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1.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 9: 734950, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34660591

RESUMO

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membranous structures containing bioactive molecules, secreted by most cells into the extracellular environment. EVs are classified by their biogenesis mechanisms into two major subtypes: ectosomes (enriched in large EVs; lEVs), budding directly from the plasma membrane, which is common in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, and exosomes (enriched in small EVs; sEVs) generated through the multivesicular bodies via the endomembrane system, which is unique to eukaryotes. Even though recent proteomic analyses have identified key proteins associated with EV subtypes, there has been no systematic analysis, thus far, to support the general validity and utility of current EV subtype separation methods, still largely dependent on physical properties, such as vesicular size and sedimentation. Here, we classified human EV proteomic datasets into two main categories based on distinct centrifugation protocols commonly used for isolating sEV or lEV fractions. We found characteristic, evolutionarily conserved profiles of sEV and lEV proteins linked to their respective biogenetic origins. This may suggest that the evolutionary trajectory of vesicular proteins may result in a membership bias toward specific EV subtypes. Protein-protein interaction (PPI) network analysis showed that vesicular proteins formed distinct clusters with proteins in the same EV fraction, providing evidence for the existence of EV subtype-specific protein recruiters. Moreover, we identified functional modules enriched in each fraction, including multivesicular body sorting for sEV, and mitochondria cellular respiration for lEV proteins. Our analysis successfully captured novel features of EVs embedded in heterogeneous proteomics studies and suggests specific protein markers and signatures to be used as quality controllers in the isolation procedure for subtype-enriched EV fractions.

2.
Sci Adv ; 7(19)2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33962942

RESUMO

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a central eukaryotic organelle with a tubular network made of hairpin proteins linked by hydrolysis of guanosine triphosphate nucleotides. Among posttranslational modifications initiated at the ER level, glycosylation is the most common reaction. However, our understanding of the impact of glycosylation on the ER structure remains unclear. Here, we show that exostosin-1 (EXT1) glycosyltransferase, an enzyme involved in N-glycosylation, is a key regulator of ER morphology and dynamics. We have integrated multiomics and superresolution imaging to characterize the broad effect of EXT1 inactivation, including the ER shape-dynamics-function relationships in mammalian cells. We have observed that inactivating EXT1 induces cell enlargement and enhances metabolic switches such as protein secretion. In particular, suppressing EXT1 in mouse thymocytes causes developmental dysfunctions associated with the ER network extension. Last, our data illuminate the physical and functional aspects of the ER proteome-glycome-lipidome structure axis, with implications in biotechnology and medicine.

3.
Microorganisms ; 9(3)2021 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33652815

RESUMO

Viral infection-induced activation of inflammasome complexes has both positive and negative effects on the host. Proper activation of inflammasome complexes induces down-stream effector mechanisms that inhibit viral replication and promote viral clearance, whereas dysregulated activation has detrimental effects on the host. Coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, encode viroporins that activate the NLRP3 inflammasome, and the severity of coronavirus disease is associated with the inflammasome activation. Although the NLRP3 inflammasome activation is implicated in the pathogenesis of coronaviruses, these viruses must evade inflammasome-mediated antiviral immune responses to establish primary replication. Screening of a complementary DNA (cDNA) library encoding 28 SARS-CoV-2 open reading frames (ORFs) showed that two nonstructural proteins (NSPs), NSP1 and NSP13, inhibited caspase-1-mediated IL-1ß activation. NSP1 amino acid residues involved in host translation shutoff and NSP13 domains responsible for helicase activity were associated with caspase-1 inhibition. In THP-1 cells, both NSP1 and NSP13 significantly reduced NLRP3-inflammasome-induced caspase-1 activity and IL-1ß secretion. These findings indicate that SARS-CoV-2 NSP1 and NSP13 are potent antagonists of the NLRP3 inflammasome.

