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1.
World Psychiatry ; 21(1): 96-123, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35015358

RESUMO

People living with severe mental illness (SMI) are one of the most marginalized groups in society. Interventions which aim to improve their social and economic participation are of crucial importance to clinicians, policy-makers and people with SMI themselves. We conducted a systematic review of the literature on social interventions for people with SMI published since 2016 and collated our findings through narrative synthesis. We found an encouragingly large amount of research in this field, and 72 papers met our inclusion criteria. Over half reported on the effectiveness of interventions delivered at the service level (supported accommodation, education or employment), while the remainder targeted individuals directly (community participation, family interventions, peer-led/supported interventions, social skills training). We identified good evidence for the Housing First model of supported accommodation, for the Individual Placement and Support model of supported employment, and for family psychoeducation, with the caveat that a range of models are nonetheless required to meet the varied housing, employment and family-related needs of individuals. Our findings also highlighted the importance of contextual factors and the need to make local adaptations when "importing" interventions from elsewhere. We found that augmentation strategies to enhance the effectiveness of social interventions (particularly supported employment and social skills training) by addressing cognitive impairments did not lead to transferable "real life" skills despite improvements in cognitive function. We also identified an emerging evidence base for peer-led/supported interventions, recovery colleges and other interventions to support community participation. We concluded that social interventions have considerable benefits but are arguably the most complex in the mental health field, and require multi-level stakeholder commitment and investment for successful implementation.

3.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 624081, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34054593

RESUMO

Evidence suggests a link between recovery-oriented practise and service user outcomes in supported accommodation settings. Current clinical guidelines recommend recovery training for supported accommodation staff, however evidence relating to the effectiveness of this type of training is unclear. This review aimed to describe and compare the characteristics and efficacy of existing recovery training packages for mental health staff. The appropriateness and applicability of the interventions was considered in relation to UK supported accommodation services. Initial search processes returned 830 papers. After duplicate removal, inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied to 489 papers, leaving a final sample of seven papers. Data were reviewed using a narrative synthesis approach. The reviewed papers showed variation in the aims, frequency, and duration of the training interventions, although all included content consistent with the five-domains of the CHIME model. All interventions used direct, in-person teaching, and prioritised interactive, experiential learning, however a number were limited by the absence of feedback, the use of one-off, rather than repeated/follow-up sessions, and a reliance on classroom-based, rather than in-vivo, training. There was limited evidence to suggest a consistent effect of training on staff or service user outcomes, and there was no clear association between the delivery and design characteristics of the interventions and reported outcomes. In considering the development of recovery training for supported accommodation staff, little guidance can be taken from the reviewed literature. Any training package must be developed with consideration of the unique contextual and organisational characteristics of these services. The authors recommend viewing training as one component of a broader goal of service transformation.

4.
Int J Soc Psychiatry ; : 207640211001893, 2021 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33730906

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Social inclusion is an important indicator of recovery in individuals with severe mental illness. The Social Inclusion Questionnaire User Experience (SInQUE) is a new measure of social inclusion for mental health service users which assesses five domains (consumption, production, access to services, social integration and civil engagement). It has good psychometric properties and is acceptable to service users and mental health professionals. It is not clear whether individuals with different diagnostic conditions experience a similar reduction in social inclusion. AIMS: (1) Investigate whether current social inclusion differs between diagnostic groups (people with schizophrenia/other psychotic disorders, common mental disorder or personality disorder); (2) Identify factors associated with lower social inclusion; (3) Examine associations between social inclusion and stigma, quality of life and loneliness. METHOD: Mental health service users with psychotic disorder, personality disorder or common mental disorder, living in the community, completed the SInQUE, alongside other validated outcome measures. Multiple regression investigated associations. RESULTS: About 192 service users (55% with psychotic disorder; 26% with common mental disorder; 19% with personality disorder). Current social inclusion did not vary according to diagnosis, except for the sub-domain of productivity, where individuals with personality disorder were more socially included than the other two groups. Lower social inclusion was associated with older age (p = .008), lack of higher education (p < .001), more previous admissions (p = .005), severity of current symptoms and greater experienced stigma (p = .006) and anticipated stigma (p = .035). Greater social inclusion was associated with better quality of life (p < .001) and less loneliness (p < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Barriers to social inclusion in individuals with severe mental health problems include factors related to the illness, such as symptom severity and external factors, such as stigma and discrimination. Social inclusion is a recovery goal and should be routinely assessed. Increasing people's social inclusion benefits service users in terms of improved mental health, better quality of life and reduced loneliness.

