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1.
Nature ; 597(7877): 503-510, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34552257

RESUMO

Large, distributed collections of miniaturized, wireless electronic devices1,2 may form the basis of future systems for environmental monitoring3, population surveillance4, disease management5 and other applications that demand coverage over expansive spatial scales. Aerial schemes to distribute the components for such networks are required, and-inspired by wind-dispersed seeds6-we examined passive structures designed for controlled, unpowered flight across natural environments or city settings. Techniques in mechanically guided assembly of three-dimensional (3D) mesostructures7-9 provide access to miniature, 3D fliers optimized for such purposes, in processes that align with the most sophisticated production techniques for electronic, optoelectronic, microfluidic and microelectromechanical technologies. Here we demonstrate a range of 3D macro-, meso- and microscale fliers produced in this manner, including those that incorporate active electronic and colorimetric payloads. Analytical, computational and experimental studies of the aerodynamics of high-performance structures of this type establish a set of fundamental considerations in bio-inspired design, with a focus on 3D fliers that exhibit controlled rotational kinematics and low terminal velocities. An approach that represents these complex 3D structures as discrete numbers of blades captures the essential physics in simple, analytical scaling forms, validated by computational and experimental results. Battery-free, wireless devices and colorimetric sensors for environmental measurements provide simple examples of a wide spectrum of applications of these unusual concepts.

2.
Polymers (Basel) ; 13(4)2021 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33668510

RESUMO

We study the orientation and ordering of nanodomains of a thickness-modulated lamellar block copolymer (BCP) thin film at each thickness region inside a topological nano/micropattern of bare silicon wafers without chemical pretreatments. With precise control of the thickness gradient of a BCP thin film and the width of a bare silicon trench, we successfully demonstrate (i) perfectly oriented lamellar nanodomains, (ii) pseudocylindrical nanopatterns as periodically aligned defects from the lamellar BCP thin film, and (iii) half-cylindrical nanostructure arrays leveraged by a trench sidewall with the strong preferential wetting of the PMMA block of the BCP. Our strategy is simple, efficient, and has an advantage in fabricating diverse nanopatterns simultaneously compared to conventional BCP lithography utilizing chemical pretreatments, such as a polymer brush or a self-assembled monolayer (SAM). The proposed self-assembly nanopatterning process can be used in energy devices and biodevices requiring various nanopatterns on the same device and as next-generation nanofabrication processes with minimized fabrication steps for low-cost manufacturing techniques.

3.
Polymers (Basel) ; 13(4)2021 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33672839

RESUMO

Although various two-dimensional (2D) materials hold great promise in next generation electronic devices, there are many challenges to overcome to be used in practical applications. One of them is the substrate effect, which directly affects the device performance. The large interfacial area and interaction between 2D materials and substrate significantly deteriorate the device performance. Several top-down approaches have been suggested to solve the problem. Unfortunately, however, they have some drawbacks such as a complicated fabrication process, a high production cost, or a poor mechanical property. Here, we suggest the partially suspended 2D materials-based field-effect transistors (FETs) by introducing block copolymer (BCP) lithography to fabricate the substrate effect-free 2D electronic devices. A wide range of nanometer size holes (diameter = 31~43 nm) is successfully realized with a BCP self-assembly nanopatterning process. With this approach, the interaction mechanism between active 2D materials and substrate is elucidated by precisely measuring the device performance at varied feature size. Our strategy can be widely applied to fabricate 2D materials-based high performance electronic, optoelectronic, and energy devices using a versatile self-assembly nanopatterning process.

4.
Adv Mater ; 32(46): e2004456, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33043514

RESUMO

The vision system of arthropods consists of a dense array of individual photodetecting elements across a curvilinear surface. This compound-eye architecture could be a useful model for optoelectronic sensing devices that require a large field of view and high sensitivity to motion. Strategies that aim to mimic the compound-eye architecture involve integrating photodetector pixels with a curved microlens, but their fabrication on a curvilinear surface is challenged by the use of standard microfabrication processes that are traditionally designed for planar, rigid substrates (e.g., Si wafers). Here, a fractal web design of a hemispherical photodetector array that contains an organic-dye-sensitized graphene hybrid composite is reported to serve as an effective photoactive component with enhanced light-absorbing capabilities. The device is first fabricated on a planar Si wafer at the microscale and then transferred to transparent hemispherical domes with different curvatures in a deterministic manner. The unique structural property of the fractal web design provides protection of the device from damage by effectively tolerating various external loads. Comprehensive experimental and computational studies reveal the essential design features and optoelectronic properties of the device, followed by the evaluation of its utility in the measurement of both the direction and intensity of incident light.

