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1.
Curr Microbiol ; 78(10): 3667-3673, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34382101

RESUMO

A novel actinobacterial strain, Gram-positive, anaerobic, non-motile, and rod-shaped, designated KGMB02528T, was isolated from healthy human feces. Cells of strain KGMB02528T grew optimally at pH 7.0 and 37 °C and in the presence of 0% (w/v) NaCl. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, strain KGMB04489T belonged to the genus Collinsella and was most closely related to Collinsella aerofaciens DSM 17552T (95.8%). The DNA G + C content was 58.0 mol%. The major cellular fatty acids (> 10%) were C16:0 DMA, C16:0 ALDE, C14:0 DMA, and C12:0. The predominant end product of fermentation was acetic acid. The cell wall peptidoglycan of strain KGMB02528T contained alanine, glutamic acid, and lysine, while diaminopimelic acid was not detected. The polar lipids were composed of two unidentified phospholipids and unidentified nine glycolipids. Based on the phenotypic, chemotaxonomic, and phylogenetic properties, strain KGMB02528T represents a novel species of the genus Collinsella, for which the name Collinsella acetigenes sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is Collinsella acetigenes KGMB02528T (= KCTC 15847T = CCUG 73987T). The description of the genus Collinsella is emended to accommodate the new species.The GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ accession number for the 16S rRNA gene sequence of Collinsella acetigenes KGMB02528T is MT117838. The whole-genome shotgun BioProject number is PRJNA623694 with the accession number JABBCP000000000.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos , Fosfolipídeos , Actinobacteria , Anaerobiose , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Fezes , Humanos , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
2.
J Med Food ; 24(8): 883-893, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34406877

RESUMO

During constipation, indigestible foods, such as probiotics, prebiotics, and dietary fiber, may improve the bowel environment and activity. In this randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled study, the effects of ID-HWS1000, composed of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species, xylooligosaccharide, and dietary fiber, were evaluated to determine whether it improves the perception of bowel activity or cause changes in the gut microbiome. Thirty Korean adults with "functional constipation" according to the Rome III criteria were randomly assigned to the following groups: 20 in the ID-HWS1000 group and 10 in the placebo group. ID-HWS1000 or the placebo was consumed by the participants for 4 weeks. To assess the changes in the perception of bowel activity, clinical data and gut microbiome analyses were conducted before and after the experiment. There were significant differences between the groups in the response to 9 of the 12 survey questions (the number and duration of bowel movements, amount of feces, number of irritant bowel movements, number of times bowel movements felt incomplete, shape of the feces, amount of gas in the gut, discomfort after defecation, and discomfort owing to constipation) (P < .05). There was a decrease in the proportion of Firmicutes (Ruminococcaceae and Lachnospiraceae) and an increase in Bacteroidetes (Bacteroidaceae) (P < .05). Moreover, ID-HWS1000 directly improved the discomfort associated with bowel movements, decreased the proportion of Lachnospiraceae, and increased the proportion of Bacteroidaceae. These results confirmed that ID-HWS1000 improves the perception of bowel activity and exerts positive changes in individuals with functional constipation.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Probióticos , Adulto , Constipação Intestinal , Defecação , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Percepção , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 31(4): 592-600, 2021 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33820891

RESUMO

Probiotics can be processed into a powder, tablet, or capsule form for easy intake. They are exposed to frequent stresses not only during complex processing steps, but also in the human body after intake. For this reason, various coating agents that promote probiotic bacterial stability in the intestinal environment have been developed. Silk fibroin (SF) is a material used in a variety of fields from drug delivery systems to enzyme immobilization and has potential as a coating agent for probiotics. In this study, we investigated this potential by coating probiotic strains with 0.1% or 1% water-soluble calcium (WSC), 1% SF, and 10% trehalose. Under simulated gastrointestinal conditions, cell viability, cell surface hydrophobicity, and cell adhesion to intestinal epithelial cells were then measured. The survival ratio after freeze-drying was highest upon addition of 0.1% WSC. The probiotic bacteria coated with SF showed improved survival by more than 10.0% under simulated gastric conditions and 4.8% under simulated intestinal conditions. Moreover, the cell adhesion to intestinal epithelial cells was elevated by 1.0-36.0%. Our results indicate that SF has positive effects on enhancing the survival and adhesion capacity of bacterial strains under environmental stresses, thus demonstrating its potential as a suitable coating agent to stabilize probiotics throughout processing, packaging, storage and consumption.


