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1.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol ; 20(1): 155-160, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31383150

RESUMO

Here we propose a wavelength-switchable erbium-doped fiber ring laser using a temperatureinsensitive spectral polarization-dependent loss (PDL) element and two fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs). The fiber PDL element was fabricated by inscribing a long-period grating (LPG) on polarizationmaintaining photonic crystal fiber (PMPCF) with a 10.6 µm CO2 laser. The LPG fabricated on PMPCF, referred to as PMPCF-LPG, has the characteristics of a fiber polarizer at two specific wavelengths due to the birefringence of PMPCF and the co-directional mode coupling of the LPG. The two wavelengths at which the fabricated PMPCF-LPG acts as a polarizer are two resonance wavelengths (~1528.58 and ~1555.90 nm) of the PMPCF-LPG, obtained for orthogonal input polarization states. By considering these two resonance wavelengths of the PMPCF-LPG, the Bragg wavelengths of two FBGs, which determine lasing wavelengths in our wavelength-switchable laser, were selected as ~1527.71 and ~1554.74 nm. As the temperature sensitivity of the PMPCF birefringence is 30 times lower than that of the birefringence of conventional polarization-maintaining fiber (PMF), the fabricated PMPCF-LPG could facilitate more stable switching operation between the two lasing wavelengths in comparison with a previous fiber laser employing an LPG inscribed on conventional PMF as a wavelength-switching filter. The lasing wavelengths of our laser could be switched by controlling input polarization of the PMPCF-LPG with a polarization controller, and temperature-insensitive wavelength switching operation was experimentally demonstrated over a temperature range of 25-100 °C.

2.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol ; 20(1): 257-262, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31383164

RESUMO

Here we propose a novel optical fiber sensor capable of simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature by utilizing a long-period fiber grating (LPFG) inscribed on polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber (PMPCF) as a sensor head. The sensor head was fabricated by irradiating CO2 laser pulses to one side of PMPCF with line-by-line technique. The LPFG written on PMPCF (referred to as the PMPC-LPFG) exhibits two different wavelength-dependent loss bands, obtained at two orthogonal input polarization states. For two resonance wavelengths of these two wavelength-dependent loss bands, designated as Dips A and B, strain and temperature responses were investigated in a strain range of 0 to 2058 µÉ› with a step of 98 µÉ› and a temperature range of 30 to 85 °C with a step of 5 °C. Strain sensitivities of Dips A and B were measured and found to be approximately -0.82 and -1.43 pm/µÉ›, respectively, at room temperature (25 °C). Similarly, temperature sensitivities of Dips A and B were measured and found to be ~7.89 and ~4.76 pm/°C without applied strain (0 µÉ›), respectively. Owing to their linear and independent responses to strain and temperature, strain and temperature changes applied to the PMPC-LPFG can be simultaneously estimated from the measured wavelength shifts of the two resonance dips (Dips A and B) using their premeasured strain and temperature sensitivities. The experimental results prove that the PMPC-LPFG can be used as a sensor head for simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature.

3.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol ; 20(1): 285-292, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31383168

RESUMO

Here we report on the simultaneous measurement of bending and temperature, carried out using a long-period fiber grating (LPFG) inscribed on polarization-maintaining fiber (PMF) with a CO2 laser at ~10.6 µm. An LPFG written on PMF, referred to as a PM-LPFG, has an input-polarizationdependent resonance dip, and two separated resonance dips, designated as Dips A and B, are obtained with respect to orthogonal input polarization. At the resonance wavelengths of Dips A and B, the core mode is coupled into two different cladding modes that have different bending and temperature sensitivities. The fabricated PM-LPFG whose grating period and length are ~505 µm and ~14.65 mm, respectively, has two resonance wavelengths, i.e., λA= ~1479.98 nm and λB = ~1568.78 nm, measured with respect to two orthogonal input polarization states. The bending sensitivities of this PM-LPFG were measured as ~22.23 and ~33.38 nm/m-1 (adjusted R² values: ~0.9916 and ~0.9810) at λA and λB, respectively, in a curvature range of 1.41-2.30 m-1. The temperature sensitivities of the PM-LPFG were measured as ~0.132 and ~0.039 nm/°C (adjusted R² values: ~0.9929 and ~0.9980) at λA and λB, respectively, in a temperature range of 30-90 °C. These linear bending and temperature responses of the PM-LPFG at two different resonance wavelengths enable simultaneous measurement of bending and temperature variations applied to the PM-LPFG.