5.
Sci Transl Med ; 12(538)2020 04 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32269166

RESUMO

Long-lasting, high-resolution neural interfaces that are ultrathin and flexible are essential for precise brain mapping and high-performance neuroprosthetic systems. Scaling to sample thousands of sites across large brain regions requires integrating powered electronics to multiplex many electrodes to a few external wires. However, existing multiplexed electrode arrays rely on encapsulation strategies that have limited implant lifetimes. Here, we developed a flexible, multiplexed electrode array, called "Neural Matrix," that provides stable in vivo neural recordings in rodents and nonhuman primates. Neural Matrix lasts over a year and samples a centimeter-scale brain region using over a thousand channels. The long-lasting encapsulation (projected to last at least 6 years), scalable device design, and iterative in vivo optimization described here are essential components to overcoming current hurdles facing next-generation neural technologies.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Encefálico , Roedores , Animais , Encéfalo , Eletrodos Implantados , Microeletrodos , Primatas
6.
ACS Nano ; 13(10): 10972-10979, 2019 10 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31124670

RESUMO

Sensors that reproduce the complex characteristics of cutaneous receptors in the skin have important potential in the context of artificial systems for controlled interactions with the physical environment. Multimodal responses with high sensitivity and wide dynamic range are essential for many such applications. This report introduces a simple, three-dimensional type of microelectromechanical sensor that incorporates monocrystalline silicon nanomembranes as piezoresistive elements in a configuration that enables separate, simultaneous measurements of multiple mechanical stimuli, such as normal force, shear force, and bending, along with temperature. The technology provides high sensitivity measurements with millisecond response times, as supported by quantitative simulations. The fabrication and assembly processes allow scalable production of interconnected arrays of such devices with capabilities in spatiotemporal mapping. Integration with wireless data recording and transmission electronics allows operation with standard consumer devices.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Fenômenos Físicos , Pele/metabolismo , Tato/fisiologia , Eletrônica , Fenômenos Mecânicos , Pele/química , Temperatura , Tato/genética
7.
Science ; 363(6430)2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30819934

RESUMO

Existing vital sign monitoring systems in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) require multiple wires connected to rigid sensors with strongly adherent interfaces to the skin. We introduce a pair of ultrathin, soft, skin-like electronic devices whose coordinated, wireless operation reproduces the functionality of these traditional technologies but bypasses their intrinsic limitations. The enabling advances in engineering science include designs that support wireless, battery-free operation; real-time, in-sensor data analytics; time-synchronized, continuous data streaming; soft mechanics and gentle adhesive interfaces to the skin; and compatibility with visual inspection and with medical imaging techniques used in the NICU. Preliminary studies on neonates admitted to operating NICUs demonstrate performance comparable to the most advanced clinical-standard monitoring systems.


Assuntos
Eletrônica/instrumentação , Terapia Intensiva Neonatal , Monitorização Fisiológica/instrumentação , Tecnologia sem Fio/instrumentação , Diagnóstico por Imagem , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Dispositivos Lab-On-A-Chip , Pele , Sinais Vitais
8.
Nature ; 565(7739): 361-365, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30602791

RESUMO

The fast-growing field of bioelectronic medicine aims to develop engineered systems that can relieve clinical conditions by stimulating the peripheral nervous system1-5. This type of technology relies largely on electrical stimulation to provide neuromodulation of organ function or pain. One example is sacral nerve stimulation to treat overactive bladder, urinary incontinence and interstitial cystitis (also known as bladder pain syndrome)4,6,7. Conventional, continuous stimulation protocols, however, can cause discomfort and pain, particularly when treating symptoms that can be intermittent (for example, sudden urinary urgency)8. Direct physical coupling of electrodes to the nerve can lead to injury and inflammation9-11. Furthermore, typical therapeutic stimulators target large nerve bundles that innervate multiple structures, resulting in a lack of organ specificity. Here we introduce a miniaturized bio-optoelectronic implant that avoids these limitations by using (1) an optical stimulation interface that exploits microscale inorganic light-emitting diodes to activate opsins; (2) a soft, high-precision biophysical sensor system that allows continuous measurements of organ function; and (3) a control module and data analytics approach that enables coordinated, closed-loop operation of the system to eliminate pathological behaviours as they occur in real-time. In the example reported here, a soft strain gauge yields real-time information on bladder function in a rat model. Data algorithms identify pathological behaviour, and automated, closed-loop optogenetic neuromodulation of bladder sensory afferents normalizes bladder function. This all-optical scheme for neuromodulation offers chronic stability and the potential to stimulate specific cell types.


