Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 182
Filtrar
1.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 11(4)2021 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33808296

RESUMO

Cancer screening and diagnosis can be achieved by analyzing specific molecules within serum-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs). This study sought to profile EV-derived proteins to identify potential lung cancer biomarkers. EVs were isolated from 80 serum samples from healthy individuals and cancer patients via polyethylene glycol (PEG)-based precipitation and immunoaffinity separation using antibodies against CD9, CD63, CD81, and EpCAM. Proteomic analysis was performed using 2-D gel electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). The expression of proteins that were differentially upregulated in the EVs or tissue of lung cancer samples was validated by Western blotting. The area under the curve (AUC) was calculated to assess the predictability of each differentially expressed protein (DEP) for lung cancer. A total of 55 upregulated protein spots were selected, seven of which (CD5L, CLEC3B, ITIH4, SERFINF1, SAA4, SERFINC1, and C20ORF3) were found to be expressed at high levels in patient-derived EVs by Western blotting. Meanwhile, only the expression of EV CD5L correlated with that in cancer tissues. CD5L also demonstrated the highest AUC value (0.943) and was found to be the core regulator in a pathway related to cell dysfunction. Cumulatively, these results show that EV-derived CD5L may represent a potential biomarker-detected via a liquid biopsy-for the noninvasive diagnosis of lung cancer.

2.
Nurse Educ Pract ; 52: 103003, 2021 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33774568

RESUMO

Graduate nursing students experience considerable stress due to their multiple responsibilities, including professional responsibilities, graduate coursework and family commitments. Peer support can help graduate students overcome stress and may heavily influence their learning satisfaction. However, the mechanisms underlying the influence of peer support on learning satisfaction in graduate students remain unclear. Thus, this cross-sectional study examined the relationship between peer support, achievement emotions (learner-specific emotions related to achievement activities) and learning satisfaction, as well as the mediating effects of achievement emotions among 225 graduate nursing students working in the Korean health care system. Participants completed a questionnaire assessing these variables. Pearson correlation was conducted to investigate the relationship between the variables and Baron and Kenny's regression analysis and Sobel test were conducted to examine the mediating effects of achievement emotions. Peer support correlated positively with positive achievement emotions and learning satisfaction and negatively with negative emotions. Positive emotions were positively and negative emotions were negatively, correlated with learning satisfaction. Achievement emotions mediated the relationship between peer support and learning satisfaction. Our findings indicate that peer support plays an important role in improving learning satisfaction, emphasizing the advantages of positive emotions and the disadvantages of negative emotions in graduate nursing students.

3.
J Phys Chem Lett ; : 2770-2779, 2021 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33709718

RESUMO

Nickel oxides (NiO) as hole transport layers (HTLs) in inverted-type perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have been widely studied mainly because of their high stability under illumination. Increases in the power conversion efficiency (PCE) with NiO HTLs have been presented in numerous reports, although the photoluminescence (PL) quenching behavior does not coincide with the PCE increase. The dynamics of the charge carrier transport between the NiO HTLs and the organic-inorganic halide perovskite absorbers is not clearly understood yet and quite unusual, in contrast to organic/polymerics HTLs. We deposited NiO HTLs with precisely controlled thicknesses by atomic layer deposition (ALD) and studied their photovoltaic performances and hole transfer characteristics. Ground state bleaching (GSB) recovery was observed by ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy (TAS), which suggested that backward hole injection occurred between the perovskites and NiO HTLs, so that the uncommon PL behaviors can be clearly explained. Backward hole injection from the NiO HTL to the perovskite absorber originated from their similar valence band (VB) energy positions. The thickness increase of the NiO HTLs induced VB sharing, which caused a red-shift of the photoinduced hole absorption spectrum in near-infrared (NIR) femtosecond TAS and a decrease in the PL intensity. Our studies on inorganic metal oxide transport layers, NiO in this work, with a thickness dependence and the comparison with organic layers provide a better understanding of the interfacial carrier dynamics in PSCs.