4.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol ; 20(1): 344-350, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31383177

RESUMO

In this paper, we propose a wavelength-tunable narrowband fiber multiwavelength filter based on polarization-diversified loop structure. The proposed filter consists of a polarization beam splitter, three half-wave plates (HWPs), two quarter-wave plates (QWPs) and two polarization-maintaining fiber (PMF) segments. The lengths of the two PMF segments are equal with each other. Among the five waveplates within the filter, a pair of an HWP and a QWP and the other pair of an HWP and a QWP are located in front of each PMF segment. The last HWP is placed after the second PMF and used to adjust the effective azimuthal angle of the second PMF. Azimuthal angle sets of the five waveplates, which can give additional phase shifts from 0 to 360° to the narrowband transmittance function derived from the Jones matrix formula, were theoretically found. Narrowband transmission spectra were calculated at eight waveplate angle sets selected among the angle sets derived above, which were designated as sets I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII, and VIII that induced additional phase shifts from 0 to 315° (step: 45°) in the transmittance function. The calculated multiwavelength spectra clearly show that the narrowband multiwavelength spectrum can be wavelength-tuned by 0.1 nm as the waveplate angle set switches from set I to set VIII. This theoretical prediction was experimentally verified by appropriately controlling the azimuthal angle of each waveplate.

5.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol ; 20(1): 351-358, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31383178

RESUMO

Here we report bidirectional current triggering (BCT) with a high repetition rate, achieved in a twoterminal planar device based on a vanadium dioxide (VO2) thin film by using a laser diode with a center wavelength of 976 nm as an excitation source. The VO2 thin film was grown on a sapphire (Al2O3) substrate using a pulsed laser deposition method, and the two-terminal planar device was fabricated by sawing the grown film into microscale unit devices, each of which was then attached onto a printed circuit board. Current triggering was performed by controlling the output power of the laser beam incident on the device surface. The proposed device allows stable current triggering operation even with laser pulses of higher repetition rate and lower energy because it is designed to have low heat capacity and thermal conductivity. Experimental results showed that a BCT of up to 30 mA was achieved at the maximum repetition rate of 8.0 Hz. The switching contrast between off- and on-state currents was calculated to be ~7295, and average rising and falling times of the current triggering were measured to be ~18.3 and ~22.5 ms, respectively.

6.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol ; 20(1): 420-426, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31383188

RESUMO

Bidirectional current gating was realized in a vanadium dioxide (VO2) thin film-based two-terminal heterostructure device using a near-infrared laser diode (LD) with a center wavelength of 976 nm. The VO2 thin film used in the device fabrication was grown through pulsed laser deposition on a Si substrate with an aluminum nitride (AIN) buffer layer. The phase transition temperature of the fabricated VO2/AIN/Si heterostructure device was ~78 °C, which is higher by ~10 °C than that of the device based on a conventional VO2 thin film grown on a sapphire (Al2O3) substrate. Bidirectional current gating up to 60 mA was realized by directly irradiating the exposed thin film surface with the focused laser beam. The transient responses of the current flowing through the device were investigated for various pulse widths and repetition rates of the focused laser beam. The average switching contrast between off- and on-states was measured as ~9993. The average rise time of the current gating was ~31.5 ms with a much shorter fall time of ~4.0 ms. Our VO2/AIN/Si heterostructure device could provide a high on-state current and fast response due to a smaller device dimension and higher phase transition temperature compared with previous implementations.

7.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol ; 20(1): 478-484, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31383196

RESUMO

In this paper, we propose an optical comb filter based on a polarization-diversity loop structure, whose two transmission channel spacings (TCS's) can be alternately switched between two principal axes of the filter by controlling waveplates contained in the filter. The proposed filter consists of a polarization beam splitter (PBS), three half-wave plates (HWPs), one Faraday rotator (FR), and two polarization-maintaining fiber (PMF) segments with different lengths (L and 2L) and equal birefringence (B). As the PMF segments are utilized as birefringence elements, the TCS of the filter is determined by the product of their effective length Le and birefringence B. For an input signal introduced into each principal axis of the filter, Le can be the sum of or difference between the two lengths (L and 2L) of the two PMF segments, that is, L or 3L, resulting in a TCS of S1 or S2, respectively, according to angular combination of the orientation angles of the three HWPs. At a specific set of the three HWP angles, the proposed filter can create two sinusoidal transmittance functions with different TCS's (S1 and S2) at the two principal axes, respectively. Also, the two TCS's (S1 and S2) are switchable with each other depending on three HWP angles for each principal axis. With the fabricated filter, the flexible switching between S1 and S2 could be successfully implemented for two orthogonally polarized input signals aligned along the two principal axes of the filter by properly controlling the three HWPs, without any modification of the filter configuration.