Assuntos
Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Aderência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Materiais Biocompatíveis/farmacologia , Fibroínas/farmacologia , Sinalização do Cálcio , Liofilização , Células HT29 , Humanos , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Viabilidade Microbiana/efeitos dos fármacos , Probióticos
4.
Gut Liver ; 15(2): 243-252, 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32390407

RESUMO

Background/Aims: South Korean soldiers are exposed to similar environmental factors. In this study, we sought to evaluate the gut microbiome of healthy young male soldiers (HYMS) and to identify the primary factors influencing the microbiome composition. Methods: We prospectively collected stool from 100 HYMS and performed next-generation sequencing of the 16S rRNA genes of fecal bacteria. Clinical data, including data relating to the diet, smoking, drinking, and exercise, were collected. Results: The relative abundances of the bacterial phyla Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Proteobacteria were 72.3%, 14.5%, 8.9%, and 4.0%, respectively. Fifteen species, most of which belonged to Firmicutes (87%), were detected in all examined subjects. Using cluster analysis, we found that the subjects could be divided into the two enterotypes based on the gut microbiome bacterial composition. Compared with enterotype 2 subjects, subjects classified as enterotype 1 tended to be characterized by higher frequencies of potentially harmful lifestyle habits (current smoker: 55.6% vs 36.6%, p=0.222; heavy drinker: 16.7% vs 3.7%, p=0.120; insufficient physical activity: 27.8% vs 14.6%, p=0.318). We identified a significant difference in the microbiome compositions of current and noncurrent smokers (p=0.008); the former differed from the latter mainly in a relatively lower abundance of Bifidobacterium species and a higher abundance of Negativicutes. Conclusions: A high abundance of Actinobacteria and low abundance of Bacteroidetes were the main features distinguishing the gut microbiomes of HYMS, and current smokers could be differentiated from noncurrent smokers by their lower abundance of Bifidobacterium and higher abundance of Negativicutes.

5.
Clin Mol Hepatol ; 27(1): 110-124, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33317254

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is closely related to gut-microbiome. There is a paucity of research on which strains of gut microbiota affect the progression of NAFLD. This study explored the NAFLD-associated microbiome in humans and the role of Lactobacillus in the progression of NAFLD in mice. METHODS: The gut microbiome was analyzed via next-generation sequencing in healthy people (n=37) and NAFLD patients with elevated liver enzymes (n=57). Six-week-old male C57BL/6J mice were separated into six groups (n=10 per group; normal, Western, and four Western diet + strains [109 colony-forming units/g for 8 weeks; L. acidophilus, L. fermentum, L. paracasei, and L. plantarum]). Liver/body weight ratio, liver pathology, serum analysis, and metagenomics in the mice were examined. RESULTS: Compared to healthy subjects (1.6±4.3), NAFLD patients showed an elevated Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio (25.0±29.0) and a reduced composition of Akkermansia and L. murinus (P<0.05). In the animal experiment, L. acidophilus group was associated with a significant reduction in liver/body weight ratio (5.5±0.4) compared to the Western group (6.2±0.6) (P<0.05). L. acidophilus (41.0±8.6), L. fermentum (44.3±12.6), and L. plantarum (39.0±7.6) groups showed decreased cholesterol levels compared to the Western group (85.7±8.6) (P<0.05). In comparison of steatosis, L. acidophilus (1.9±0.6), L. plantarum (2.4±0.7), and L. paracasei (2.0±0.9) groups showed significant improvement of steatosis compared to the Western group (2.6±0.5) (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Ingestion of Lactobacillus, such as L. acidophilus, L. fermentum, and L. plantarum, ameliorates the progression of nonalcoholic steatosis by lowering cholesterol. The use of Lactobacillus can be considered as a useful strategy for the treatment of NAFLD.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Animais , Colesterol , Feminino , Humanos , Lactobacillus , Fígado , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
6.
Front Microbiol ; 11: 599911, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33193283