4.
Clin Transl Med ; 11(3): e368, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33784004

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The discovery of receptor activator of nuclear factor-ĸB ligand (RANKL) as the final effector in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis has led to a better understanding of bone remodeling. When RANKL binds to its receptor (RANK), osteoclastic differentiation and activation are initiated. Herein, we propose a strategy using a novel RANKL variant as a competitive inhibitor for RANKL. The RANKL variant activates LGR4 signaling, which competitively regulates RANK and acts as an immunogen that induces anti-RANKL antibody production. METHODS: We modified the RANK-binding site on RANKL using minimal amino acid changes in the RANKL complex and its counterpart receptor RANK and tried to evaluate the inhibitory effects on osteoclastogenesis. RESULTS: The novel RANKL variant did not bind RANK in osteoclast progenitor cells, but activated LGR4 through the GSK3-ß signaling pathway, thereby suppressing activated T cell cytoplasmic nuclear factor calcineurin-dependent 1 (NFATc1) expression and activity during osteoclastogenesis. Our RANKL variant generated high levels of RANKL-specific antibodies, blocked osteoclastogenesis, and inhibited osteoporosis in ovariectomized mouse models. Generated anti-RANKL antibodies showed a high inhibitory effect on osteoclastogenesis in vivo and in vitro. CONCLUSIONS: We observed that the novel RANKL indeed blocks RANKL via LGR4 signaling and generates anti-RANKL antibodies, demonstrating an innovative strategy in the development of general immunotherapy.

5.
Mol Med Rep ; 23(4): 1, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33537826

RESUMO

Altered expression levels of N­methyl­D­aspartate receptor (NMDAR), a ligand­gated ion channel, have a harmful effect on cellular survival. Hyperthermia is a proven risk factor of transient forebrain ischemia (tFI) and can cause extensive and severe brain damage associated with mortality. The objective of the present study was to investigate whether hyperthermic preconditioning affected NMDAR1 immunoreactivity associated with deterioration of neuronal function in the gerbil hippocampal CA1 region following tFI via histological and western blot analyses. Hyperthermic preconditioning was performed for 1 h before tFI, which was developed by ligating common carotid arteries for 5 min. tFI­induced cognitive impairment under hyperthermia was worse compared with that under normothermia. Loss (death) of pyramidal neurons in the CA1 region occurred fast and was more severe under hyperthermia compared with that under normothermia. NMDAR1 immunoreactivity was not observed in the somata of pyramidal neurons of sham gerbils with normothermia. However, its immunoreactivity was strong in the somata and processes at 12 h post­tFI. Thereafter, NMDAR1 immunoreactivity decreased with time after tFI. On the other hand, NMDAR1 immunoreactivity under hyperthermia was significantly increased in the somata and processes at 6 h post­tFI. The change pattern of NMDAR1 immunoreactivity under hyperthermia was different from that under normothermia. Overall, accelerated tFI­induced neuronal death under hyperthermia may be closely associated with altered NMDAR1 expression compared with that under normothermia.

6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(2)2021 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33440708

RESUMO

Calbindin-D28k (CB), a calcium-binding protein, mediates diverse neuronal functions. In this study, adult gerbils were fed a normal diet (ND) or exposed to intermittent fasting (IF) for three months, and were randomly assigned to sham or ischemia operated groups. Ischemic injury was induced by transient forebrain ischemia for 5 min. Short-term memory was examined via passive avoidance test. CB expression was investigated in the Cornu Ammonis 1 (CA1) region of the hippocampus via western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry. Finally, histological analysis was used to assess neuroprotection and gliosis (microgliosis and astrogliosis) in the CA1 region. Short-term memory did not vary significantly between ischemic gerbils with IF and those exposed to ND. CB expression was increased significantly in the CA1 pyramidal neurons of ischemic gerbils with IF compared with that of gerbils fed ND. However, the CB expression was significantly decreased in ischemic gerbils with IF, similarly to that of ischemic gerbils exposed to ND. The CA1 pyramidal neurons were not protected from ischemic injury in both groups, and gliosis (astrogliosis and microgliosis) was gradually increased with time after ischemia. In addition, immunoglobulin G was leaked into the CA1 parenchyma from blood vessels and gradually increased with time after ischemic insult in both groups. Taken together, our study suggests that IF for three months increases CB expression in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons; however, the CA1 pyramidal neurons are not protected from transient forebrain ischemia. This failure in neuroprotection may be attributed to disruption of the blood-brain barrier, which triggers gliosis after ischemic insults.