Assuntos
Neurônios/fisiologia , Optogenética/instrumentação , Optogenética/métodos , Bexiga Urinária/inervação , Bexiga Urinária/fisiologia , Tecnologia sem Fio/instrumentação , Algoritmos , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Eletrônica , Feminino , Gânglios Espinais/citologia , Humanos , Neurônios/citologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Raízes Nervosas Espinhais/citologia
9.
Adv Mater ; 31(2): e1805615, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30370605

RESUMO

Capabilities for controlled formation of sophisticated 3D micro/nanostructures in advanced materials have foundational implications across a broad range of fields. Recently developed methods use stress release in prestrained elastomeric substrates as a driving force for assembling 3D structures and functional microdevices from 2D precursors. A limitation of this approach is that releasing these structures from their substrate returns them to their original 2D layouts due to the elastic recovery of the constituent materials. Here, a concept in which shape memory polymers serve as a means to achieve freestanding 3D architectures from the same basic approach is introduced, with demonstrated ability to realize lateral dimensions, characteristic feature sizes, and thicknesses as small as ≈500, 10, and 5 µm simultaneously, and the potential to scale to much larger or smaller dimensions. Wireless electronic devices illustrate the capacity to integrate other materials and functional components into these 3D frameworks. Quantitative mechanics modeling and experimental measurements illustrate not only shape fixation but also capabilities that allow for structure recovery and shape programmability, as a form of 4D structural control. These ideas provide opportunities in fields ranging from micro-electromechanical systems and microrobotics, to smart intravascular stents, tissue scaffolds, and many others.

10.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 10(51): 44660-44667, 2018 Dec 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30480431

RESUMO

Effective surface enhancement of Raman scattering (SERS) requires strong near-field enhancement as well as effective light collection of plasmonic structures. To this end, plasmonic nanoparticle (NP) arrays with narrow gaps or sharp tips have been suggested as desirable structures. We present a highly dense and uniform Au nanoscale gap array enabled by the customized design of NP shape and arrangement employing block copolymer self-assembly. Block copolymer self-assembly in thin films offers uniform hexagonally packed nanopost template arrays over the entire surface of a 2 in. wafer. Conventional evaporative metal deposition over the nanotemplate surface allows precise geometric control and positional arrangement of metal NPs, constituting tunable, strong plasmonic near-field enhancement particularly at the "hot spots" near interparticular nanoscale gaps. Underlying field distribution has been investigated by a finite-difference time-domain simulation. In the detection of thiophenol, our Au nanogap array shows a remarkable enhancement of Raman intensity greater than ∼104, a standard deviation as small as 12.3% compared to that of the planar Au thin film. In addition, adenine biomolecules can be detected with a detection limit as low as 100 nM. Our approach proposes highly sensitive and reliable SERS on the basis of a scalable, low-cost bottom-up strategy.

11.
Small ; 14(45): e1802876, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30300469

RESUMO

Sweat excretion is a dynamic physiological process that varies with body position, activity level, environmental factors, and health status. Conventional means for measuring the properties of sweat yield accurate results but their requirements for sampling and analytics do not allow for use in the field. Emerging wearable devices offer significant advantages over existing approaches, but each has significant drawbacks associated with bulk and weight, inability to quantify volumetric sweat rate and loss, robustness, and/or inadequate accuracy in biochemical analysis. This paper presents a thin, miniaturized, skin-interfaced microfluidic technology that includes a reusable, battery-free electronics module for measuring sweat conductivity and rate in real-time using wireless power from and data communication to electronic devices with capabilities in near field communications (NFC), including most smartphones. The platform exploits ultrathin electrodes integrated within a collection of microchannels as interfaces to circuits that leverage NFC protocols. The resulting capabilities are complementary to those of previously reported colorimetric strategies. Systematic studies of these combined microfluidic/electronic systems, accurate correlations of measurements performed with them to those of laboratory standard instrumentation, and field tests on human subjects exercising and at rest establish the key operational features and their utility in sweat analytics.