RESUMO

Symbiotic microorganisms associated with insects can produce a wide array of metabolic products, which provide an opportunity for the discovery of useful natural products. Selective isolation of bacterial strains associated with the dung beetle, Onthophagus lenzii, identified two strains, of which the antibiotic-producing Brevibacillus sp. PTH23 inhibited the growth of Bacillus sp. CCARM 9248, which is most closely related to the well-known entomopathogen, Bacillus thuringiensis. A comprehensive chemical investigation based on antibiotic activity discovered two new antibiotics, named lenzimycins A and B (1-2), which inhibited growth of Bacillus sp. CCARM 9248. The 1H and 13C NMR, MS, MS/MS, and IR analyses elucidated the structures of 1 and 2, which comprised a novel combination of fatty acid (12-methyltetradecanoic acid), glycerol, sulfate, and N-methyl ethanolamine. Furthermore, the acid hydrolysis of 1 revealed the absolute configuration of 12-methyltetradecanoic acid as 12S by comparing its optical rotation value with authentic (R)- and (S)-12-methyltetradecanoic acid. In addition to inhibition of Bacillus sp. CCARM 9248, lenzimycins A and B were found to inhibit the growth of some human pathogenic bacteria, including Enterococcus faecium and certain strains of Enterococcus faecalis. Furthermore, the present study elucidated that lenzimycins A and B activated a reporter system designed to detect the bacterial cell envelope stress, thereby indicating an activity against the integrity of the bacterial cell wall.

7.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 18881, 2020 11 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33144672

RESUMO

Graft outcomes of unrelated donor kidney transplant are comparable with those of related donor kidney transplant despite their genetic distance. This study aimed to identify whether the similarity of donor-recipient gut microbiota composition affects early transplant outcomes. Stool samples from 67 pairs of kidney transplant recipients and donors were collected. Gut microbiota differences between donors and recipients were determined using weighted UniFrac distance. Among the donor-recipient pairs, 30 (44.8%) pairs were related, while 37 (55.2%) were unrelated. The unrelated pairs, especially spousal pairs, had similar microbial composition, and they more frequently shared their meals than related pairs did. The weighted UniFrac distance showed an inverse correlation with the 6-month allograft function (p = 0.034); the correlation was significant in the unrelated pairs (p = 0.003). In the unrelated pairs, the microbial distance showed an excellent accuracy in predicting the estimated glomerular filtration rate of < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 at 6-months post-transplantation and was better than human leukocyte antigen incompatibility and rejection. The incidence of infection within 6 months post-transplantation increased in the recipients having dissimilar microbiota with donors compared to the other recipients. Thus, pre-transplantation microbial similarity in unrelated donors and recipients may be associated with 6-month allograft function.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Transplante de Rim/métodos , Rim/fisiologia , Doadores Vivos , Adulto , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Transplantados
8.
Gut Microbes ; 12(1): 1829449, 2020 11 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33131411

RESUMO

According to our recent study (N.Y. LEE et al. Gut Microbes 2020; 11:882-99.)1, we reported that Lactobacillus and Pediococcus ameliorate progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease through modulation of the gut microbiome. According on the analysis method (Previous: 16s rRNA sequencing and Recent: whole gene sequencing), the probiotics named Lactobacillus bulgaricus that we used in the experiment was identified as Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus through 16s rRNA sequencing analysis. Recently, we performed a clearer analysis with whole gene sequencing to proceed with the clinical trial, it was identified as Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis by whole gene sequencing. Therefore, we inform that the subspecies have been changed to lactis through WGS. Read L. bulgaricus in the previous paper as L. lactis. In this addendum, the results of the change to L. lactis are summarized, and descriptions have been added to Materials & methods and Discussion.