Assuntos
Calbindina 1/genética , Jejum , Expressão Gênica , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/etiologia , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/metabolismo , Animais , Calbindina 1/imunologia , Morte Celular/genética , Morte Celular/imunologia , Gerbillinae , Gliose/etiologia , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Masculino , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neurônios/patologia , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/tratamento farmacológico , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/patologia
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(3)2021 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33498705

RESUMO

It has been reported that CD200 (Cluster of Differentiation 200), expressed in neurons, regulates microglial activation in the central nervous system, and a decrease in CD200 expression causes an increase in microglial activation and neuronal loss. The aim of this study was to investigate time-dependent changes in CD200 expression in the hippocampus proper (CA1, 2, and 3 fields) after transient forebrain ischemia for 5 min in gerbils. In this study, 5-min ischemia evoked neuronal death (loss) of pyramidal neurons in the CA1 field, but not in the CA2/3 fields, at 5 days postischemia. In the sham group, CD200 expression was found in pyramidal neurons of the CA1 field, and the immunoreactivity in the group with ischemia was decreased at 6 h postischemia, dramatically increased at 12 h postischemia, decreased (to level found at 6 h postischemia) at 1 and 2 days postischemia, and significantly increased again at 5 days postischemia. At 5 days postischemia, CD200 immunoreactivity was strongly expressed in microglia and GABAergic neurons. However, in the CA3 field, the change in CD200 immunoreactivity in pyramidal neurons was markedly weaker than that in the CA1 field, showing there was no expression of CD 200 in microglia and GABAergic neurons. In addition, treatment of 10 mg/kg risperidone (an atypical antipsychotic drug) after the ischemia hardly changed CD200 immunoreactivity in the CA1 field, showing that CA1 pyramidal neurons were protected from the ischemic injury. These results indicate that the transient ischemia-induced change in CD200 expression may be associated with specific and selective neuronal death in the hippocampal CA1 field following transient forebrain ischemia.

8.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0246064, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33513147

RESUMO

Cultural tightness-looseness represents the degree to which a particular culture possesses strong behavioral norms, and the degree to which members of that culture are likely to sanction individuals who deviate from those norms. While tightness-looseness has been quantified for a large and growing number of countries around the world, there are many countries where a tightness-looseness score has yet to be determined, thus impeding the inclusion of those countries in cross-cultural research with a tightness-looseness focus. There is a dearth of research on cultural tightness-looseness in South America in particular. We report results from a national survey of 1,265 Ecuadorian residents which provided quantification of the relatively tight culture of Ecuador.

9.
Cells ; 10(1)2021 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33401719

RESUMO

Autonomic dysfunction in the central nervous system (CNS) can cause death after recovery from a cardiac arrest (CA). However, few studies on histopathological changes in animal models of CA have been reported. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of neuronal death and damage in various brain regions and the spinal cord at early times after asphyxial CA and we studied the relationship between the mortality rate and neuronal damage following hypothermic treatment after CA. Rats were subjected to 7-8 min of asphyxial CA, followed by resuscitation and prompt hypothermic treatment. Eight regions related to autonomic control (the cingulate cortex, hippocampus, thalamus, hypothalamus, myelencephalon, and spinal cord) were examined using cresyl violet (a marker for Nissl substance) and Fluoro-Jade B (a marker for neuronal death). The survival rate was 44.5% 1 day post-CA, 18.2% 2 days post-CA and 0% 5 days post-CA. Neuronal death started 12 h post-CA in the gigantocellular reticular nucleus and caudoventrolateral reticular nucleus in the myelencephalon and lamina VII in the cervical, thoracic, lumbar, and sacral spinal cord, of which neurons are related to autonomic lower motor neurons. In these regions, Iba-1 immunoreactivity indicating microglial activation (microgliosis) was gradually increased with time after CA. Prompt hypothermic treatment increased the survival rate at 5 days after CA with an attenuation of neuronal damages and death in the damaged regions. However, the survival rate was 0% at 12 days after CA. Taken together, our study suggests that the early damage and death of neurons related to autonomic lower motor neurons was significantly related to the high mortality rate after CA and that prompt hypothermic therapy could increase the survival rate temporarily after CA, but could not ultimately save the animal.