Assuntos
Eletrônica/métodos , Microfluídica/métodos , Animais , Eletrólitos/química , Humanos , Pele/química , Suor/química
12.
ACS Nano ; 12(5): 4164-4171, 2018 05 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29641889

RESUMO

Recently developed approaches in deterministic assembly allow for controlled, geometric transformation of two-dimensional structures into complex, engineered three-dimensional layouts. Attractive features include applicability to wide ranging layout designs and dimensions along with the capacity to integrate planar thin film materials and device layouts. The work reported here establishes further capabilities for directly embedding high-performance electronic devices into the resultant 3D constructs based on silicon nanomembranes (Si NMs) as the active materials in custom devices or microscale components released from commercial wafer sources. Systematic experimental studies and theoretical analysis illustrate the key ideas through varied 3D architectures, from interconnected bridges and coils to extended chiral structures, each of which embed n-channel Si NM MOSFETs (nMOS), Si NM diodes, and p-channel silicon MOSFETs (pMOS). Examples in stretchable/deformable systems highlight additional features of these platforms. These strategies are immediately applicable to other wide-ranging classes of materials and device technologies that can be rendered in two-dimensional layouts, from systems for energy storage, to photovoltaics, optoelectronics, and others.


Assuntos
Eletrônica/instrumentação , Nanoestruturas/química , Silício/química , Análise de Elementos Finitos , Iluminação , Fenômenos Mecânicos , Metais/química , Óxidos/química , Dióxido de Silício
13.
Sci Transl Med ; 10(435)2018 04 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29618561

RESUMO

Thin, soft, skin-like sensors capable of precise, continuous measurements of physiological health have broad potential relevance to clinical health care. Use of sensors distributed over a wide area for full-body, spatiotemporal mapping of physiological processes would be a considerable advance for this field. We introduce materials, device designs, wireless power delivery and communication strategies, and overall system architectures for skin-like, battery-free sensors of temperature and pressure that can be used across the entire body. Combined experimental and theoretical investigations of the sensor operation and the modes for wireless addressing define the key features of these systems. Studies with human subjects in clinical sleep laboratories and in adjustable hospital beds demonstrate functionality of the sensors, with potential implications for monitoring of circadian cycles and mitigating risks for pressure-induced skin ulcers.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Tecnologia sem Fio , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos , Pressão , Pele , Temperatura , Termografia
14.
Nanoscale ; 10(1): 100-108, 2017 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29210423

RESUMO

Transparent conducting electrodes (TCEs) are essential components in various optoelectronic devices. Nanostructured metallic thin film is one of the promising candidates to complement current metal oxide films, such as ITO, where high cost rare earth elements have been a longstanding issue. Herein, we present that multiscale porous metal nanomesh thin films prepared by bimodal self-assembly of block copolymer (BCP)/homopolymer blends may offer a new opportunity for TCE. This hierarchical concurrent self-assembly consists of macrophase separation between BCP and homopolymer as well as microphase separation of BCP, and thus provides a straightforward spontaneous production of a highly porous multiscale pattern over an arbitrary large area. Employing a conventional pattern transfer process, we successfully demonstrated a multiscale highly porous metallic thin film with reasonable optical transparency, electro-conductance, and large-area uniformity, taking advantage of low loss light penetration through microscale pores and significant suppression of light reflection at the nanoporous structures. This well-defined controllable bimodal self-assembly can offer valuable opportunities for many different applications, including optoelectronics, energy harvesting, and membranes.

15.
Nat Commun ; 8: 15894, 2017 06 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28635956

RESUMO

Low modulus, compliant systems of sensors, circuits and radios designed to intimately interface with the soft tissues of the human body are of growing interest, due to their emerging applications in continuous, clinical-quality health monitors and advanced, bioelectronic therapeutics. Although recent research establishes various materials and mechanics concepts for such technologies, all existing approaches involve simple, two-dimensional (2D) layouts in the constituent micro-components and interconnects. Here we introduce concepts in three-dimensional (3D) architectures that bypass important engineering constraints and performance limitations set by traditional, 2D designs. Specifically, open-mesh, 3D interconnect networks of helical microcoils formed by deterministic compressive buckling establish the basis for systems that can offer exceptional low modulus, elastic mechanics, in compact geometries, with active components and sophisticated levels of functionality. Coupled mechanical and electrical design approaches enable layout optimization, assembly processes and encapsulation schemes to yield 3D configurations that satisfy requirements in demanding, complex systems, such as wireless, skin-compatible electronic sensors.

16.
Science ; 355(6325): 616-619, 2017 02 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28183975

RESUMO

Dual-functioning displays, which can simultaneously transmit and receive information and energy through visible light, would enable enhanced user interfaces and device-to-device interactivity. We demonstrate that double heterojunctions designed into colloidal semiconductor nanorods allow both efficient photocurrent generation through a photovoltaic response and electroluminescence within a single device. These dual-functioning, all-solution-processed double-heterojunction nanorod light-responsive light-emitting diodes open feasible routes to a variety of advanced applications, from touchless interactive screens to energy harvesting and scavenging displays and massively parallel display-to-display data communication.

