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1.
J Phys Chem Lett ; : 3039-3044, 2020 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32223266

RESUMO

Metal and transition-metal dichalcogenide (TMD) hybrid systems have been attracting growing research attention because exciton-plasmon coupling is a desirable means of tuning the physical properties of TMD materials. Competing effects of metal nanostructures, such as the local electromagnetic field enhancement and luminescence quenching, affect the photoluminescence (PL) characteristics of metal/TMD nanostructures. In this study, we prepared TMD MoS2 monolayers on hexagonal arrays of Au nanodots and investigated their physical properties by micro-PL and surface photovoltage (SPV) measurements. MoS2 monolayers on bare Au nanodots exhibited higher PL intensities than those of MoS2 monolayers on 5-nm-thick Al2O3-coated Au nanodots. The Al2O3 spacer layer blocked charge transfer at the Au/MoS2 interface but allowed the transfer of mechanical strain to the MoS2 monolayers on the nanodots. The SPV mapping results revealed not only the electron-transfer behavior at the Au/MoS2 contacts but also the lateral drift of charge carriers at the MoS2 surface under light illumination, which corresponds to nonradiative relaxation processes of the photogenerated excitons.

2.
Mol Brain ; 13(1): 17, 2020 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32033569

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disease characterized by memory loss and the presence of amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in the patients' brains. In this study, we investigated the alterations in metabolite profiles of the hippocampal tissues from 6, 8, and 12 month-old wild-type (WT) and 5xfamiliar AD (5xFAD) mice, an AD mouse model harboring 5 early-onset familiar AD mutations, which shows memory loss from approximately 5 months of age, by exploiting the untargeted metabolomics profiling. We found that nicotinamide and adenosine monophosphate levels have been significantly decreased while lysophosphatidylcholine (LysoPC) (16:0), LysoPC (18:0), and lysophosphatidylethanolamine (LysoPE) (16:0) levels have been significantly increased in the hippocampi from 5xFAD mice at 8 months or 12 months of age, compared to those from age-matched wild-type mice. In the present study, we focused on the role of nicotinamide and examined if replenishment of nicotinamide exerts attenuating effects on the reduction in dendritic spine density in hippocampal primary neurons from 5xFAD mice. Treatment with nicotinamide attenuated the deficits in spine density in the hippocampal primary neurons derived from 5xFAD mice, indicating a potential role of nicotinamide in the pathogenesis of AD. Taken together, these findings suggest that the decreased hippocampal nicotinamide level could be linked with AD pathogenesis and be a useful therapeutic target for AD.

3.
Eur J Nutr ; 2020 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32055962

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Growing evidence shows that nutrient metabolism affects inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) development. Previously, we showed that deficiency of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (Ido1), a tryptophan-catabolizing enzyme, reduced the severity of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in mice. However, the roles played by intestinal microbiota in generating the differences in disease progression between Ido1+/+ and Ido1-/- mice are unknown. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the interactions between the intestinal microbiome and host IDO1 in governing intestinal inflammatory responses. METHODS: Microbial 16s rRNA sequencing was conducted in Ido1+/+ and Ido1-/- mice after DSS treatment. Bacteria-derived tryptophan metabolites were measured in urine. Transcriptome analysis revealed the effects of the metabolite and IDO1 expression in HCT116 cells. Colitis severity of Ido1+/+ was compared to Ido1-/- mice following fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). RESULTS: Microbiome analysis through 16S-rRNA gene sequencing showed that IDO1 deficiency increased intestinal bacteria that use tryptophan preferentially to produce indolic compounds. Urinary excretion of 3-indoxyl sulfate, a metabolized form of gut bacteria-derived indole, was significantly higher in Ido1-/- than in Ido1+/+ mice. Transcriptome analysis showed that tight junction transcripts were significantly increased by indole treatment in HCT116 cells; however, the effects were diminished by IDO1 overexpression. Using FMT experiments, we demonstrated that bacteria from Ido1-/- mice could directly attenuate the severity of DSS-induced colitis. CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide evidence that a genetic defect in utilizing tryptophan affects intestinal microbiota profiles, altering microbial metabolites, and colitis development. This suggests that the host and intestinal microbiota communicate through shared nutrient metabolic networks.