10.
Gerontologist ; 2020 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33326573

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The concept of person-centered care has been utilized/adapted to various interventions to enhance health-related outcomes and ensure the quality of care delivered to persons living with dementia. A few systematic reviews have been conducted on the use of person-centered interventions in the context of dementia care, but to date, none have analyzed intervention effect by intervention type and target outcome. This study aimed to review person-centered interventions used in the context of dementia care and examine their effectiveness. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted. We searched through five databases for randomized controlled trials that utilized person-centered interventions in persons living with dementia from 1998 to 2019. Study quality was assessed using the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. The outcomes of interest for the meta-analysis were behavioral and psychological symptoms in dementia (BPSD) and cognitive function assessed immediately after the baseline measurement. RESULTS: In total, 36 studies were systematically reviewed. Intervention types were: reminiscence, music, and cognitive therapies, and multisensory stimulation. Thirty studies were included in the meta-analysis. Results showed a moderate effect size for overall intervention, a small one for music therapy, and a moderate one for reminiscence therapy on BPSD and cognitive function. DISCUSSION AND IMPLICATIONS: Generally speaking, person-centered interventions showed immediate intervention effects on reducing BPSD and improving cognitive function, although the effect size and significance of each outcome differed by intervention type. Thus, healthcare providers should consider person-centered interventions as a vital element in dementia care.

11.
J Affect Disord ; 280(Pt A): 203-210, 2020 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33220555

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although many studies have identified the risk factors for suicide, the absence of a statistical model that integrates several risk areas makes it difficult to understand the abnormally high suicide rate in South Korea. Therefore, we aimed to establish a multidimensional structural equation model of suicide incorporating socio-cultural and psychiatric factors. We performed cross-national comparisons to identify the unique factors influencing South Korea's suicide rate. METHODS: We conducted a web survey inviting adults aged 20- to 59-years from South Korea, Japan, and the United States to respond to questionnaires. A total of 2,213 subjects were included. We then developed a structural equation model, exhibiting a good fit in all countries. RESULTS: A permissive attitude was the factor that most strongly predicted the intensity of suicidal ideation in all countries. In South Korea, a low income was directly associated with both permissive attitude and the intensity of suicidal ideation. South Korea's highly fatalistic attitude related to more receptive attitudes toward suicide. Individual's resilience to stress provided significant protection against suicidal ideation in the United States and Japan, but not in South Korea. LIMITATIONS: Since our sample excluded adults over 60 years, thus reducing the generalizability of our results. Furthermore, we employed a cross-sectional design; a longitudinal study is needed to draw causal inferences about suicidal death CONCLUSIONS: This study developed the first multidimensional, integrated statistical model of suicidal ideation. Our findings explain the causes of South Korea's high suicide rate and can be used to develop new interventions.

12.
Molecules ; 25(19)2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33036412

RESUMO

Aronia melanocarpa, a black chokeberry, contains high levels of phenolic acids and polyphenolic flavonoids and displays antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. Through high-performance liquid chromatography for extracts from Aronia melanocarpa, we discovered that the extract contained chlorogenic acid and rutin as major ingredients. In this study, we examined the protective effects of the extract against ultraviolet B- (UVB)-induced photodamage in the dorsal skin of institute of cancer research (ICR) mice. Their dorsal skin was exposed to UVB, thereafter; the extract was topically applied once a day for seven days. Photoprotective properties of the extract in the dorsal skin were investigated by clinical skin severity score for skin injury, hematoxylin and eosin staining for histopathology, Masson's trichrome staining for collagens. In addition, we examined change in collagen type I and III, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 and MMP-3 by immunohistochemistry. In the UVB-exposed mice treated with the extract, UVB-induced epidermal damage was significantly ameliorated, showing that epidermal thickness was moderated. In these mice, immunoreactivities of collagen type I and III were significantly increased, whereas immunoreactivities of MMP-1 and 3 were significantly decreased compared with those in the UVB-exposed mice. These results indicate that treatment with Aronia melanocarpa extract attenuates UV-induced photodamage by attenuating UVB-induced collagen disruption: these findings might be a result of the chlorogenic acid and rutin contained in the extract. Based on the current results, we suggest that Aronia melanocarpa can be a useful material for developing photoprotective adjuvant.