4.
G3 (Bethesda) ; 10(9): 3399-3402, 2020 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32763951

RESUMO

The world is facing a global pandemic of COVID-19 caused by the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus. Here we describe a collection of codon-optimized coding sequences for SARS-CoV-2 cloned into Gateway-compatible entry vectors, which enable rapid transfer into a variety of expression and tagging vectors. The collection is freely available. We hope that widespread availability of this SARS-CoV-2 resource will enable many subsequent molecular studies to better understand the viral life cycle and how to block it.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/genética , Fases de Leitura Aberta/genética , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , COVID-19 , Clonagem Molecular , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Humanos , Pandemias , Plasmídeos/genética , Plasmídeos/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Potyvirus/genética , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Org Lett ; 22(16): 6562-6567, 2020 08 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32806199

RESUMO

Described herein is the sequential 1,3-N- to C- and 1,3-C- to C-migration of sulfonyl groups through the synthesis of 1,4-diazepines from an operationally simple thermal aza-[5 + 2] cycloaddition reaction of indoloazomethine ylides with dialkyl acetylenedicarboxylates under mild conditions, leading to the formation of C-sulfonylated 1,4-diazepines.

6.
J Extracell Vesicles ; 9(1): 1757209, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32489530

RESUMO

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are nano-sized vesicles surrounded by a lipid bilayer and released into the extracellular milieu by most of cells. Although various EV isolation methods have been established, most of the current methods isolate EVs with contaminated non-vesicular proteins. By applying the label-free quantitative proteomic analyses of human colon cancer cell SW480-derived EVs, we identified trypsin-sensitive and trypsin-resistant vesicular proteins. Further systems biology and protein-protein interaction network analyses based on their cellular localization, we classified the trypsin-sensitive and trypsin-resistant vesicular proteins into two subgroups: 363 candidate real-vesicular proteins and 151 contaminated non-vesicular proteins. Moreover, the protein interaction network analyses showed that candidate real-vesicular proteins are mainly derived from plasma membrane (46.8%), cytosol (36.6%), cytoskeleton (8.0%) and extracellular region (2.5%). On the other hand, most of the contaminated non-vesicular proteins derived from nucleus, Golgi apparatus, endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria. In addition, ribosomal protein complexes and T-complex proteins were classified as the contaminated non-vesicular proteins. Taken together, our trypsin-digested proteomic approach on EVs is an important advance to identify the real-vesicular proteins that could help to understand EV biogenesis and protein cargo-sorting mechanism during EV release, to identify more reliable EV diagnostic marker proteins, and to decode pathophysiological roles of EVs.

7.
Nature ; 580(7803): 402-408, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32296183

RESUMO

Global insights into cellular organization and genome function require comprehensive understanding of the interactome networks that mediate genotype-phenotype relationships1,2. Here we present a human 'all-by-all' reference interactome map of human binary protein interactions, or 'HuRI'. With approximately 53,000 protein-protein interactions, HuRI has approximately four times as many such interactions as there are high-quality curated interactions from small-scale studies. The integration of HuRI with genome3, transcriptome4 and proteome5 data enables cellular function to be studied within most physiological or pathological cellular contexts. We demonstrate the utility of HuRI in identifying the specific subcellular roles of protein-protein interactions. Inferred tissue-specific networks reveal general principles for the formation of cellular context-specific functions and elucidate potential molecular mechanisms that might underlie tissue-specific phenotypes of Mendelian diseases. HuRI is a systematic proteome-wide reference that links genomic variation to phenotypic outcomes.


Assuntos
Proteoma/metabolismo , Espaço Extracelular/metabolismo , Humanos , Especificidade de Órgãos , Mapeamento de Interação de Proteínas
8.
Front Physiol ; 11: 605671, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33424629