9.
Front Public Health ; 8: 507024, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33194936

RESUMO

Abnormal vaginal microbiota (AVM), including bacterial vaginosis (BV), is caused by a microbiota imbalance. Nugent scoring is the gold standard for the laboratory diagnosis of BV; however, it is somewhat subjective to interpret, and challenging to distinguish bacteria. Hence, there is a need for improved technologies for the accurate diagnosis of AVM. To this end, next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology has been shown to yield comprehensive information on the pathophysiology of AVM. Hence, to evaluate the relationship between microbiota composition and the pathophysiology of AVM and its clinical significance, we characterized vaginal swab samples from 212 pregnant Korean women using both Nugent scoring and NGS analysis. Of these, the Nugent scoring identified 175 subjects (82.5%; 175/212) with normal flora (NF), 20 (9.4%; 20/212) with intermediate flora (IF), and 17 (8.0%; 17/212) with BV. NGS analysis followed by the characterization of vaginal microbiota composition, as represented by alpha and beta diversity, revealed the relative abundance of specific bacterial taxa at the genus and species level. Moreover, we identified all five predominant community state types (CSTs) along with three smaller CSTs. Analysis of the vaginal microbiota revealed the dominance of one or two Lactobacillus spp. in the NF group. Meanwhile, the IF and BV groups were dominated by the genera Gardnerella, Prevotella, and Atopobium. These two groups also showed higher alpha diversity than the NF group (p < 0.05). Principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) indicated that the NF group was significantly different from the AVM groups (p < 0.05), whereas no significant difference was observed between IF and BV groups (p = 0.25). Lastly, to investigate the characteristics of vaginal microbiota based on taxonomic composition, the IF and BV groups (AVM groups) were reclassified using the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) clustering. Consequently, they were reclassified into BV1 (Lactobacillus iners-dominated), BV2-1 (Bifidobacterium breve-dominated), BV2-2 (Gardnerella vaginalis s1 or s2 and Atopobium vaginae-dominated), and BV3 [mixed population of G. vaginalis, L. iners, and other bacteria (p < 0.05)]. Collectively, these findings could serve to advance the current understanding regarding AVM pathophysiology.


Assuntos
Lactobacillus , Microbiota , Actinobacteria , Feminino , Humanos , Microbiota/genética , Gravidez , República da Coreia/epidemiologia
10.
J Infect ; 81(5): 719-725, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32920061

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The increasing prevalence of multidrug-resistant microorganisms (MDRO) is increasing the frequency of poor clinical outcomes, prolonging hospitalizations, and raising healthcare costs. This study evaluated the eradication efficacy of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) and identified microbial and functional biomarkers of MDRO decolonization. METHODS: Fecal solution obtained from healthy unrelated donors was infused in the participants' guts which had been colonized with carbapenemase-producing enterobacteriacea (CPE), vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), or both CPE and VRE. Fecal samples from recipients were collected and microbiome changes before and after FMT were assessed. RESULTS: Twenty-four (68.6%) out of 35 patients were decolonized within one year of receiving FMT. Multivariate analysis showed that FMT (FMT: hazard ratio (HR) = 5.343, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.877-15.212, p = 0.002) and MDRO types (CPE: HR = 11.146, 95% CI = 2.420-51.340, p = 0.002; CPE/VRE: HR = 2.948, 95% CI = 1.200-7.246, p = 0.018; VRE served as the reference) were significant independent factors associated with time to decolonization. Microbiota analysis showed higher richness and biodiversity before FMT resulted in VRE decolonization. The species Clostridium ramosum and the genuses Anaerostipes and Eisenbergiella could serve as taxonomic biomarkers and K02017 could serve as a functional biomarker for VRE clearance. CONCLUSION: FMT is an effective way to decolonize MDRO and its effectiveness may be predicted by microbiome analysis.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Enterococos Resistentes à Vancomicina , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Transplante de Microbiota Fecal , Fezes , Firmicutes , Humanos
11.
Nutrients ; 12(10)2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32992898