13.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 12(43): 48991-48997, 2020 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33048546

RESUMO

We prepared MoS2 monolayers on Au nanodot (ND) and nanohole (NH) arrays. Both these sample arrays exhibited enhanced photoluminescence intensity compared with that of a bare SiO2/Si substrate. The reflectance spectra of MoS2/ND and MoS2/NH had clear features originating from excitation of localized surface plasmon and propagating surface plasmon polaritons. Notably, the surface photovoltages (SPV) of these hybrid plasmonic nanostructures had opposite polarities, indicating negative and positive charging at MoS2/ND and MoS2/NH, respectively. Surface potential maps, obtained by Kelvin probe force microscopy, suggested that the potential gradient led to a distinct spatial distribution of photo-generated charges in these two samples under illumination. Furthermore, the local density of photo-generated excitons, as predicted from optical simulations, explained the SPV spectra of MoS2/ND and MoS2/NH. We show that the geometric configuration of the plasmonic nanostructures modified the polarity of photo-generated excess charges in MoS2. These findings point to a useful means of optimizing optoelectronic characteristics and improving the performance of MoS2-based plasmonic devices.

14.
Yonsei Med J ; 61(11): 909-922, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33107234

RESUMO

Through this meta-analysis, we sought to examine the prevalence of, risks for, and factors associated with bullying involvement (victimization, perpetration, perpetration-victimization) among students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Additionally, we attempted to examine sources of variance in the prevalence and effect sizes of bullying in students with ASD across studies. Systematic database and literature review identified 34 relevant studies (31 for Western countries, three for Eastern countries). Pooled prevalence estimates for victimization, perpetration, and perpetration-victimization in general were 67%, 29%, and 14%, respectively. The risk of victimization in students with ASD was significantly higher than that in typically developing students and students with other disabilities. Further, deficits in social interaction and communication, externalizing symptoms, internalizing symptoms, and integrated inclusive school settings were related to higher victimization, and externalizing symptoms were related to higher perpetration. Finally, moderation analyses revealed significant variations in the pooled prevalences thereof depending on culture, age, school settings, and methodological quality and in the pooled effect sizes according to publication year and methodological quality. Our results highlight needs for bullying intervention for students with ASD, especially those who are younger, are in an inclusive school setting, and have higher social difficulties and externalizing/internalizing symptoms; for intensive research of bullying experiences among students with ASD in Eastern countries; and for efforts to improve the methodological quality of such research.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Bullying/estatística & dados numéricos , Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Comparação Transcultural , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/etnologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Bullying/psicologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Prevalência , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
15.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 10(10)2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32992891

RESUMO

The early detection of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) using tumor markers remains an attractive prospect for the potential to downstage the disease. To validate the scale-up clinical performance of potential tumor markers for RCC (as a single marker and as a composite tumor marker composed of nicotinamide N-methyltransferase (NNMT), L-Plastin (LCP1), and non-metastatic cells 1 protein (NM23A)), the scale-up assay was performed. Patients with RCC from multiple domestic institutes were included in the clinical evaluation for reassessment and improvement of the established triple markers of our product. For the diagnostic performance of the composite markers, the best-split cutoff points of each marker (147 pg/mL for NNMT, 1780 pg/mL for LCP1, and 520 pg/mL for NM23A) were installed. Serum levels of NNMT, LCP1, and NM23A were greatly increased in subjects with RCC (p < 0.0001). In 1042 blind sample tests with control individuals (n = 500) and patients with RCC (n = 542), the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the composite three-marker assay were 0.871 and 0.894, respectively, and the resulting AUC (Area under Curve) of ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) was 0.917. As a single marker, the diagnostic accuracies of NNMT, LCP1, and NM23A, as estimated by ROC, were 0.833, 0.844, and 0.601, respectively. The composite three-marker assay with NNMT, LCP1, and NM23A is a more improved novel serum marker assay for the early detection of RCC in cases of renal mass or unknown condition. The NNMT, LCP1, and NM23A triple marker assay could be a powerful diagnostic tumor marker assay to screen the early stage of RCC.