6.
Lancet Psychiatry ; 8(1): 27-35, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33091344

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Flexible assertive community treatment (FACT) is a community-based treatment model for patients with severe mental illness that has been widely implemented despite little evidence for its effectiveness. We aimed to evaluate the effect of FACT on mental health care outcomes compared with treatment from standard community mental health teams (CMHTs) or assertive community treatment (ACT) teams in Denmark. METHODS: We did a quasi-experimental, propensity-score matched, controlled study in five FACT teams, four ACT teams, and five CMHTs in the Capital Region of Denmark. The FACT teams were established on May 1, 2016 (the index date). Patients were identified through the Danish Psychiatric Register and the study population consisted of all patients receiving care from any of these teams on the index date. Assignment to treatment was based on administrative considerations and was not done by the researchers. Patient data were collected from Danish registers. The primary outcome was analysed in the intention-to-treat population and compared mental health care outcomes (psychiatric admissions and bed days, outpatient contacts, self-harm, coercion, and death by any cause) for patients under the care of CMHTs or ACT teams that were reconfigured to FACT teams (CMHT-FACT or ACT-FACT) with patients who remained under the care of CMHTs and ACT teams. Patients who received FACT were matched using propensity scores with control patients from CMHTs and ACT teams to balance differences in baseline characteristics. FINDINGS: On May 1, 2016, 2034 individuals (887 in the CMHT-FACT group, 887 in the matched CMHT group, 130 in the ACT-FACT group, 130 in the matched ACT group) were enrolled and were followed up from Nov 1, 2016, to Nov 1, 2018. The number of outpatient contacts was higher for patients receiving FACT than for those in the control groups (CMHT-FACT vs CMHT: incidence rate ratio 1·15; 95 % CI 1·10-1·20; ACT-FACT vs ACT: 1·15; 1·03-1·29). Patients receiving FACT had fewer admissions than those in the control groups (CMHT-FACT vs CMHT: 0·84; 0·76-0·92; ACT-FACT vs ACT: 0·71; 0·59-0·85). However, there were no significant differences in total inpatient days, use of coercion, episodes of self-harm, or deaths. INTERPRETATION: To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the effect of FACT compared with treatment from a CMHT or ACT team. Our results suggest that FACT can provide a more intensive approach in terms of increased outpatient contacts than CMHT care or ACT. FACT requires further evaluation through randomised controlled trials that include a cost-effectiveness component before wider implementation. FUNDING: Mental Health Services in the Capital Region of Denmark.


Assuntos
Serviços Comunitários de Saúde Mental , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente , Adulto , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/mortalidade , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pontuação de Propensão , Análise de Regressão
7.
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol ; 56(1): 25-37, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32857218

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The COVID-19 pandemic has potential to disrupt and burden the mental health care system, and to magnify inequalities experienced by mental health service users. METHODS: We investigated staff reports regarding the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic in its early weeks on mental health care and mental health service users in the UK using a mixed methods online survey. Recruitment channels included professional associations and networks, charities, and social media. Quantitative findings were reported with descriptive statistics, and content analysis conducted for qualitative data. RESULTS: 2,180 staff from a range of sectors, professions, and specialties participated. Immediate infection control concerns were highly salient for inpatient staff, new ways of working for community staff. Multiple rapid adaptations and innovations in response to the crisis were described, especially remote working. This was cautiously welcomed but found successful in only some clinical situations. Staff had specific concerns about many groups of service users, including people whose conditions are exacerbated by pandemic anxieties and social disruptions; people experiencing loneliness, domestic abuse and family conflict; those unable to understand and follow social distancing requirements; and those who cannot engage with remote care. CONCLUSION: This overview of staff concerns and experiences in the early COVID-19 pandemic suggests directions for further research and service development: we suggest that how to combine infection control and a therapeutic environment in hospital, and how to achieve effective and targeted tele-health implementation in the community, should be priorities. The limitations of our convenience sample must be noted.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Serviços de Saúde Mental , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
8.
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol ; 56(1): 75-84, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32627061