RESUMO

Studies investigating exercise-induced gut microbiota have reported that people who exercise regularly have a healthy gut microbial environment compared with sedentary individuals. In contrast, recent studies have shown that high protein intake without dietary fiber not only offsets the positive effect of exercise on gut microbiota but also significantly lowers the relative abundance of beneficial bacteria. In this study, to resolve this conundrum and find the root cause, we decided to narrow down subjects according to diet. Almost all of the studies had subjects on an ad libitum diet, however, we wanted subjects on a simplified diet. Bodybuilders who consumed an extremely high-protein/low-carbohydrate diet were randomly assigned to a probiotics intake group (n = 8) and a placebo group (n = 7) to find the intervention effect. Probiotics, comprising Lactobacillus acidophilus, L. casei, L. helveticus, and Bifidobacterium bifidum, were consumed for 60 days. As a result, supplement intake did not lead to a positive effect on the gut microbial environment or concentration of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). It has been shown that probiotic intake is not as effective as ergogenic aids for athletes such as bodybuilders with extreme dietary regimens, especially protein and dietary fiber. To clarify the influence of nutrition-related factors that affect the gut microbial environment, we divided the bodybuilders (n = 28) into groups according to their protein and dietary fiber intake and compared their gut microbial environment with that of sedentary male subjects (n = 15). Based on sedentary Korean recommended dietary allowance (KRDA), the bodybuilders' intake of protein and dietary fiber was categorized into low, proper, and excessive groups, as follows: high-protein/restricted dietary fiber (n = 12), high-protein/adequate dietary fiber (n = 10), or adequate protein/restricted dietary fiber (n = 6). We found no significant differences in gut microbial diversity or beneficial bacteria between the high-protein/restricted dietary fiber and the healthy sedentary groups. However, when either protein or dietary fiber intake met the KRDA, gut microbial diversity and the relative abundance of beneficial bacteria showed significant differences to those of healthy sedentary subjects. These results suggest that the positive effect of exercise on gut microbiota is dependent on protein and dietary fiber intake. The results also suggest that the question of adequate nutrition should be addressed before supplementation with probiotics to derive complete benefits from the intervention.


Assuntos
Atletas , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Suplementos Nutricionais , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Bactérias , Bifidobacterium bifidum , Dieta , Exercício Físico , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactobacillus , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
12.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 59(51): 22994-22998, 2020 12 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32844539

RESUMO

Rhizolutin (1) was discovered as a natural product of ginseng-rhizospheric Streptomyces sp. WON17. Its structure features an unprecedented 7/10/6-tricyclic dilactone carbon skeleton composed of dimethylcyclodecatriene flanked by a 7-membered and a 6-membered lactone ring based on spectroscopic analysis. During an unbiased screening of natural product libraries, this novel compound was found to dissociate amyloid-ß (Aß) plaques and tau tangles, which are key pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Rhizolutin treatment of APP/PS1 double transgenic mice with AD significantly dissociated hippocampal plaques. In vitro, rhizolutin substantially decreased Aß-induced apoptosis and inflammation in neuronal and glial cells. Our findings introduce a unique chemical entity that targets Aß and tau concurrently by mimicking misfolded protein clearance mechanisms of immunotherapy, which is prominently investigated in clinical trials.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/antagonistas & inibidores , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Proteínas tau/antagonistas & inibidores , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Animais , Inflamação/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Neuroglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/química , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/isolamento & purificação , Placa Amiloide/tratamento farmacológico , Placa Amiloide/patologia , Agregados Proteicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Streptomyces/química , Proteínas tau/metabolismo
13.
Microorganisms ; 8(6)2020 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32560104