4.
Bioresour Technol ; 303: 122898, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32032939

RESUMO

This study introduces the catalyst-free production of levulinic acid (LA) and formic acid (FA) from spent coffee grounds (SCGs) as a starting material in a biphasic system of 1,2-dichloroethane (DCE)-water at temperatures above 160 °C. In addition to the advantage of using the biphasic system attributed to the product equilibrium, DCE served as a source of hydrogen induced by subcritical water (SCW). The effect of temperature, the amount of DIW and DCE, and the pretreatment on SCG (raw or lipid extracted SCG (LE-SCG)) on the overall reaction and humin formation were studied. The maximum conversion of LA and FA was 47 and 29 w/w% of the total convertible monosaccharides in raw SCGs while 43 and 28 w/w% of the conversion were obtained at 180 °C when LE-SCG was used. The solvothermal effects of two media provides a non-catalytic route to utilize undried SCG for the production of LA and FA.


Assuntos
Café , Formiatos , Ácidos Levulínicos
5.
Mar Drugs ; 18(1)2020 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31940961

RESUMO

Transient brain ischemia triggers selective neuronal death/loss, especially in vulnerable regions of the brain including the hippocampus. Laminarin, a polysaccharide originating from brown seaweed, has various pharmaceutical properties including an antioxidant function. To the best of our knowledge, few studies have been conducted on the protective effects of laminarin against ischemic injury induced by ischemic insults. In this study, we histopathologically investigated the neuroprotective effects of laminarin in the Cornu Ammonis 1 (CA1) field of the hippocampus, which is very vulnerable to ischemia-reperfusion injury, following transient forebrain ischemia (TFI) for five minutes in gerbils. The neuroprotective effect was examined by cresyl violet staining, Fluoro-Jade B histofluorescence staining and immunohistochemistry for neuronal-specific nuclear protein. Additionally, to study gliosis (glial changes), we performed immunohistochemistry for glial fibrillary acidic protein to examine astrocytes, and ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1 to examine microglia. Furthermore, we examined alterations in pro-inflammatory M1 microglia by using double immunofluorescence. Pretreatment with 10 mg/kg laminarin failed to protect neurons in the hippocampal CA1 field and did not attenuate reactive gliosis in the field following TFI. In contrast, pretreatment with 50 or 100 mg/kg laminarin protected neurons, attenuated reactive gliosis and reduced pro-inflammatory M1 microglia in the CA1 field following TFI. Based on these results, we firmly propose that 50 mg/kg laminarin can be strategically applied to develop a preventative against injuries following cerebral ischemic insults.

6.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 124: 109850, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31981945

RESUMO

Oxcarbazepine (OXC), a voltage-gated sodium channel blocker, is an antiepileptic medication and used for the bipolar disorders treatment. Some voltage-gated sodium channel blockers have been demonstrated to display strong neuroprotective properties in models of cerebral ischemia. However, neuroprotective effects and mechanisms of OXC have not yet been reported. Here, we investigated the protective effect of OXC and its mechanisms in the cornu ammonis 1 subfield (CA1) of gerbils subjected to 5 min of transient global cerebral ischemia (tGCI). tGCI led to death of most pyramidal neurons in CA1 at 5 days after ischemia. OXC (100 and 200 mg/kg) was intraperitoneally administered once at 30 min after tGCI. Treatment with 200 mg/kg, not 100 mg/kg OXC, significantly protected CA1 pyramidal neurons from tGCI-induced injury. OXC treatment significantly decreased superoxide anion production, 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal and 8-hydroxyguanine levels in ischemic CA1 pyramidal neurons. In addition, the treatment restored levels of superoxide dismutases, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase. Furthermore, the treatment distinctly inhibited tGCI-induced microglia activation and significantly reduced levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1ß and tumor necrosis factor-α). In particular, OXC treatment significantly enhanced expressions of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and its downstream protein heme oxygenase-1 in ischemic CA1. The neuroprotective effects of OXC were abolished by brusatol (an inhibitor of Nrf2). Taken together, these results indicate that post-treatment of OXC can display neuroprotection against brain injuries following ischemic insults. This neuroprotection may be displayed by attenuation of oxidative stress and neuroinflammation, which can be mediated by activation of Nrf2 pathway.