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In England, community mental health rehabilitation teams play a major role in supporting people with complex mental health needs to progress from inpatient to community settings and from more to less supported accommodation. We aimed to conduct the first study to investigate longitudinal outcomes for users of a community rehabilitation team and identify service user characteristics associated with successful progress along the rehabilitation pathway. METHODS: We used routinely collected clinical outcome data relating to all 193 users of a community rehabilitation team in inner London, transferred to the team between June 2013 and May 2018, with a cut-off data-collection date of 20th June 2019. We estimated the proportion who moved on to more independent accommodation successfully, with no breakdown in the placement. We conducted multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression to investigate associations between service user characteristics at transfer and successful move-on. RESULTS: Overall, 43/193 (23%) service users achieved successful move-on during a median follow-up of 51 months (IQR 32-63). This was more likely for those who were residing in more highly supported accommodation (HR 3.90; 95% CI 2.01-7.54) and those who had better functioning (HR 1.04, 95% CI 1.02-1.06) at transfer, while those with a serious physical health condition were less likely to achieve successful move-on (HR 0.44, 95% CI 0.21-0.95). CONCLUSION: Most supported accommodation services aim to offer time-limited support, but most service users do not progress successfully to more independent accommodation within 4 years. Investment in interventions that improve functioning and physical health may facilitate successful move-on.


Assuntos
Serviços Comunitários de Saúde Mental , Transtornos Mentais , Reabilitação Psiquiátrica , Inglaterra , Humanos , Londres , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Estudos Prospectivos
9.
BJPsych Bull ; : 1-5, 2020 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33228828

RESUMO

AIMS AND METHOD: To investigate whether gender balance in academic psychiatry in the UK has improved since a 2005 initiative to encourage career progression for female academics in UK universities. We surveyed the gender of academic psychiatrists across the UK and compared our findings with our previous 2003 London-wide survey and with the Royal College of Psychiatrists' 2001 workforce census. RESULTS: The percentage of women in academic psychiatry posts in the UK more than doubled, from 20% in 2001 to 40% in 2019, with increases at senior lecturer (from 25 to 50%), reader/associate professor (from 29 to 48%) and professor level (from 11 to 21%). Outside London, men occupy 72% of all posts and 89% of professorial posts. Within London, men occupy 45% of all posts and 74% of professorial posts. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: The representation of women in academic psychiatry has improved but men continue to dominate at professorial level. Gender equality appears worse outside London. The situation is exacerbated by the diminishing availability of posts across the UK.

10.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237664, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32817624

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mental health supported housing services are a key component in the rehabilitation of people with severe and complex needs. They are implemented widely in the UK and other deinstitutionalised countries but there have been few empirical studies of their effectiveness due to the logistic challenges and costs of standard research methods. The Clinical Record Interactive Search (CRIS) tool, developed to de-identify and interrogate routinely recorded electronic health records, may provide an alternative to evaluate supported housing services. METHODS: The feasibility of using the Camden and Islington NHS Foundation Trust CRIS database to identify a sample of users of mental health supported accommodation services. Two approaches to data interrogation and case identification were compared; using structured fields indicating individual's accommodation status, and iterative development of free text searches of clinical notes referencing supported housing. The data used were recorded over a 10-year-period (01-January-2008 to 31-December-2017). RESULTS: Both approaches were carried out by one full-time researcher over four weeks (150 hours). Two structured fields indicating accommodation status were found, 2,140 individuals had a value in at least one of the fields representative of supported accommodation. The free text search of clinical notes returned 21,103 records pertaining to 1,105 individuals. A manual review of 10% of the notes indicated an estimated 733 of these individuals had used a supported housing service, a positive predictive value of 66.4%. Over two-thirds of the individuals returned in the free text search (768/1,105, 69.5%) were identified via the structured fields approach. Although the estimated positive predictive value was relatively high, a substantial proportion of the individuals appearing only in the free text search (337/1,105, 30.5%) are likely to be false positives. CONCLUSIONS: It is feasible and requires minimal resources to use de-identified electronic health record search tools to identify large samples of users of mental health supported housing using structured and free text fields. Further work is needed to establish the availability and completion of variables relevant to specific clinical research questions in order to fully assess the utility of electronic health records in evaluating the effectiveness of these services.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados Factuais , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Saúde Mental , Processamento de Linguagem Natural , Adulto , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Habitação , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/patologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/reabilitação , Serviços de Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
13.
Br J Psychiatry ; : 1-3, 2020 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32321596