16.
Plant Dis ; 2020 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32876532

RESUMO

Lactuca serriola L. (syn. L. scariola L.) is an annual Asteraceae plant, native to Europe, and accidentally introduced to Korea in the late 1970s (Yim and Jeon, 1981). The Korean Ministry of Environment designated this weed as a harmful plant, which may disturb the balance of ecosystems (Kim et al., 2013). In July 2019, wilting symptoms of prickly lettuce were found among a roadside in Sangju (36°26'15'' N, 128°07'35'' E), Korea, with a disease incidence of 60%. Initial symptoms appeared pale to dark brown lesions on the basal stem and leaves of the plant, and over time the lesions expanded to the upper parts of the plant, resulting in extensive rot. Ultimately, the plants wilted and died. Symptomatic vascular tissues (5 x 5 mm2) of two diseased plants were surface sterilized in 2% NaClO solution for 1 min, followed by 70% ethanol for 1min, and rinsed two times in sterile distilled water. The pieces were placed on potato dextrose agar (PDA) and incubated at 25°C in the dark for a week. Each single spore isolate was obtained from the hypha tip growing on PDA and examined for morphological and molecular analysis. A representative isolate has been deposited at the Korean Agricultural Culture Collection (KACC49588). Macroconidia were slender, straight, and measured 20.4 to 59.6 × 2.5 to 3.9 µm (n=50), with three to five septa. Microconidia were clavate and measured 6.1 to 13 × 2.5 to 3.3 µm (n=50). Chlamydospores were absent. The colonies developed white aerial mycelium and turned pale purple after a week on PDA. Both morphological and cultural characteristics of the Korean isolate were close to Fusarium fujikuroi (Leslie and Summerell, 2006). Also, DNA sequence-based identification was carried out using primer sets of ITS1-F/ITS4 for the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rDNA region, Btu-F-F01/Btu-F-R01 for ß-tubulin (TUB) gene (Watanabe et al., 2011), and EF-1/EF-2 for translation elongation factor 1-alpha (TEF) gene. The resulting sequences were deposited in GenBank with accession numbers MT102938 for ITS, MT182734 for TUB, and MT625962 for TEF. On a BLASTn search, the Korean isolate revealed 100% sequence identity with the verified sequences of F. fujikuroi MF984413.1 for ITS, 99.79% (1 out of 368 bp is different) with U34415.1 for TUB, and 99.85% (1 out of 675 bp) with MN193860.1 for TEF. Pathogenicity was tested by dipping the roots of five healthy prickly lettuce seedlings in the spore suspension (1 × 106 conidia/ml) for 1 hour. Inoculated plants were transplanted into pots and maintained in a growth chamber at 90% relative humidity and 20°C. Five non-inoculated plants served as controls. After four weeks, wilt symptoms accompanied by expanding brown spots were observed on the basal stem and leaves of all inoculated seedlings, whereas the control plants remained symptomless. The fungus present on the inoculated plants was identical to one of the original infections, fulfilling Koch's postulates. Based on the morphological characteristics, sequencing data, and pathogenicity test, the pathogen was identified as F. fujikuroi. Bakanae (foolish seedling) disease caused by F. fujikuroi is one of the most serious rice diseases in Asia, but also this pathogen has been recorded on Lactuca sativa in Thailand (Farr and Rossman 2020). To our knowledge, this is the first report of F. fujikuroi causing Fusarium wilt on L. serriola in Korea.

17.
Lab Anim Res ; 36: 24, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32760664

RESUMO

Brain Factor-7® (BF-7), silk fibroin peptide, is known to be effective in improvement of memory and learning ability. In this study, the effects of BF-7 (10 mg/kg, p.o., pre-treatment for 7 days and post-treatment for 7 days) on neuroprotection and memory and learning functions were investigated in a rat model of transient focal cerebral ischemia and a gerbil model of transient global forebrain ischemia. Furthermore, to find the mechanism of BF-7, we examined the neuroprotective and antioxidative effects of BF-7 in vitro using neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) cells. In vivo model, treatment with BF-7 significantly reduced the number of errors in 8-arm maze test and significantly increased latency time in passive avoidance test at 7 days after focal ischemia compared to those in the vehicle-treated group. In addition, treatment with BF-7 significantly decreased the infarct size or neuronal death at 7 day following transient ischemia compared to that in the vehicle-treated group. In vitro model, 10 or 20 µg/ml of BF-7 treatment significantly increased cell viability in dose-dependent manner. In addition, oxidative stress was significantly attenuated in the ischemic cells, showing that 10 or 20 µg/ml of BF-7 treatment significantly reduced the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) compared to that in the ischemic cells. These results indicate that BF-7 treatment can attenuate ischemic damages and improve memory deficits via reduction of ROS generation.