7.
Environ Pollut ; 257: 113507, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31706762

RESUMO

The effects of dike construction on the geomorphology and sedimentary processes of tidal flats were investigated using high-precision topographic profiling, short cores, and unmanned aviation vehicle (UAV)-assisted photogrammetry to understand their adverse consequences on the benthic ecosystem. Tidal flats at the south of Shinsi Island near one of the two sluice gates of the Saemangeum dike, display prominent morphologic features known as shelly sand ridges or cheniers (sensu Otvos, 2000) that have migrated landward about 5 m in a year. The tidal flats were dominated by erosion from winter to spring and by deposition during the remainder of the year except for the periods of heavy precipitation when tidal drainage channels became larger and deeper by headward erosion. With overall coarser-grained surface sediments, the presence of actively migrating wave-built cheniers are in stark contrast to muddy tidal flats with a monotonous morphology before the completion of the Saemangeum dike in 2006. Southeasterly waves reflected from the dike during winter to spring when north to northwesterly winds prevail account for the wave-induced onshore sediment transport and rapid morphologic changes in the tidal flats despite their location protected from offshore waves. The diversity and biomass of major macrofauna species tend to increase during rapid erosion and decrease during rapid deposition, highlighting the anthropogenic effect of dike-induced physical disturbance on the benthic ecosystem in the otherwise sheltered tidal flats.

8.
Lasers Med Sci ; 35(1): 115-120, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31154597

RESUMO

Bioluminescence imaging is being increasingly utilized in biological research. However, since the most commonly used firefly luciferase generates relatively weak bioluminescent signals, detection of low numbers of luciferase-expressing cells in vivo is challenging. The weak signal makes it difficult to detect cells located in deep tissues, which is problematic for preclinical research in tumor metastasis. In this study, three different types of fluorophores such as D-luciferin, AkaLumine-HCl, and P800SO3 were compared to evaluate the progression of bone metastasis induced by MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells in vivo. The fluorescent signals for D-luciferin, AkaLumine-HCl, and P800SO3 were differently detected in the chest and knee joint. In particular, the fluorescence signal of P800SO3 was clearly observed in a section of the ribs, where it pointed out fractured bone fragments by tumor mass. Moreover, the P800SO3 signal from the left knee joint also showed a small bone fragment in the distal femur and was highlighted in the proximal tibia. Using targeted NIR fluorophores, metastatic bone tumors were monitored under the NIR fluorescence imaging system in real time, which enabled the in vivo diagnosis of bone metastasis by providing the location of the metastatic bone tumors.

9.
Environ Int ; 134: 105301, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31743805

RESUMO

Dissolved oxygen (DO) is one of the critical parameters representing water quality in coastal environments. However, it is labor- and cost-intensive to maintain monitoring systems of DO since in situ measurements of DO are needed in high spatial and temporal resolution to establish proper management plans of coastal regions. In this study, we applied statistical analyses between long-term monitoring datasets and satellite remote sensing datasets in the eastern coastal region of the Yellow Sea. Pearson correlation analysis of long-term water quality monitoring datasets shows that water temperature and DO are highly correlated. Stepwise multiple regression analysis among DO and satellite-derived environmental variables shows that the in situ DO can be estimated by the combination of the present sea surface temperature (SST), the chlorophyll-a, and the SST in the month prior. The high skill score of our proposed model to derive DO is validated by two error measures, the Absolute Relative Error, 1-ARE (89.2%), and Index of Agreement, IOA (78.6%). By applying the developed model to the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) products, spatial and temporal changes in satellite-derived DO can be observed in Saemangeum offshore in the Yellow Sea. The analysis results show that there is a significant decrease in estimated DO between summer of 2003 versus 2012 indicating summer coastal deoxygenation due probably to the Saemangeum reclamation. This study shows the potential capability of satellite remote sensing in monitoring in situ DO in both high temporal and spatial resolution, which will be beneficial for effective and efficient management of coastal environments.