9.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 18(1): 128, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31575379

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Being obese or underweight, and having diabetes are important risk factors for new-onset atrial fibrillation (AF). However, it is unclear whether there is any interaction between body weight and diabetes in regard to development of new-onset AF. We aimed to evaluate the role of body weight status and various stage of diabetes on new-onset AF. METHODS: This was a nationwide population based study using National Health Insurance Service (NHIS) data. A total of 9,797,418 patients who underwent national health check-ups were analyzed. Patients were classified as underweight [body mass index (BMI) < 18.5], normal reference group (18.5 ≤ BMI < 23.0), upper normal (23.0 ≤ BMI < 25.0), overweight (25.0 ≤ BMI < 30.0), or obese (BMI ≥ 30.0) based on BMI. Diabetes were categorized as non-diabetic, impaired fasting glucose (IFG), new-onset diabetes, diabetes < 5 years, and diabetes ≥ 5 years. Primary outcome end point was new-onset AF. New-onset AF was defined as one inpatient or two outpatient records of International Classification of Disease, Tenth Revision (ICD-10) codes in patients without prior AF diagnosis. RESULTS: During 80,130,161 patient*years follow-up, a total of 196,136 new-onset AF occurred. Obese [hazard ration (HR) = 1.327], overweight (HR = 1.123), upper normal (HR = 1.040), and underweight (HR = 1.055) patients showed significantly increased risk of new-onset AF compared to the normal reference group. Gradual escalation in the risk of new-onset AF was observed along with advancing diabetic stage. Body weight status and diabetes were independently associated with new-onset AF and at the same time, had synergistic effects on the risk of new-onset AF with obese diabetic patients having the highest risk (HR = 1.823). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with obesity, overweight, underweight, and diabetes had significantly increased risk of new-onset AF. Body weight status and diabetes had synergistic effects on the risk of new-onset AF. The risk of new-onset AF increased gradually with advancing diabetic stage. This study suggests that maintaining optimal body weight and glucose homeostasis might prevent new-onset AF.

10.
Scand J Gastroenterol ; : 1-8, 2019 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31593481

RESUMO

Background/aims: Cirrhosis is an important risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and the surveillance of patients with cirrhosis is, therefore, highly recommended. However, the role of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) in HCC surveillance is controversial. The aim of this study was to determine the role of AFP in HCC surveillance among patients with cirrhosis. Methods: The study population consisted of 392 patients with cirrhosis. Ultrasound (US) and laboratory tests including AFP were regularly performed to detect HCC development. The cutoff level of AFP for suspicion of HCC was 7 ng/mL. Results: During the median follow-up period of 4.7 (interquartile range, 3.4-5.6) years, HCC developed in 64 (16.3%) patients. Their mean age was 53.6 years, and they were predominantly male (63.5%). For the detection of HCCs, the sensitivity and specificity of US were 56.3% and 100%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of AFP were 62.5% and 94.5%, respectively. Using US and AFP in combination increased the sensitivity of surveillance to 89.1% with a specificity of 94.5%. Mean AFP levels were significantly higher in patients with than without HCC at the time of HCC diagnosis, at 6 months and 12 months before the diagnosis. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of AFP was highest at the time of HCC diagnosis (0.867), and also was acceptable at 6 months (0.823) and 12 months (0.792) before the diagnosis. Conclusions: These results suggest the complementary use of AFP and US to improve the effectiveness of HCC surveillance in patients with cirrhosis.

11.
Micron ; 127: 102755, 2019 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31574381

RESUMO

Differential phase-contrast (DPC) imaging in the scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) mode has been suggested as a new method to visualize the nanoscale electromagnetic features of materials. However, the quality of the DPC image is very sensitive to the electron-beam alignment, microscope setup, and specimen conditions. Unlike normal STEM imaging, the microscope setup variables in the DPC mode are not independent; rather, they are correlated factors decisive for field sensitivity. Here, we systematically investigated the independent and combinatory effects of microscope setups on the sensitivity of the DPC image in a hard magnet, Nd2Fe14B alloy. To improve sensitivity, a smaller overlap of the electron beam with annular detectors and a greater camera length were required. However, these factors cannot be controlled independently in the two-condenser-lens system. In this linked system, the effect of the camera length on the DPC sensitivity was slightly more predominant than the overlap. Furthermore, the DPC signal was noisy and scattered at a small overlap of less than 11%. The electron-beam current does not evidently affect the sensitivity. In addition, the DPC sensitivity was examined with respect to the sample thickness, and the optimum thickness for high sensitivity was approximately 65 nm for the hard magnetic material Nd2Fe14B. This practical approach to the STEM setup and sample thickness may provide experimental guidelines for further application of the DPC analysis method.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31490415