RESUMO

Atrial Fibrillation (AF) is the most common supraventricular tachyarrhythmia that is typically associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and poor cardiovascular health. Paradoxically, endurance athletes are also at risk for AF. While it is well-established that persistent AF is associated with atrial fibrosis, hypertrophy and inflammation, intensely exercised mice showed similar adverse atrial changes and increased AF vulnerability, which required tumor necrosis factor (TNF) signaling, even though ventricular structure and function improved. To identify some of the molecular factors underlying the chamber-specific and TNF-dependent atrial changes induced by exercise, we performed transcriptome analyses of hearts from wild-type and TNF-knockout mice following exercise for 2 days, 2 or 6 weeks of exercise. Consistent with the central role of atrial stretch arising from elevated venous pressure in AF promotion, all 3 time points were associated with differential regulation of genes in atria linked to mechanosensing (focal adhesion kinase, integrins and cell-cell communications), extracellular matrix (ECM) and TNF pathways, with TNF appearing to play a permissive, rather than causal, role in gene changes. Importantly, mechanosensing/ECM genes were only enriched, along with tubulin- and hypertrophy-related genes after 2 days of exercise while being downregulated at 2 and 6 weeks, suggesting that early reactive strain-dependent remodeling with exercise yields to compensatory adjustments. Moreover, at the later time points, there was also downregulation of both collagen genes and genes involved in collagen turnover, a pattern mirroring aging-related fibrosis. By comparison, twofold fewer genes were differentially regulated in ventricles vs. atria, independently of TNF. Our findings reveal that exercise promotes TNF-dependent atrial transcriptome remodeling of ECM/mechanosensing pathways, consistent with increased preload and atrial stretch seen with exercise. We propose that similar preload-dependent mechanisms are responsible for atrial changes and AF in both CVD patients and athletes.

9.
PLoS Genet ; 15(7): e1008227, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31344031

RESUMO

Somatic mutations in protein-coding regions can generate 'neoantigens' causing developing cancers to be eliminated by the immune system. Quantitative estimates of the strength of this counterselection phenomenon have been lacking. We quantified the extent to which somatic mutations are depleted in peptides that are predicted to be displayed by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I proteins. The extent of this depletion depended on expression level of the neoantigenic gene, and on whether the patient had one or two MHC-encoding alleles that can display the peptide, suggesting MHC-encoding alleles are incompletely dominant. This study provides an initial quantitative understanding of counter-selection of identifiable subclasses of neoantigenic somatic variation.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I/metabolismo , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Peptídeos/genética , Alelos , Apresentação do Antígeno , Antígenos de Neoplasias/genética , Humanos
10.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1240, 2019 03 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30886144

RESUMO

Despite exceptional experimental efforts to map out the human interactome, the continued data incompleteness limits our ability to understand the molecular roots of human disease. Computational tools offer a promising alternative, helping identify biologically significant, yet unmapped protein-protein interactions (PPIs). While link prediction methods connect proteins on the basis of biological or network-based similarity, interacting proteins are not necessarily similar and similar proteins do not necessarily interact. Here, we offer structural and evolutionary evidence that proteins interact not if they are similar to each other, but if one of them is similar to the other's partners. This approach, that mathematically relies on network paths of length three (L3), significantly outperforms all existing link prediction methods. Given its high accuracy, we show that L3 can offer mechanistic insights into disease mechanisms and can complement future experimental efforts to complete the human interactome.


Assuntos
Modelos Biológicos , Mapeamento de Interação de Proteínas/métodos , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas , Algoritmos , Animais , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Humanos , Camundongos , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Proteínas de Schizosaccharomyces pombe/metabolismo , Software
11.
Mol Cell Proteomics ; 17(10): 1948-1964, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30006486