RESUMO

Chronic kidney disease (CKD)-associated uremia aggravates-and is aggravated by-gut dysbiosis. However, the correlation between CKD severity and gut microbiota and/or their uremic metabolites is unclear. We enrolled 103 CKD patients with stage 1 to 5 and 46 healthy controls. We analyzed patients' gut microbiota by MiSeq system and measured the serum concentrations of four uremic metabolites (p-cresyl sulfate, indoxyl sulfate, p-cresyl glucuronide, and trimethylamine N-oxide) by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Serum concentrations of the uremic metabolites increased with kidney function deterioration. Gut microbial diversity did not differ among the examined patient and control groups. In moderate or higher stage CKD groups, Oscillibacter showed positive interactions with other microbiota, and the proportions of Oscillibacter were positively correlated with those of the uremic metabolites. The gut microbiota, particularly Oscillibacter, was predicted to contribute to pyruvate metabolism which increased with CKD progression. Relative abundance of Oscillibacter was significantly associated with both serum uremic metabolite levels and kidney function. Predicted functional analysis suggested that kidney-function-associated changes in the contribution of Oscillibacter to pyruvate metabolism in CKD may greatly affect the gut environment according to kidney function, resulting in dysbiosis concomitant with uremic toxin production. The gut microbiota could be associated with uremia progression in CKD. These results may provide basis for further metagenomics analysis of kidney diseases.

14.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(5): 3134-3138, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32375953

RESUMO

Paenibacillus is one of the genera that has high species diversity and Paenibacillus polymyxa, the type species of the genus, is mainly isolated from plant-associated environments. Among the plant-associated species, Paenibacillus jamilae B.3T (=CECT 5266T=DSM 13815T=KACC 10925T=KCTC 13919T) was proposed to be a novel species according to 16S rRNA gene similarity and DNA-DNA relatedness with related species, including Paenibacillus polymyxa. Nevertheless, in the description of Paenibacillus jamilae the used strain of Paenibacillus polymyxa was not the type strain of this species. In this work we found that the type strains of both species showed 16S rRNA gene similarity of 99.6 %. Therefore, in this study, we sequenced the genome of Paenibacillus jamilae KACC 10925T and compared it with those of the type strain of Paenibacillus polymyxa ATCC 842T and other phylogenetically related species. Genome relatedness value calculated by DNA-DNA hybridization between type strains of Paenibacillus polymyxa and Paenibacillus jamilae was 73.5 %, which is higher than the threshold value (70 %). For more objective and repeatable results of genome relatedness, we analysed an average nucleotide identity (ANI) between two strains. Our results showed that ANI value between the type strains of Paenibacillus jamilae and Paenibacillus polymyxa is 98.5 %, a phylogenetic distance also higher than the threshold values (95~96 %). These values were proposed by Yoon et al. (2017). In addition, their phylogenetic distance based on 92 bacterial core genes is highly close compared to other species. These mean that Paenibacillus jamilae and Paenibacillus polymyxa should be reclassified as a single species. Based on the results from genomic level comparison as well as reexamination results of physiological and chemotaxonomic features, we propose reclassification of Paenibacillus jamilae as a later heterotypic synonym of Paenibacillus polymyxa.


Assuntos
Paenibacillus polymyxa/classificação , Paenibacillus/classificação , Filogenia , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Genes Bacterianos , Genômica , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
15.
Food Sci Biotechnol ; 29(5): 585-598, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32419957

RESUMO

Enzymatic hydrolysis and self-assembly are considered promising methods for preparation of starch nanoparticles (SNPs) because they are environmentally friendly, and time- and cost-effective. These methods are based on the self-assembly of short-chain glucans released from the α-1,6 bonds in amylopectin. Since their discovery, many studies have described the structural and physicochemical properties of self-assembled SNPs. Self-assembled SNPs can be prepared by two methods: using only the soluble portion containing the short-chain glucans, or using the whole hydrolyzate including both insoluble and soluble fractions. Although the structural and physical properties of self-assembled SNPs can be attributed to the composition of the hydrolyzates that participate in self-assembly, this aspect has not yet been discussed. This review focuses on SNPs self-assembled with only soluble short-chain glucans and addresses their characteristics, including formation mechanisms as well as structural and physicochemical properties, compared with SNPs prepared with total hydrolyzates.