10.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 15461, 2019 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31664111

RESUMO

We demonstrated an effective poly(p-chloro-xylylene) (Parylene-C) encapsulation method for MAPbI3 solar cells. By structural and optical analysis, we confirmed that Parylene-C efficiently slowed the decomposition reaction in MAPbI3. From a water permeability test with different encapsulating materials, we found that Parylene-C-coated MAPbI3 perovskite was successfully passivated from reaction with water, owing to the hydrophobic behavior of Parylene-C. As a result, the Parylene-C-coated MAPbI3 solar cells showed better device stability than uncoated cells, virtually maintaining the initial power conversion efficiency value (15.5 ± 0.3%) for 196 h.

11.
JBMR Plus ; 3(7): e10189, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31372592

RESUMO

Bone is the most common site of prostate cancer (PC) metastasis. Studies suggest that cancer stem cells (CSCs) are associated with stemness characteristics, providing some support for the concept that CSCs act as osteosclerotic precursors in bone microenvironmental niches. Here, we asked whether ectopic overexpression of CD133 maintains stability of CSCs in human PC cell lines and induces the changes of molecular features in the bone microenvironment. Ectopic overexpression of CD133 in PC3 or DU145 cells led to increased expression of ALDHA1, OCT4, and NANOG, enhanced colony-forming ability, and increased ALDH activity. In addition, micro-CT imaging, confocal microscopy, and H&E staining of mouse tissue confirmed that CD133 overexpression in PC3 and DU145 led to marked osteolytic bone tumor. However, expression of osteoblastic markers such as collagen type I, bone sialoprotein, and osteocalcin (OC) at the tumor margin of CD133-overexpressing PC3 tumors in mouse tibiae was higher than that of CD133-overexpressing DU145 tumors with osteosclerotic molecular features. In addition, expression of osteopontin (OPN) mRNA/protein by CD133-overexpressing PC3 cells was higher than that by DU145 cells. Especially, conditioned medium (CM) from PC3CD133+ cells increased osterix (OSX) activity in bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs), resulting in increased expression of OC mRNA/protein resulted in increased staining of mineralized matrix by Alizarin red. However, CM from OPN silenced PC3CD133+ cells led to a reduction of OC mRNA and protein expression through OSX activity resulted in reduced amount of mineralized matrix. In conclusion, these findings suggest that CD133 plays a functional role in regulating CSC characteristics in PCs and modulates their abilities in which induce the osteosclerosis of BMSCs. In addition, OPN from CSCs acts as a niche component that promotes osteosclerosis by supporting osteoblastic differentiation of BMSCs.

12.
J Med Internet Res ; 21(8): e14126, 2019 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31389335

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There has been significant effort in attempting to use health care data. However, laws that protect patients' privacy have restricted data use because health care data contain sensitive information. Thus, discussions on privacy laws now focus on the active use of health care data beyond protection. However, current literature does not clarify the obstacles that make data usage and deidentification processes difficult or elaborate on users' needs for data linking from practical perspectives. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to investigate (1) the current status of data use in each medical area, (2) institutional efforts and difficulties in deidentification processes, and (3) users' data linking needs. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional online survey. To recruit people who have used health care data, we publicized the promotion campaign and sent official documents to an academic society encouraging participation in the online survey. RESULTS: In total, 128 participants responded to the online survey; 10 participants were excluded for either inconsistent responses or lack of demand for health care data. Finally, 118 participants' responses were analyzed. The majority of participants worked in general hospitals or universities (62/118, 52.5% and 51/118, 43.2%, respectively, multiple-choice answers). More than half of participants responded that they have a need for clinical data (82/118, 69.5%) and public data (76/118, 64.4%). Furthermore, 85.6% (101/118) of respondents conducted deidentification measures when using data, and they considered rigid social culture as an obstacle for deidentification (28/101, 27.7%). In addition, they required data linking (98/118, 83.1%), and they noted deregulation and data standardization to allow access to health care data linking (33/98, 33.7% and 38/98, 38.8%, respectively). There were no significant differences in the proportion of responded data needs and linking in groups that used health care data for either public purposes or commercial purposes. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides a cross-sectional view from a practical, user-oriented perspective on the kinds of data users want to utilize, efforts and difficulties in deidentification processes, and the needs for data linking. Most users want to use clinical and public data, and most participants conduct deidentification processes and express a desire to conduct data linking. Our study confirmed that they noted regulation as a primary obstacle whether their purpose is commercial or public. A legal system based on both data utilization and data protection needs is required.