RESUMO

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a highly aggressive and heterogeneous form of primary brain tumors, driven by a complex repertoire of oncogenic alterations, including the constitutively active epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFRvIII). EGFRvIII impacts both cell-intrinsic and non-cell autonomous aspects of GBM progression, including cell invasion, angiogenesis and modulation of the tumor microenvironment. This is, at least in part, attributable to the release and intercellular trafficking of extracellular vesicles (EVs), heterogeneous membrane structures containing multiple bioactive macromolecules. Here we analyzed the impact of EGFRvIII on the profile of glioma EVs using isogenic tumor cell lines, in which this oncogene exhibits a strong transforming activity. We observed that EGFRvIII expression alters the expression of EV-regulating genes (vesiculome) and EV properties, including their protein composition. Using mass spectrometry, quantitative proteomic analysis and Gene Ontology terms filters, we observed that EVs released by EGFRvIII-transformed cells were enriched for extracellular exosome and focal adhesion related proteins. Among them, we validated the association of pro-invasive proteins (CD44, BSG, CD151) with EVs of EGFRvIII expressing glioma cells, and downregulation of exosomal markers (CD81 and CD82) relative to EVs of EGFRvIII-negative cells. Nano-flow cytometry revealed that the EV output from individual glioma cell lines was highly heterogeneous, such that only a fraction of vesicles contained specific proteins (including EGFRvIII). Notably, cells expressing EGFRvIII released EVs double positive for CD44/BSG, and these proteins also colocalized in cellular filopodia. We also detected the expression of homophilic adhesion molecules and increased homologous EV uptake by EGFRvIII-positive glioma cells. These results suggest that oncogenic EGFRvIII reprograms the proteome and uptake of GBM-related EVs, a notion with considerable implications for their biological activity and properties relevant for the development of EV-based cancer biomarkers.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/metabolismo , Receptores ErbB/metabolismo , Vesículas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Glioblastoma/metabolismo , Oncogenes , Proteoma/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/patologia , Vesículas Extracelulares/ultraestrutura , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Heterogeneidade Genética , Humanos , Camundongos , Invasividade Neoplásica , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo
12.
Exp Mol Med ; 50(2): e450, 2018 02 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29472701

RESUMO

The gut microbiota has an important role in the gut barrier, inflammation and metabolic functions. Studies have identified a close association between the intestinal barrier and metabolic diseases, including obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Recently, Akkermansia muciniphila has been reported as a beneficial bacterium that reduces gut barrier disruption and insulin resistance. Here we evaluated the role of A. muciniphila-derived extracellular vesicles (AmEVs) in the regulation of gut permeability. We found that there are more AmEVs in the fecal samples of healthy controls compared with those of patients with T2D. In addition, AmEV administration enhanced tight junction function, reduced body weight gain and improved glucose tolerance in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced diabetic mice. To test the direct effect of AmEVs on human epithelial cells, cultured Caco-2 cells were treated with these vesicles. AmEVs decreased the gut permeability of lipopolysaccharide-treated Caco-2 cells, whereas Escherichia coli-derived EVs had no significant effect. Interestingly, the expression of occludin was increased by AmEV treatment. Overall, these results imply that AmEVs may act as a functional moiety for controlling gut permeability and that the regulation of intestinal barrier integrity can improve metabolic functions in HFD-fed mice.


Assuntos
Permeabilidade da Membrana Celular , Vesículas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Junções Íntimas/metabolismo , Verrucomicrobia/metabolismo , Animais , Biodiversidade , Biomarcadores , Células CACO-2 , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Fezes/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Camundongos
13.
Biomedicines ; 6(1)2017 12 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29278364

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to examine the combined effect of Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and Tumor Necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) on cytotoxicity and expression of prostate apoptosis response-4 (Par-4) and Par-4 interacting proteins B-cell lymphoma (Bcl-2), nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells/p65 subunit (NF-κB/p65), Ak mouse strain thymoma (Akt) in human neuroblastoma (NB) cells. Materials and methods included human neuroblastoma cell lines-SK-N-MC, SK-N-SH, and SH-SY5Y, which were treated with IFN-γ and TNF-α individually, or in combination, and were assessed for viability by tetrazolium (MTT) assay. Apoptosis was monitored by hypodiploid population (by flow cytometry), DNA fragmentation, Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage, and caspase-8 activity. Transcript level of Par-4 was measured by RT-PCR. Protein levels of Par-4 and suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS-3) were assessed by immunoblotting. Cellular localization of Par-4 and p65 was examined by immunofluorescence. Unbiased transcript analysis for IFN-γ, TNF-α, and Par-4 were analyzed from three independent clinical datasets from neuroblastoma patients. In terms of results, SK-N-MC cells treated with a combination of, but not individually with, IFN-γ and TNF-α induced apoptosis characterized by hypodiploidy, DNA fragmentation, PARP cleavage, and increased caspase-8 activity. Apoptosis was associated with up-regulation of Par-4 mRNA and protein expression. Immunofluorescence studies revealed that Par-4 was localized exclusively in cytoplasm in SK-N-MC cells cultured for 24 h. but showed nuclear localization at 48 h. Treatment with IFN-γ and TNF-α together enhanced the intensity of nuclear Par-4. In gene expression, data from human neuroblastoma patients, levels of IFN-γ, and TNF-α have strong synergy with Par-4 expression and provide good survival advantage. The findings also demonstrated that apoptosis was associated with reduced level of pro-survival proteins-Bcl-2 and Akt and NF-κB/p65. Furthermore, the apoptotic effect induced by IFN-γ-induced Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription-1(STAT-1), and could be due to down-regulation of suppressor of cytokine signaling-3 (SOCS3). The study concludes that a combinatorial approach using IFN-γ and TNF-α can be explored to maximize the effect in chemotherapy in neuroblastoma, and implies a role for Par-4 in the process.