RESUMO

Around 100 000 people live in mental health supported accommodation in England, at considerable cost to the public purse, but there is little evidence to guide investment in the most effective models. We consider the various barriers to research in this field and offer suggestions on how to address them.

14.
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol ; 55(7): 953-964, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32016512

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Individuals with severe mental health problems are at risk of social exclusion, which may complicate their recovery. Mental health and social care staff have, until now, had no valid or reliable way of assessing their clients' social inclusion. The Social Inclusion Questionnaire User Experience (SInQUE) was developed to address this. It assesses five domains: social integration; productivity; consumption; access to services; and political engagement, in the year prior to first psychiatric admission (T1) and the year prior to interview (T2) from which a total score at each time point can be calculated. AIMS: To establish the validity, reliability, and acceptability of the SInQUE in individuals with a broad range of psychiatric diagnoses receiving care from community mental health services and its utility for mental health staff. METHOD: Participants were 192 mental health service users with psychosis, personality disorder, or common mental disorder (e.g., depression, anxiety) who completed the SInQUE alongside other validated outcome measures. Test-retest reliability was assessed in a sub-sample of 30 participants and inter-rater reliability was assessed in 11 participants. SInQUE ratings of 28 participants were compared with those of a sibling with no experience of mental illness to account for shared socio-cultural factors. Acceptability and utility of the tool were assessed using completion rates and focus groups with staff. RESULTS: The SInQUE demonstrated acceptable convergent validity. The total score and the Social Integration domain score were strongly correlated with quality of life, both in the full sample and in the three diagnostic groups. Discriminant validity and test-retest reliability were established across all domains, although the test-retest reliability on scores for the Service Access and Political Engagement domains prior to first admission to hospital (T1) was lower than other domains. Inter-rater reliability was excellent for all domains at T1 and T2. CONCLUSIONS: The component of the SInQUE that assesses current social inclusion has good psychometric properties and can be recommended for use by mental health staff.


Assuntos
Serviços Comunitários de Saúde Mental/normas , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Pessoas Mentalmente Doentes/psicologia , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psicometria , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Adulto Jovem
15.
Br J Psychiatry ; 216(6): 331-337, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31046864

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Around 60 000 people in England live in mental health supported accommodation. There are three main types: residential care, supported housing and floating outreach. Supported housing and floating outreach aim to support service users in moving on to more independent accommodation within 2 years, but there has been little research investigating their effectiveness. AIMS: A 30-month prospective cohort study investigating outcomes for users of mental health supported accommodation. METHOD: We used random sampling, accounting for relevant geographical variation factors, to recruit 87 services (22 residential care, 35 supported housing and 30 floating outreach) and 619 service users (residential care 159, supported housing 251, floating outreach 209) across England. We contacted services every 3 months to investigate the proportion of service users who successfully moved on to more independent accommodation. Multilevel modelling was used to estimate how much of the outcome and cost variations were due to service type and quality, after accounting for service-user characteristics. RESULTS: Overall 243/586 participants successfully moved on (residential care 15/146, supported housing 96/244, floating outreach 132/196). This was most likely for floating outreach service users (versus residential care: odds ratio 7.96, 95% CI 2.92-21.69, P < 0.001; versus supported housing: odds ratio 2.74, 95% CI 1.01-7.41, P < 0.001) and was associated with reduced costs of care and two aspects of service quality: promotion of human rights and recovery-based practice. CONCLUSIONS: Most people do not move on from supported accommodation within the expected time frame. Greater focus on human rights and recovery-based practice may increase service effectiveness.