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Hepatocellular carcinoma can develop after hepatitis C virus eradication. We developed a new hepatocellular carcinoma risk score (HCC-SVR score) based on independent predictors for chronic hepatitis C after sustained virological response. METHODS: Between 2003 and 2016, a total of 1193 patients with chronic hepatitis C who achieved sustained virological response through antiviral therapy were included (669 for training cohort and 524 for validation cohort). The HCC-SVR score was developed using multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression modelling. RESULTS: Hepatocellular carcinoma (n = 19) occurred more frequently in older, male patients and was associated with liver cirrhosis; hypertension; diabetes; lower platelet count; higher alpha-fetoprotein, aspartate, and alanine aminotransferase; lower total cholesterol; and higher fibrosis-4 index (FIB-4) (all P < 0.05). FIB-4 (hazard ratio = 1.080), male gender (hazard ratio = 8.189), and higher alpha-fetoprotein (hazard ratio = 1.060) independently predicted hepatocellular carcinoma (all P < 0.05). HCC-SVR score successfully predicted hepatocellular carcinoma development risk [area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) = 0.771, 0.857, and 0.911 at 2, 4, and 6 years, respectively]. The cumulative incidence rate of hepatocellular carcinoma differed significantly among groups stratified by HCC-SVR risk score (0-2 points, low; 3-7 points, intermediate; 8-9 points, high risk) (all P < 0.05 by log-rank test). HCC-SVR score was maintained in a validation cohort (n = 524) (AUC = 0.728 at 2 years, 0.737 at 4 years, and 0.809 at 6 years). CONCLUSION: The HCC-SVR score enables risk stratification for hepatocellular carcinoma development at sustained virological response in patients with chronic hepatitis C.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31480131

RESUMO

Objectives: The aim of this study was to identify a distribution pattern of meat quality grade as a function of carcass yield index and the gender of Hanwoo (bull, cow, and steer) to determine the optimum point between both yield and quality. We also attempted to identify how pre- and post-deboning variables affect the gender-specific beef quality of Hanwoo. Methods: A total of 361 deboning variables, consisting of 7 pre-deboning and 24 post-deboning variables from bulls (n = 139), cows (n = 69), and steers (n = 153), were obtained from the National Institute of Animal Science (NIAS) in South Korea. The database was reconstructed to be suitable for a statistical significance test between the carcass yield index (CYI) and the meat quality grade (MQG) as well as classification of meat quality. Discriminant function analysis was used for classifying MQG using the deboning parameters of Hanwoo by gender. Results: The means of CYI according to 1+, 1, 2, and 3 of MQG were 68.64 2.02, 68.85 1.94, 68.62 5.88, and 70.99 3.32, respectively. High carcass yield correlated with low-quality grade, while high-quality meat most frequently was obtained from steers. The classification ability of pre-deboning parameters was higher than that of post-deboning parameters. Moisture and the shear force were the common significant parameters in all discriminant functions having a classification accuracy of 80.6%, 71%, and 56.9% for the bull, cow, and steer, respectively. Conclusion: This study provides basic information for predicting the meat quality by gender using pre-deboning variables consistent with the actual grading index.

15.
Arch Pharm Res ; 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31482490

RESUMO

In this study, we investigated the synergistic effect of L-buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) on the chlorin e6 (Ce6)-based photodynamic therapy (PDT) of cancer cells. Among various cancer cells, HCT116 cells have highest intracellular L-glutathione (GSH) level and SNU478 cells showed the lowest GSH level. BSO alone showed negligible intrinsic cytotoxicity against CCD986sk cells. Since HCT116 and SNU478 cells showed the highest and the lowest intracellular GSH levels, respectively, those were used to test synergistic effect on the Ce6-based PDT. In the absence of light, BSO and Ce6 combination did not practically increase reactive oxygen species (ROS) in either of HCT116 or SNU478 cells, while light irradiation increased ROS level dose-dependently. 10 µM BSO treatment significantly depleted total GSH level in cancer cells, i.e. total GSH level decreased to one-fourth of the control in HCT116 cells while it decreased to two-fifth of the control treatment at SNU478 cell. BSO showed synergistic effect on the ROS production in HCT116 cells while it has practically no benefits in ROS production of SNU478 cells. No synergistic effect was observed in viability of SNU478 cells because BSO itself was cytotoxic to SNU478 cells. However, BSO had negligible cytotoxicity against HCT116 cells and showed synergistic anticancer effect in combination with Ce6-based PDT. Furthermore, the addition of glutathione reduced ethyl ester (GSH-OEt), recovered intracellular GSH level, and cell viability with reduced the intracellular ROS level. We suggest that synergistic effect of BSO in the Ce6-based PDT should be considered with intrinsic intracellular GSH level of cancer cells.