14.
Mol Cells ; 40(9): 621-631, 2017 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28927264

RESUMO

Vaccinia-related kinase 1 (VRK1) and VRK3 are members of the VRK family of serine/threonine kinases and are principally localized in the nucleus. Despite the crucial roles of VRK1/VRK3 in physiology and disease, the molecular and functional interactions of VRK1/VRK3 are poorly understood. Here, we identified over 200 unreported VRK1/VRK3-interacting candidate proteins by affinity purification and LC-MS/MS. The networks of VRK1 and VRK3 interactomes were found to be associated with important biological processes such as the cell cycle, DNA repair, chromatin assembly, and RNA processing. Interactions of interacting proteins with VRK1/VRK3 were confirmed by biochemical assays. We also found that phosphorylations of XRCC5 were regulated by both VRK1/VRK3, and that of CCNB1 was regulated by VRK3. In liver cancer cells and tissues, VRK1/VRK3 were highly upregulated and its depletion affected cell cycle progression in the different phases. VRK3 seemed to affect S phase progression and G2 or M phase entry and exit, whereas VRK1 affects G1/S transition in the liver cancer, which could be explained by different interacting candidate proteins. Thus, this study not only provides a resource for investigating the unidentified functions of VRK1/VRK3, but also an insight into the regulatory roles of VRK1/VRK3 in biological processes.


Assuntos
Proliferação de Células/genética , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Ciclo Celular/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Núcleo Celular/genética , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Ciclina B1/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Humanos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/metabolismo , Autoantígeno Ku/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Fosforilação , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo
15.
J Invest Dermatol ; 137(4): 874-883, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27940220

RESUMO

Acrodermatitis enteropathica is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by scaly eczematous dermatosis accompanied by alopecia and diarrhea. Various mutations in the SLC39A4 gene (ZIP4), which encodes a zinc transporter, are responsible for this disorder. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the involvement of ZIP4 in the pathogenesis of this condition has yet to be established. In this study, we report the role of ZIP4 in human epidermis. ZIP4 is predominantly expressed in human keratinocytes, and its expression is dramatically reduced on epidermal differentiation. ZIP4 knockdown in human keratinocytes down-regulates zinc (Zn) levels and the transcriptional activity of a key epidermal Zn-binding protein, ΔNp63, and dysregulates epidermal differentiation in a reconstituted human skin model, resulting in the appearance of proliferating keratinocytes even in the uppermost layers of the skin. We verified that, among the amino acid residues in its Zn-binding motif, Cys205 is critical for the processing and nuclear distribution of ΔNp63 and, therefore, Zn-dependent transcriptional activity. Our results suggest that ZIP4 is essential for maintaining human epidermal homeostasis through the regulation of Zn-dependent ΔNp63 activity and can provide insight into the molecular mechanisms responsible for the cutaneous symptoms observed in Acrodermatitis enteropathica patients.