13.
J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 29(9): 1391-1400, 2019 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31434168

RESUMO

Canine parvoviral enteritis (PVE) is an important intestinal disease of the puppies; however, the potential impact of the canine parvovirus (CPV) on the gut microbiota has not been investigated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the gut microbial shifts in puppies naturally infected with CPV. Fecal samples were collected from healthy dogs and those diagnosed with PVE at 4, 6, 8, and 12 weeks of age. The distal gut microbiota of dogs was characterized using Illumina MiSeq sequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA genes. The sequence data were analyzed using QIIME with an Operational Taxonomic Unit definition at a similarity cutoff of 97%. Our results showed that the CPV was associated with significant microbial dysbiosis of the intestinal microbiota. Alpha diversity and species richness and evenness in dogs with PVE decreased compared to those of healthy dogs. At the phylum level, the proportion of Proteobacteria was significantly enriched in dogs with PVE while Bacteroidetes was significantly more abundant in healthy dogs (p < 0.05). In dogs with PVE, Enterobacteriaceae was the most abundant bacterial family accounting for 36.44% of the total bacterial population compared to only 0.21% in healthy puppies. The two most abundant genera in healthy dogs were Prevotella and Lactobacillus and their abundance was significantly higher compared to that of dogs with PVE (p < 0.05). These observations suggest that disturbances of gut microbial communities were associated with PVE in young dogs. Evaluation of the roles of these bacterial groups in the pathophysiology of PVE warrants further studies.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Disbiose/veterinária , Infecções por Parvoviridae/veterinária , Parvovirus Canino/fisiologia , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Biodiversidade , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Doenças do Cão/patologia , Cães , Disbiose/microbiologia , Disbiose/patologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Intestinos/microbiologia , Intestinos/patologia , Infecções por Parvoviridae/microbiologia , Infecções por Parvoviridae/patologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
14.
Oncol Lett ; 18(2): 1189-1198, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31423179

RESUMO

Prostate cancer (PC) metastasizes to the bone, and a small number of cancer cells, described as cancer stem cells (CSCs), have the ability to differentiate into tumor cells. CSCs are responsible for tumor recurrence and metastases. In the present study, we examined whether ectopic overexpression of CD133, a key molecule maintaining the stability of CSCs in the human PC cell line, LnCaP, caused bone metastasis in a mouse model. Ectopic overexpression of CD133 was induced in LnCaP cells, and CSC-related protein expression was measured. Furthermore, a colony-forming assay was performed to compare results against the blank green fluorescent protein-expressing cells. Furthermore, epithelial to mesenchymal transition-related protein expression, cell migration and wound healing were investigated. To assess the role of CD133 in bone metastasis, CD133-overexpressing LnCaP cells were inoculated into mice via intracardiac injection, and bone metastasis was assessed via histological and immunohistochemical study. In addition, cytokine arrays were used to determine the cytokines involved in bone metastasis. Ectopic overexpression of CD133 in LnCaP cells increased CSC properties such as Oct-4 and Nanog expression and colony-forming ability. Furthermore, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) properties, including decreased E-cadherin and increased vimentin expression, wound gap distance, and cell migration increased. CD133 overexpression led to formation of bone metastatic tumors in mice, consistent with results of hematoxylin and eosin staining. In addition, an increase in expression of the macrophage-migration inhibitory factor was observed at the tumor margin in mice inoculated with CD133+ LNCaP cells. These findings suggest a regulatory role of CD133 in stem cell and EMT properties, and the sustained acquisition of osteolytic features in PC. Therefore, our results may facilitate development of a novel classification system and therapeutic strategies for bone metastasis of PC.