16.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(3): 2059-2065, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32100703

RESUMO

An obligately anaerobic, Gram-stain-positive, non-motile and coccoid- or oval-shaped bacterium, designated strain KGMB01111T, was isolated from faeces from a healthy Korean. Comparative analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that KGMB01111T was closely related to Ruminococcus gauveauii CCRI-16110T (93.9 %) and Blautia stercoris GAM6-1T (93.7 %), followed by Clostridium nexile DSM 1787T (93.5 %), Blautia producta ATCC 27340T (93.4 %), Blautia hydrogenotrophica DSM 10507T (93.1 %) and Blautia coccoides ATCC 29236T (93.1 %) within the family Lachnospiraceae (Clostridium rRNA cluster XIVa). Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that KGMB01111T formed a separate branch with species in the genus Blautia. The major cellular fatty acids (>10.0 %) were C16 : 0 and C18 : 1 cis 9 dimethyl acetal (DMA), and the major polar lipids were aminophospholipids and lipids. KGMB01111T contained meso-diaminopimelic acid in cell-wall peptidoglycan. The predominant end product of fermentation produced by KGMB01111T was acetic acid. Based on the whole-genome sequence, the DNA G+C content of the isolate was 44.7 mol%. On the basis of the phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic characteristics, KGMB01111T represents a novel species within the genus Blautia for which the name Blautia faecicola sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is KGMB01111T (=KCTC 15706T=DSM 107827T).


Assuntos
Clostridiales/classificação , Fezes/microbiologia , Filogenia , Ácido Acético/metabolismo , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , Clostridiales/isolamento & purificação , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácido Diaminopimélico/química , Ácidos Graxos/química , Fermentação , Humanos , Peptidoglicano/química , Fosfolipídeos/química , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , República da Coreia , Análise de Sequência de DNA
17.
J Microbiol ; 58(2): 99-104, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31993985

RESUMO

An obligately anaerobic, Gram-stain-negative, non-motile, non-spore-forming, and coccobacilli-shaped bacterial strain, designated KGMB03119T, was isolated from human faeces from a Korean. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that the isolate was a member of the genus Sutterella and most closely related to Sutterlla wadsworthensis KCTC 15691T (96.8% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity). The DNA G + C content of strain KGMB03119T was 58.3 mol% as determined from its whole genome sequence. Strain KGMB03119T was asaccharolytic, catalase-positive, oxidase- and urease-negative. Furthermore, the isolate was positive for alkaline phosphatase, leucine arylamidase, acid phosphatase, arginine arylamidase, alanine arylamidase, and glycine arylamidase. The major cellular fatty acids (> 10%) of the isolate were C18:1ω9c and C16:0. Methylmenaquinone-5 (MMK-5, 100%) was the predominant isoprenoid quinone in the isolate. Based on the phylogenetic, physiological, and chemotaxonomic characteristics, strain KGMB03119T represents a novel species, for which the name Sutterella faecalis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is KGMB03119T (= KCTC 15823T = NBRC 114254T).