Assuntos
Acrodermatite/genética , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/genética , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Zinco/deficiência , Acrodermatite/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Western Blotting , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Células Cultivadas , Epiderme/metabolismo , Feminino , Homeostase/genética , Humanos , Queratinócitos/citologia , Queratinócitos/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Valores de Referência , Amostragem , Adulto Jovem , Zinco/metabolismo
16.
RNA Biol ; 14(1): 58-72, 2017 01 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27791479

RESUMO

Cells secrete extracellular RNA (exRNA) to their surrounding environment and exRNA has been found in many body fluids such as blood, breast milk and cerebrospinal fluid. However, there are conflicting results regarding the nature of exRNA. Here, we have separated 2 distinct exRNA profiles released by mast cells, here termed high-density (HD) and low-density (LD) exRNA. The exRNA in both fractions was characterized by microarray and next-generation sequencing. Both exRNA fractions contained mRNA and miRNA, and the mRNAs in the LD exRNA correlated closely with the cellular mRNA, whereas the HD mRNA did not. Furthermore, the HD exRNA was enriched in lincRNA, antisense RNA, vault RNA, snoRNA, and snRNA with little or no evidence of full-length 18S and 28S rRNA. The LD exRNA was enriched in mitochondrial rRNA, mitochondrial tRNA, tRNA, piRNA, Y RNA, and full-length 18S and 28S rRNA. The proteomes of the HD and LD exRNA-containing fractions were determined with LC-MS/MS and analyzed with Gene Ontology term finder, which showed that both proteomes were associated with the term extracellular vesicles and electron microscopy suggests that at least a part of the exRNA is associated with exosome-like extracellular vesicles. Additionally, the proteins in the HD fractions tended to be associated with the nucleus and ribosomes, whereas the LD fraction proteome tended to be associated with the mitochondrion. We show that the 2 exRNA signatures released by a single cell type can be separated by floatation on a density gradient. These results show that cells can release multiple types of exRNA with substantial differences in RNA species content. This is important for any future studies determining the nature and function of exRNA released from different cells under different conditions.


Assuntos
Vesículas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , RNA/genética , Linhagem Celular , Análise por Conglomerados , Vesículas Extracelulares/ultraestrutura , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , MicroRNAs/genética , RNA/isolamento & purificação , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Ribossômico/genética , RNA não Traduzido/genética
17.
Sci Rep ; 6: 39049, 2016 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27976729

RESUMO

RE-1 silencing transcription factor (REST) is a transcriptional repressor that regulates gene expression by binding to repressor element 1. However, despite its critical function in physiology, little is known about its interaction proteins. Here we identified 204 REST-interacting proteins using affinity purification and mass spectrometry. The interactome included proteins associated with mRNA processing/splicing, chromatin organization, and transcription. The interactions of these REST-interacting proteins, which included TRIM28, were confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation and immunocytochemistry, respectively. Gene Ontology (GO) analysis revealed that neuronal differentiation-related GO terms were enriched among target genes that were co-regulated by REST and TRIM28, while the level of CTNND2 was increased by the knockdown of REST and TRIM28. Consistently, the level of CTNND2 increased while those of REST and TRIM28 decreased during neuronal differentiation in the primary neurons, suggesting that CTNND2 expression may be co-regulated by both. Furthermore, neurite outgrowth was increased by depletion of REST or TRIM28, implying that reduction of both REST and TRIM28 could promote neuronal differentiation via induction of CTNND2 expression. In conclusion, our study of REST reveals novel interacting proteins which could be a valuable resource for investigating unidentified functions of REST and also suggested functional links between REST and TRIM28 during neuronal development.


Assuntos
Cateninas/metabolismo , Neurônios/citologia , Mapeamento de Interação de Proteínas/métodos , Proteínas Repressoras/metabolismo , Proteína 28 com Motivo Tripartido/metabolismo , Animais , Diferenciação Celular , Células Cultivadas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Ontologia Genética , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Camundongos , Neurônios/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Proteína 28 com Motivo Tripartido/genética
18.
PLoS One ; 11(11): e0165835, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27824900