15.
J Clin Med ; 8(7)2019 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31295896

RESUMO

Osteoarthritis (OA) is considered to be one of the most disabling diseases. The intra-articular opioid injection has been widely studied for its simplicity, safety, and efficacy in OA. In this study, however, we suggest a novel method of buprenorphine transdermal patch (BTDP) to painful knee joints of OA patients, instead of intra-articular opioid injection, and subsequently compared the knee application with conventional chest application. We retrospectively enrolled 213 patients with knee OA who did not respond to conventional therapy. The Numeric Rating Scale (NRS), adverse effects, and compliance were recorded before and after the application of the BTDP. All parameters were compared between the knee applied group and the chest applied group. After the BTDP application, the NRS score in the knee applied group was lower than that of the chest applied group (p = 0.007). NRS scores after buprenorphine patch decreased to 2.21 ± 0.77, and 2.55 ± 0.71 in the chest applied group and the knee applied group, respectively. The adverse effects were 19.32% in the knee applied group, and 64.00% in the chest applied group. The compliances were 82.95% and 37.60% in the knee applied group and chest applied group, respectively. This novel application of BTDP directly to the painful knee joint of knee OA patients led to a decrease in the NRS score, adverse effects, and an increase in compliance compared with the chest application method.

16.
J Anim Sci Technol ; 61(2): 55-60, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31333862

RESUMO

Colibacillosis is one of the major health problems in young piglets resulting in poor health and death caused by Escherichia coli producing F18 pili and Shiga toxin 2e. It is pivotal to reduce colibacillosis in weaned piglets to enhance production performance. In this study, we evaluated synbiotics as the gut health improvement agents in the mouse model challenged with Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) isolated from piglets. Prebiotic lactulose was formulated with each 5.0 × 106 CFU/mL of Pediococcus acidilactici GB-U15, Lactobacillus plantarum GB-U17, and Lactobacillus plantarum GB 1-3 to produce 3 combinations of synbiotics. A total of 40 three weeks old BALB/c mice were randomly assigned to 4 groups (n = 10): a control group and 3 synbiotics treated groups. Each treatment groups were daily administrated with 5.0 × 106 CFU/mL of one synbiotics for the first week, and every 3 days during the second week. All the mice were challenged with 8.0 × 108 CFU/mL of STEC 5 days after animals began to receive synbiotics. Mice treated with synbiotics based on Pediococcus acidilactici GB-U15 and Lactobacillus plantarum GB-U17 significantly improved daily weight gain compared to mice in other groups. While mice treated with GB-U15 showed better fecal index, no significant differences were observed among groups. Gross lesion and histopathological evaluations showed that mice treated with GB-U15 moderately improved recovery from STEC infection. In conclusion, our results suggest that the synbiotics formulated with lactulose and Pediococcus acidilactici GB-U15 have potential benefits to prevent and improve colibacillosis in weaned piglets.

17.
Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther ; 26: 324-326, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31042556

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The aim of this case report was to describe the process of diagnosis and treatment of a cracked tooth using quantitative light-induced fluorescence (QLF). CASE REPORT: A 43-year-old male presented at our dental clinic with a complaint of cold pain in #17 tooth. A routine oral examination with radiography was performed for evaluation of the oral condition and treatment planning. Additionally, QLF image capture was performed using Qraycam and Qraypen (AIOBIO, Seoul, Republic of Korea), to collect white-light and fluorescence images. The #17 tooth was observed to have a crack line, showing red fluorescence, from the distal to mesial aspect on the occlusal surface. Even though there was no visible root fracture in the radiographic image, bone loss was observed. Therefore, we performed periodontal treatment. One month later, a root canal treatment was performed because the patient still complained of pain in the #17 tooth. During this treatment, one fluorescent image and one white light image set was captured with the Qraypen. A crack line showing red fluorescence was observed, while the line was not visible to the naked eye. After treatment, the patient has had no complaint related to this tooth for 3 years until today. CONCLUSIONS: Clinically, use of QLF confirmed the presence of a crack before and during a root canal treatment. Therefore, it is postulated that the QLF technology could objectively facilitate the diagnosis and treatment of a cracked tooth.


Assuntos
Fluorescência Quantitativa Induzida por Luz , Fraturas dos Dentes/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Fraturas dos Dentes/terapia
18.
Drug Metab Pharmacokinet ; 34(4): 247-252, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31088714