18.
Molecules ; 25(16)2020 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32823713

RESUMO

This current study investigates the facilitative effects and mechanisms of decursin, a major component of Angelica gigas Nakai (AGN), and AGN root extract on hair growth in mice. We perform high-performance liquid chromatography on AGN extract to show it contains 7.3% decursin. Hairs in mouse dorsal skin are shaved distilled in water, 0.15% decursin, and 2% AGN root extract (0.15% decursin in the diluted extract) and topically applied twice a day for 17 days. Hematoxylin and eosin staining are done to examine the morphological changes in the hair follicles. To compare the effects of decursin and AGN extract on inflammatory cytokines in the dorsal skin, Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry for tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and interleukin (IL)-1ß as pro-inflammatory cytokines, and IL-4 and IL-13 as anti-inflammatory cytokines are conducted. The results show that the application of decursin and AGN extract confer effects on hair growth. Hair growth is significantly facilitated from seven days after the treatments compared to that in the control group, and completely grown hair was found 17 days after the treatments. The protein levels and immunoreactivity of TNF-α and IL-1ß in this case are significantly decreased, whereas the IL-4 and IL-13 levels and immunoreactivity are significantly increased compared to those in the control group. Additionally, high-mobility group box 1, an inflammatory mediator, is elevated by the topical application of decursin and AGN extract. Taken together, the treatment of mouse dorsal skin with AGE root extract containing decursin promotes hair growth by regulating pro- and/or anti-inflammatory cytokines. We, therefore, suggest that AGN root extract as well as decursin can be utilized as materials for developing hair growth-facilitating treatments.

19.
Nutrients ; 12(8)2020 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32824513

RESUMO

Pycnogenol® (an extract of the bark of French maritime pine tree) is used for dietary supplement and known to have excellent antioxidative efficacy. However, there are few reports on neuroprotective effect of Pycnogenol® supplementation and its mechanisms against ischemic injury following transient forebrain ischemia (TFI) in gerbils. Now, we examined neuroprotective effect and its mechanisms of Pycnogenol® in the gerbils with 5-min TFI, which evokes a significant death (loss) of pyramidal cells located in the cornu ammonis (CA1) region of gerbil hippocampus from 4-5 days post-TFI. Gerbils were pretreated with 30, 40, and 50 mg/kg of Pycnogenol® once a day for 7 days before TFI surgery. Treatment with 50 mg/kg, not 30 or 40 mg/kg, of Pycnogenol® potently protected learning and memory, as well as CA1 pyramidal cells, from ischemic injury. Treatment with 50 mg/kg Pycnogenol® significantly enhanced immunoreactivity of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutases and catalase) in the pyramidal cells before and after TFI induction. Furthermore, the treatment significantly reduced the generation of superoxide anion, ribonucleic acid oxidation and lipid peroxidation in the pyramidal cells. Moreover, interestingly, its neuroprotective effect was abolished by administration of sodium azide (a potent inhibitor of SODs and catalase activities). Taken together, current results clearly indicate that Pycnogenol® supplementation can prevent neurons from ischemic stroke through its potent antioxidative role.

20.
Molecules ; 25(16)2020 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32781658

RESUMO

Chlorogenic acid (CGA), an ester of caffeic acid and quinic acid, is among the phenolic acid compounds which can be naturally found in green coffee extract and tea. CGA has been studied since it displays significant pharmacological properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of CGA on cognitive function and neuroprotection including its mechanisms in the hippocampus following transient forebrain ischemia in gerbils. Memory and learning following the ischemia was investigated by eight-arm radial maze and passive avoidance tests. Neuroprotection was examined by immunohistochemistry for neuronal nuclei-specific protein and Fluoro-Jade B histofluorescence staining. For mechanisms of the neuroprotection, alterations in copper, zinc-superoxide dismutase (SOD1), SOD2 as antioxidant enzymes, dihydroethidium and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal as indicators for oxidative stress, and anti-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13) and pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and IL-2) were examined by Western blotting and/or immunohistochemistry. As a result, pretreatment with 30 mg/kg CGA attenuated cognitive impairment and displayed a neuroprotective effect against transient forebrain ischemia (TFI). In Western blotting, the expression levels of SOD2 and IL-4 were increased due to pretreatment with CGA and, furthermore, 4-HNE production and IL-4 expressions were inhibited by CGA pretreatment. Additionally, pretreated CGA enhanced antioxidant enzymes and anti-inflammatory cytokines and, in contrast, attenuated oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression. Based on these results, we suggest that CGA can be a useful neuroprotective material against ischemia-reperfusion injury due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory efficacies.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...