in attempting to reduce AHTO in Europe.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Caracteres Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adolescente , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
19.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0241433, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33201885

RESUMO

In most epidemiological literature, harmful drinking-a drinking pattern recognized as closely linked to alcohol-attributable diseases-is recorded using the measure risky single-occasion drinking (RSOD), which is based on drinking above a certain quantity. In contrast, subjective intoxication (SI) as an alternative measure can provide additional information, including the drinker's subjective perceptions and cultural influences on alcohol consumption. However, there is a lack of research comparing both. The current article investigates this comparison, using data from the Standardized European Alcohol Survey from 2015. We analysed the data of 12,512 women and 12,516 men from 17 European countries and one region. We calculated survey-weighted prevalence of SI and RSOD and compared them using Spearman rank correlation and regression models. We examined the role of the required quantity of alcohol needed for the drinker to perceive impairments and analysed additional demographic and sociodemographic characteristics as well as drinking patterns. In the most locations, the prevalence of SI was lower or equal to the prevalence of RSOD. Both prevalence estimates were highly correlated. Almost 8% of the variance in the difference between the individual-level frequencies of the SI and RSOD measures was explained by the individual quantity of alcohol needed to perceive impairments. Sociodemographic characteristics and drinking patterns explained less than 20% in the adjusted perceived quantity of alcohol needed. In conclusion, our results indicated that subjective measures of intoxication are not a preferable indicator of harmful drinking to the more conventional measures of RSOD.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Adulto , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Prevalência , Assunção de Riscos , Tamanho da Amostra
20.
Inj Prev ; 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33028648

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In 2015, the elimination of hunger worldwide by 2030 was declared by the United Nations as a Sustainable Development Goal. However, food insecurity remains pervasive, contributing to socioeconomic health inequalities. The overall objective was to investigate the relationship between food insecurity and intentional injuries among adolescents. METHODS: Individual-level data from the Global School-based Student Health Survey from 89 countries were used (370 719 adolescents, aged 12-17 years). Multilevel logistic regressions were used to examine the sex-specific association between the level of food insecurity (none, medium and high) and intentional injuries (interpersonal violence and suicide attempts), accounting for the clustering of observations within surveys. Random-effects meta-analyses were used to analyse dose-response relationships. RESULTS: Medium and high food insecurity were associated with increased odds of reporting an injury from interpersonal violence among both sexes. A positive dose-response relationship was found, where each level increase in food insecurity was associated with a 30% increase in the odds of an injury due to interpersonal violence among boys (1.30; 95% CI 1.26 to 1.34) and a 50% increase among girls (1.53; 95% CI 1.46-1.62). The odds for suicide attempts increased by 30% for both sexes with each level increase in food insecurity (boys: 1.29; 95% CI 1.25-1.32; girls: 1.29; 95% CI 1.25-1.32). DISCUSSION: The findings indicate that socioeconomic inequalities exist in the risk of intentional injuries among adolescents. Although additional studies are needed to establish causality, the present study suggests that the amelioration of food insecurity could have implications beyond the prevention of its direct consequences.

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