Assuntos
Habitação/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Mentais , Serviços de Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Inglaterra , Feminino , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Habitação/economia , Direitos Humanos , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/economia , Serviços de Saúde Mental/economia , Razão de Chances , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Tempo
16.
Front Psychiatry ; 11: 607933, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33519552

RESUMO

Introduction: Mental health rehabilitation services provide essential support to people with complex and longer term mental health problems. They include inpatient services and community teams providing clinical input to people living in supported accommodation services. This systematic review included international studies evaluating the effectiveness of inpatient and community rehabilitation services. Methods: We searched six online databases for quantitative studies evaluating mental health rehabilitation services that reported on one or both of two outcomes: move-on to a more independent setting (i.e. discharge from an inpatient unit to the community or from a higher to lower level of supported accommodation); inpatient service use. The search was further expanded by screening references and citations of included studies. Heterogeneity between studies was too great to allow meta-analysis and therefore a narrative synthesis was carried out. Results: We included a total of 65 studies, grouped as: contemporary mental health rehabilitation services (n = 34); services for homeless people with severe mental health problems (n = 13); deinstitutionalization programmes (n = 18). The strongest evidence was for services for homeless people. Access to inpatient rehabilitation services was associated with a reduction in acute inpatient service use post discharge. Fewer than one half of people moved on from higher to lower levels of supported accommodation within expected timeframes. Conclusions: Inpatient and community rehabilitation services may reduce the need for inpatient service use over the long term but more high quality research of contemporary rehabilitation services with comparison groups is required. Review registration: This review was prospectively registered on PROSPERO (ID: CRD42019133579).

17.
Front Psychiatry ; 11: 622061, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33519560

RESUMO

Background: People with severe mental illness have difficulties finding and maintaining competitive employment. This is particularly so for those living in supported housing who, by definition, have significant day-to-day support needs: in the Netherlands only 3 to 5% of people with serious mental health problems who live in supported housing are competitively employed. To support these people in finding and maintaining competitive employment, Individual Placement, and Support (IPS) was introduced within supported housing services in the Netherlands in 2015. As this is the first country that broadly implemented IPS in supported housing settings, this paper will focus on the first results regarding feasibility and effects on employment in clients of IPS in this sector. Methods: We investigated the feasibility and employment outcomes of delivering IPS in supported housing services using fidelity assessments and quarterly employment outcomes on IPS program level within eight supported housing organizations, and compared these with 21 mental health treatment organizations in the Netherlands over a 4 year period. We investigated possible reasons for our findings and their implications through qualitative evaluations of the IPS fidelity assessors' notes and additional focus groups with IPS specialists and coordinators from supported housing services and fidelity assessors. Results: The overall fidelity scores indicated reasonable implementation of the IPS model within both supported housing services and mental health services. However, there were differences between services with regard to specific fidelity items; mental health treatment organizations scored higher for team integration, whereas supported housing services scored higher for rapid job search and caseload size, diversity of jobs, and employers. Our qualitative data suggested that the difference in team integration between the two sectors was due to differences in their organizational and financial structures, as well as in the specific needs of their clients. Conversely, supported housing services had better connections with employers which facilitated more rapid job searching and greater diversity in employment opportunities. The average total client employment rate did not significantly differ; and was 25.8% per quarter in supported housing services and 29.6% in mental health treatment services. Conclusion: Implementing IPS in supported housing settings is both feasible and effective.