RESUMO

Accurate prediction of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A activity in the early stage of drug development and in clinical practice is important. This study aimed to evaluate the previously constructed CYP3A activity prediction model after administration of CYP3A inhibitors and inducers and to modify the model for better prediction of CYP3A activity. Healthy male subjects received the following study drugs during three study periods: midazolam alone (control phase); midazolam with 200 mg of itraconazole (CYP3A inhibition phase); and midazolam with 150 mg of rifampicin (CYP3A induction phase). We quantified the concentrations of several endogenous CYP3A markers in both urine and plasma using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The urinary markers, including 6ß-hydroxy (OH)-cortisol/cortisol, 6ß-OH-cortisone/cortisone, 16α-OH-dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)/DHEA, 16α-OH-androstenedione (A-dione)/A-dione and 7ß-OH-DHEA/DHEA, were significantly correlated with midazolam clearance in both the CYP3A inhibition and induction phases. We constructed a statistical prediction model after integrating data from a previous study to predict midazolam clearance as follows: Ln(midazolam clearance) = 2.5545 + 0.3988 × ln(7ß-OH-DHEA/DHEA) + 0.1984 × ln(16α-OH-DHEA/DHEA) + 0.5031 × ln(6ß-OH-cortisol/cortisol) - 0.1261 [ln(7ß-OH-DHEA/DHEA) × ln(6ß-OH-cortisol/cortisol)] (r2 = 0.75). We suggest that quantitating endogenous markers in vivo coupled with the statistical prediction model may be useful for predicting CYP3A parameters.


Assuntos
Inibidores do Citocromo P-450 CYP3A/farmacologia , Citocromo P-450 CYP3A/metabolismo , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Inibidores do Citocromo P-450 CYP3A/administração & dosagem , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Itraconazol/administração & dosagem , Itraconazol/farmacologia , Cetoconazol/administração & dosagem , Cetoconazol/farmacologia , Masculino , Midazolam/administração & dosagem , Midazolam/farmacologia , Rifampina/administração & dosagem , Rifampina/farmacologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
Pathol Res Pract ; 215(5): 1071-1075, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30846412

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With the recent development of molecular tests for various biomarkers, it has become even more important to prepare adequate tissue samples. However, little is known about how the effect of cold ischemia time or formalin fixation time can affect KRAS mutation detection in colorectal cancer. METHODS: This study included the results of KRAS mutation tests for colorectal cancer in 401 specimens. We investigated clinicopathologic factors that may affect DNA quality of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue including specimen type, cold ischemia time, and formalin fixation time and assessed the detection rate of the KRAS mutation in samples with varying DNA quality. RESULTS: Sample DNA quality for KRAS mutation test was better in biopsy specimens, which showed markedly shorter cold ischemia time and shorter formalin fixation time compared to resection specimens. A cold ischemia time of one hour or less was associated with better sample DNA quality. But the formalin fixation time was not a significant factor when it fell within the range performed in routine pathology diagnosis. When prolonged formalin fixation was tested, we confirmed that the specimen DNA quality gradually got worse from one month to three months. CONCLUSIONS: The biopsy specimens showed better sample DNA quality for KRAS mutation test compared to resection specimens. In a routine diagnostic pathology setting, the cold ischemia time was an important factor affecting DNA quality and the formalin fixation had a wide time range for optimal DNA quality.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Análise Mutacional de DNA/métodos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/análise , Manejo de Espécimes/métodos , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Isquemia Fria , Humanos , Inclusão em Parafina , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/genética , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fixação de Tecidos
20.
J Nerv Ment Dis ; 207(2): 59-68, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30672875

RESUMO

Identifying predictors of planned suicide attempts (PSA) is critical because these are associated with grave consequences. Using data of suicide attempters visiting emergency departments, we investigated whether the Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale (C-SSRS) subscales, by retrospectively evaluating ideation before an attempt, could predict the occurrence of PSA versus unplanned suicide attempts using logistic regression analyses. The severity subscale was used as a continuous (model A) and a categorical (model B) variable. In model A, higher scores on each subscale were associated with increased risk of PSA. In model B, the highest score on the severity subscale and a higher intensity subscale score predicted PSA. The severity and intensity subscales had areas under receiver operating curves of 0.712 and 0.688 with optimum cutoff points of 4/5 and 15/16, respectively. In addition, being aged 30 to 49 and 50 to 69 years, being male, interpersonal stress, and depressive and adjustment disorders increased PSA risk. The C-SSRS subscales, along with sociodemographic and clinical risk factors, can predict PSA.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica/estatística & dados numéricos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Ideação Suicida , Tentativa de Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica/normas , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
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