Assuntos
Alcaligenaceae/classificação , Alcaligenaceae/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/microbiologia , Alcaligenaceae/genética , Alcaligenaceae/metabolismo , Classificação , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
18.
Gut Microbes ; 11(4): 882-899, 2020 07 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31965894

RESUMO

Targeting the gut-liver axis by modulating the gut-microbiome can be a promising therapeutic approach in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of single species and a combination of Lactobacillus and Pediococcus in NAFLD mice model. Six-week male C57BL/6J mice were divided into 9 groups (n = 10/group; normal, Western diet, and 7 Western diet-strains [109 CFU/g, 8 weeks]). The strains used were L. bulgaricus, L. casei, L. helveticus, P. pentosaceus KID7, and three combinations (1: L. casei+L. helveticus, 2: L. casei+L. helveticus+P. pentosaceus KID7, and 3: L. casei+L. helveticus+L. bulgaricus). Liver/Body weight ratio, serum and stool analysis, liver pathology, and metagenomics by 16S rRNA-sequencing were examined. In the liver/body ratio, L. bulgaricus (5.1 ± 0.5), L. helveticus (5.2 ± 0.4), P. pentosaceus KID7 (5.5 ± 0.5), and combination1 and 2 (4.2 ± 0.6 and 4.8 ± 0.7) showed significant reductions compared with Western (6.2 ± 0.6)(p < 0.001). In terms of cholesterol and steatosis/inflammation/NAFLD activity, all groups except for L. casei were associated with an improvement (p < .05). The elevated level of tumor necrosis factor-α/interleukin-1ß (pg/ml) in Western (65.8 ± 7.9/163.8 ± 12.2) was found to be significantly reduced in L. bulgaricus (24.2 ± 1.0/58.9 ± 15.3), L. casei (35.6 ± 2.1/62.9 ± 6.0), L. helveticus (43.4 ± 3.2/53.6 ± 7.5), and P. pentosaceus KID7 (22.9 ± 3.4/59.7 ± 12.2)(p < 0.01). Cytokines were improved in the combination groups. In metagenomics, each strains revealed a different composition and elevated Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio in the western (47.1) was decreased in L. bulgaricus (14.5), L. helveticus (3.0), and P. pentosaceus KID7 (13.3). L. bulgaricus, L. casei, L. helveticus, and P. pentosaceus KID7 supplementation can improve NAFLD-progression by modulating gut-microbiome and inflammatory pathway.

19.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(3): 1684-1690, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31913113

RESUMO

A novel actinobacterial strain, designated KGMB04484T, was isolated from healthy human faeces sampled in the Republic of Korea. Cells of strain KGMB04484T were strictly anaerobic, Gram-stain-positive, catalase-positive, oxidase-negative, non-motile coccobacilli and formed tiny colonies on Columbia agar with 5 % horse blood. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, strain KGMB04484T was affiliated with the genus Senegalimassilia in the family Coriobacteriaceae and its closest relative was Senegalimassilia anaerobia JC110T (96.28 % sequence similarity). The DNA G+C content of strain KGMB04484T was 61.2 mol%. The polar lipids contained diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, an unidentified phospholipid, an unidentified aminolipid and three unidentified glycolipids. The predominant cellular fatty acids (>10 %) of strain KGMB04484T were C14 : 0, C16 : 0 and C16 : 0 dimethyl acetal. Based on its phylogenetic, physiological and chemotaxonomic characteristics, strain KGMB04484T is considered to represent a novel species within the genus Senegalimassilia, for which the name Senegalimassilia faecalis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is KGMB04484T (=KCTC 15721T=CCUG 72347T).


Assuntos
Actinobacteria/classificação , Fezes/microbiologia , Filogenia , Actinobacteria/isolamento & purificação , Anaerobiose , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Glicolipídeos/química , Humanos , Fosfolipídeos/química , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , República da Coreia , Análise de Sequência de DNA
20.
World J Mens Health ; 38(1): 48-60, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30929328

RESUMO

Humans carry numerous symbiotic microorganisms in their body, most of which are present in the gut. Although recent technological advances have produced extensive research data on gut microbiota, there are various confounding factors (e.g., diet, race, medications) to consider. Sex is one of the important variables affecting the gut microbiota, but the association has not yet been sufficiently investigated. Although the results are inconsistent, several animal and human studies have shown sex differences in gut microbiota. Herein, we review these studies to discuss the sex-dependent differences as well as the possible mechanisms involved.

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