17.
Nat Commun ; 7: 12911, 2016 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27683077

RESUMO

The refractive index of natural transparent materials is limited to 2-3 throughout the visible wavelength range. Wider controllability of the refractive index is desired for novel optical applications such as nanoimaging and integrated photonics. We report that metamaterials consisting of period and symmetry-tunable self-assembled nanopatterns can provide a controllable refractive index medium for a broad wavelength range, including the visible region. Our approach exploits the independent control of permeability and permittivity with nanoscale objects smaller than the skin depth. The precise manipulation of the interobject distance in block copolymer nanopatterns via pattern shrinkage increased the effective refractive index up to 5.10. The effective refractive index remains above 3.0 over more than 1,000 nm wavelength bandwidth. Spatially graded and anisotropic refractive indices are also obtained with the design of transitional and rotational symmetry modification.

18.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 113(22): 6131-6, 2016 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27185907

RESUMO

Power supply represents a critical challenge in the development of body-integrated electronic technologies. Although recent research establishes an impressive variety of options in energy storage (batteries and supercapacitors) and generation (triboelectric, piezoelectric, thermoelectric, and photovoltaic devices), the modest electrical performance and/or the absence of soft, biocompatible mechanical properties limit their practical use. The results presented here form the basis of soft, skin-compatible means for efficient photovoltaic generation and high-capacity storage of electrical power using dual-junction, compound semiconductor solar cells and chip-scale, rechargeable lithium-ion batteries, respectively. Miniaturized components, deformable interconnects, optimized array layouts, and dual-composition elastomer substrates, superstrates, and encapsulation layers represent key features. Systematic studies of the materials and mechanics identify optimized designs, including unusual configurations that exploit a folded, multilayer construct to improve the functional density without adversely affecting the soft, stretchable characteristics. System-level examples exploit such technologies in fully wireless sensors for precision skin thermography, with capabilities in continuous data logging and local processing, validated through demonstrations on volunteer subjects in various realistic scenarios.


Assuntos
Materiais Biocompatíveis/química , Fontes de Energia Elétrica , Lítio/química , Pele/química , Termografia/instrumentação , Tecnologia sem Fio/instrumentação , Eletricidade , Eletrônica , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Pele/efeitos da radiação
19.
Nat Mater ; 15(7): 782-791, 2016 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27088236

RESUMO

Bioresorbable silicon electronics technology offers unprecedented opportunities to deploy advanced implantable monitoring systems that eliminate risks, cost and discomfort associated with surgical extraction. Applications include postoperative monitoring and transient physiologic recording after percutaneous or minimally invasive placement of vascular, cardiac, orthopaedic, neural or other devices. We present an embodiment of these materials in both passive and actively addressed arrays of bioresorbable silicon electrodes with multiplexing capabilities, which record in vivo electrophysiological signals from the cortical surface and the subgaleal space. The devices detect normal physiologic and epileptiform activity, both in acute and chronic recordings. Comparative studies show sensor performance comparable to standard clinical systems and reduced tissue reactivity relative to conventional clinical electrocorticography (ECoG) electrodes. This technology offers general applicability in neural interfaces, with additional potential utility in treatment of disorders where transient monitoring and modulation of physiologic function, implant integrity and tissue recovery or regeneration are required.


Assuntos
Implantes Absorvíveis , Mapeamento Encefálico , Ondas Encefálicas/fisiologia , Córtex Cerebral/fisiologia , Eletrodos Implantados , Silício , Animais , Mapeamento Encefálico/instrumentação , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Ratos , Silício/química , Silício/farmacologia
20.
ACS Nano ; 10(5): 4920-5, 2016 05 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27078621

RESUMO

Here, we report multilayer stacking of films of quantum dots (QDs) for the purpose of tailoring the energy band alignment between charge transport layers and light emitting layers of different color in quantum dot light-emitting diodes (QD LED) for maximum efficiency in full color operation. The performance of QD LEDs formed by transfer printing compares favorably to that of conventional devices fabricated by spin-casting. Results indicate that zinc oxide (ZnO) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) can serve effectively as electron transport layers (ETLs) for red and green/blue QD LEDs, respectively. Optimized selections for each QD layer can be assembled at high yields by transfer printing with sacrificial fluoropolymer thin films to provide low energy surfaces for release, thereby allowing shared common layers for hole injection (HIL) and hole transport (HTL), along with customized ETLs. This strategy allows cointegration of devices with heterogeneous energy band diagrams, in a parallelized scheme that offers potential for high throughput and practical use.

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