18.
Front Psychiatry ; 10: 735, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31708809

RESUMO

Background: Prevention and Recovery Care (PARC) services are relatively new sub-acute residential services that have supported people with mental ill-health in Victoria since 2003. Operated from a partnership model between non-governmental agencies and clinical mental health services, PARC services integrate intensive recovery-focused psychosocial input with clinical mental health care. Aim: To describe and contrast the 19 PARC services operating in Victoria at the time of the study, in terms of structures and function, resources, and content and quality of care. Method: Nineteen participants, one representing each PARC, completed two surveys: the first, a purpose-designed survey relating to the government guidelines for PARC services, and the second, the Quality Indicator for Rehabilitative Care. Results: Descriptive analyses highlighted that PARC services have operated in inner-city, urban, and regional areas of Victoria, from between 1 and 14 years. Participants reported that a recovery approach was at the core of service delivery, with a vast array of group and individual programs on offer. Across the state, there was variation in the quality of services according to the Quality Indicator for Rehabilitative Care domains. Conclusions: This study has identified that there is variation in the structure and function, resourcing, and content and quality of care offered across Victoria's PARC services even though, in the main, they are guided by government guidelines. Hence it appears that the services adapt to local needs and changes in service systems occurring over time. The findings indicate emerging evidence that PARCs are providing recovery-oriented services, which offer consumers autonomy and social inclusion, and therefore likely enable a positive consumer experience. The range of individual and group programs is in line with the Victorian guidelines, offering practical assistance, therapeutic activities, and socialization opportunities consistent with consumer preferences. Further research into implementation processes and their impacts on quality of care is warranted concerning this and similar service models.

19.
Front Psychiatry ; 10: 383, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31244691

RESUMO

Aims: Community-based residential alternatives to hospitalization are an emerging service model. Evidence for their acceptability and effectiveness is promising but limited. Prevention and Recovery Care (PARC) services are one such residential model, offering short-term subacute treatment and care (usually between 7 and 28 days). PARC services in Victoria, Australia, are designed to support consumers with severe mental illness to either avoid a psychiatric hospital admission (step-up care) or transition from hospital back into the community (step-down care). As a precursor to a series of studies investigating the appropriateness, effectiveness and efficiency of PARC services, we aimed to investigate whether a typology of PARC services can be developed. Methods: A manager or other appropriately knowledgeable staff member from each of the 19 adult PARC services included in the study completed a tool based on PARC operational guidelines (the Victorian PARC service mapping questionnaire) and a validated instrument measuring the quality of care in residential mental health settings (the Quality Indicator for Rehabilitative Care, QuIRC). Thirty (of 42) stakeholders participated in a modified Delphi study to select 23 from the available 230 variables for entry into a hierarchical cluster analysis. Results: Cluster analysis produced three clusters of equal dissimilarity. At the 90% confidence level, there were four variables which were significantly different between clusters. These were the year the PARC was opened, the QuIRC Living Environment domain score, the proportion of all admissions that were a step-down admission from an inpatient unit, and how often families were invited to care meetings. Sensitivity analyses suggested the findings were robust to the method used to identify clusters. Conclusions: Although PARC services were broadly similar, their identified differences suggest there is variable model implementation across Victoria sufficient to generate a PARC service typology. This typology may prove important for interpreting differences in outcomes experienced by consumers and carers using PARC services, when applied in our analyses of service effectiveness. The value of conducting service mapping and typology studies is underscored. Further research to characterize subacute residential services, including recovery-promoting features of the built environment, is warranted.

20.
Front Psychiatry ; 10: 258, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31065244

RESUMO

Background: Mental health supported accommodation services are implemented across England, usually organised into a 'step-down' care pathway that requires the individual to repeatedly move as they gain skills and confidence for more independent living. There have been no trials comparing the effectiveness of different types of supported accommodation, but two widely used models (supported housing and floating outreach) have been found to provide similar support. We aimed to assess the feasibility of conducting a large-scale trial comparing these two models. Methods: Individually randomised, parallel group feasibility trial in three regions of England (North London, East London, and Cheltenham and Gloucestershire). We aimed to recruit 60 participants in 15 months, referred to supported accommodation, randomly allocated on an equal basis to receive either a local supported housing or floating outreach service. We assessed referrals to the trial, participants recruited, attrition, time from recruitment to moving into either type of supported accommodation, and feasibility of masking. We conducted a process evaluation to examine our results further. Results: We screened 1,432 potential participants, of whom 17 consented to participate, with 8 agreeing to randomisation (of whom 1 was lost to attrition) and 9 participating in naturalistic follow-up. Our process evaluation indicated that the main obstacle to recruitment was staff and service user preferences for certain types of supported accommodation or for specific services. Staff also felt that randomisation compromised their professional judgement. Conclusions: Our results do not support investment in a large-scale trial in England at this time. Trial registration: UK CRN Portfolio database, Trial ID: ISRCTN19689576. Trial funding: National Institute of Health Research (RP-PG-0707-10093).

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