RESUMO

The role of Sirtuin 6 (SIRT6) as a tumor suppressor or oncogene in liver cancer remains controversial. Thus, we identified the specific role of SIRT6 in the progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). SIRT6 expression was significantly higher in HCC cell lines and HCC tissues from 138 patients than in an immortalized hepatocyte cell line, THLE-2 and non-tumor tissues, respectively. SIRT6 knockdown by shRNA suppressed the growth of HCC cells and inhibited HCC tumor growth in vivo. In addition, SIRT6 silencing significantly prevented the growth of HCC cell lines by inducing cellular senescence in the p16/Rb- and p53/p21-pathway independent manners. Microarray analysis revealed that the expression of genes involved in nucleosome assembly was apparently altered in SIRT6-depleted Hep3B cells. SIRT6 knockdown promoted G2/M phase arrest and downregulation of genes encoding histone variants associated with nucleosome assembly, which could be attributed to DNA damage. Taken together, our findings suggest that SIRT6 acts as a tumor promoter by preventing DNA damage and cellular senescence, indicating that SIRT6 represents a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of HCC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/fisiopatologia , Senescência Celular/fisiologia , Dano ao DNA/fisiologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/fisiopatologia , Sirtuínas/fisiologia , Animais , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Transplante de Neoplasias , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Sirtuínas/deficiência
19.
J Invest Dermatol ; 136(5): 957-966, 2016 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26854492

RESUMO

Skin melanocytes are activated by exposure to UV radiation to secrete melanin-containing melanosomes to protect the skin from UV-induced damage. Despite the continuous renewal of the epidermis, the turnover rate of melanocytes is very slow, and they survive for long periods. However, the mechanisms underlying the survival of melanocytes exposed to UV radiation are not known. Here, we investigated the role of melanocyte-derived extracellular vesicles in melanocyte survival. Network analysis of the melanocyte extracellular vesicle proteome identified the extracellular matrix component fibronectin at a central node, and the release of fibronectin-containing extracellular vesicles was increased after exposure of melanocytes to UVB radiation. Using an anti-fibronectin neutralizing antibody and specific inhibitors of extracellular vesicle secretion, we demonstrated that extracellular vesicles enriched in fibronectin were involved in melanocyte survival after UVB radiation. Furthermore, we observed that in the hyperpigmented lesions of patients with melasma, the extracellular space around melanocytes contained more fibronectin compared with normal skin, suggesting that fibronectin is involved in maintaining melanocytes in pathological conditions. Collectively, our findings suggest that melanocytes secrete fibronectin-containing extracellular vesicles to increase their survival after UVB radiation. These data provide important insight into how constantly stimulated melanocytes can be maintained in pathological conditions such as melasma.


Assuntos
Vesículas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Fibronectinas/metabolismo , Melanócitos/metabolismo , Melanócitos/efeitos da radiação , Melanose/patologia , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos , Biópsia por Agulha , Western Blotting , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos da radiação , Células Cultivadas , Vesículas Extracelulares/efeitos da radiação , Fibronectinas/efeitos da radiação , Humanos , Melanócitos/citologia , Melanose/metabolismo , Microscopia Confocal , Valores de Referência , Amostragem
20.
Sci Rep ; 5: 15878, 2015 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26510393

RESUMO

Gut microbes might influence host metabolic homeostasis and contribute to the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes (T2D), which is characterized by insulin resistance. Bacteria-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) have been suggested to be important in the pathogenesis of diseases once believed to be non-infectious. Here, we hypothesize that gut microbe-derived EVs are important in the pathogenesis of T2D. In vivo administration of stool EVs from high fat diet (HFD)-fed mice induced insulin resistance and glucose intolerance compared to regular diet (RD)-fed mice. Metagenomic profiling of stool EVs by 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing revealed an increased amount of EVs derived from Pseudomonas panacis (phylum Proteobacteria) in HFD mice compared to RD mice. Interestingly, P. panacis EVs blocked the insulin signaling pathway in both skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. Moreover, isolated P. panacis EVs induced typical diabetic phenotypes, such as glucose intolerance after glucose administration or systemic insulin injection. Thus, gut microbe-derived EVs might be key players in the development of insulin resistance and impairment of glucose metabolism promoted by HFD.


Assuntos
Vesículas Extracelulares/química , Glucose/metabolismo , Resistência à Insulina , Intestinos/microbiologia , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Pseudomonas/química , Animais , Camundongos
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