16.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4019, 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488820

RESUMO

Biological cellular structures have inspired many scientific disciplines to design synthetic structures that can mimic their functions. Here, we closely emulate biological cellular structures in a rationally designed synthetic multicellular hybrid ion pump, composed of hydrogen-bonded [EMIM+][TFSI-] ion pairs on the surface of silica microstructures (artificial mechanoreceptor cells) embedded into thermoplastic polyurethane elastomeric matrix (artificial extracellular matrix), to fabricate ionic mechanoreceptor skins. Ionic mechanoreceptors engage in hydrogen bond-triggered reversible pumping of ions under external stimulus. Our ionic mechanoreceptor skin is ultrasensitive (48.1-5.77 kPa-1) over a wide spectrum of pressures (0-135 kPa) at an ultra-low voltage (1 mV) and demonstrates the ability to surpass pressure-sensing capabilities of various natural skin mechanoreceptors (i.e., Merkel cells, Meissner's corpuscles, Pacinian corpuscles). We demonstrate a wearable drone microcontroller by integrating our ionic skin sensor array and flexible printed circuit board, which can control directions and speed simultaneously and selectively in aerial drone flight.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31543442

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We aimed to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the current role of adjuvant chemotherapy (ACH) after radical nephroureterectomy (RNU) in patients with locally advanced upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases were searched for relevant studies in English from January 1980 to April 2019. The inclusion criteria was determined based on the population, intervention, comparator, outcome, and study design. The endpoints were disease-free survival (DFS), cancer-specific survival (CSS), and overall survival (OS). Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of each endpoint were extracted from the included studies. RESULTS: A total of 11 studies were included in the final analysis to investigate the role of ACH in locally advanced UTUC. Overall, 798 patients received ACH after RNU, and 1496 patients underwent RNU alone. The pooled HRs for DFS, CSS, and OS among the studies were 0.59 (95% CI, 0.43-0.81; P = .001), 0.73 (95% CI, 0.55-0.95; P = .02), and 0.84 (95% CI, 0.59-1.19; P = .32), respectively. The quality of evidence of each outcome determined by the Grading of Recommendations, Assessments, Developments, and Evaluation approach was low for 2 outcomes and very low for the other outcome. CONCLUSIONS: ACH following RNU may improve DFS and CSS in patients with locally advanced UTUC. When comparing previously reported meta-analysis of all UTUC patients, the beneficial effects of ACH on CSS might be more pronounced in patients with locally advanced UTUC.

18.
Sensors (Basel) ; 19(18)2019 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31547395

RESUMO

The navigation system has been around for the last several years. Recently, the emergence of miniaturized sensors has made it easy to navigate the object in an indoor environment. These sensors give away a great deal of information about the user (location, posture, communication patterns, etc.), which helps in capturing the user's context. Such information can be utilized to create smarter apps from which the user can benefit. A challenging new area that is receiving a lot of attention is Indoor Localization, whereas interest in location-based services is also rising. While numerous inertial measurement unit-based indoor localization techniques have been proposed, these techniques have many shortcomings related to accuracy and consistency. In this article, we present a novel solution for improving the accuracy of indoor navigation using a learning to perdition model. The design system tracks the location of the object in an indoor environment where the global positioning system and other satellites will not work properly. Moreover, in order to improve the accuracy of indoor navigation, we proposed a learning to prediction model-based artificial neural network to improve the prediction accuracy of the prediction algorithm. For experimental analysis, we use the next generation inertial measurement unit (IMU) in order to acquired sensing data. The next generation IMU is a compact IMU and data acquisition platform that combines onboard triple-axis sensors like accelerometers, gyroscopes, and magnetometers. Furthermore, we consider a scenario where the prediction algorithm is used to predict the actual sensor reading from the noisy sensor reading. Additionally, we have developed an artificial neural network-based learning module to tune the parameter of alpha and beta in the alpha-beta filter algorithm to minimize the amount of error in the current sensor readings. In order to evaluate the accuracy of the system, we carried out a number of experiments through which we observed that the alpha-beta filter with a learning module performed better than the traditional alpha-beta filter algorithm in terms of RMSE.

19.
J Med Food ; 2019 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31549892

RESUMO

The flavonoid myricitrin exhibits various pharmacological and physiological effects. However, studies on the effects of myricitrin on obesity are limited. We hypothesized that dietary myricitrin would attenuate the adiposity and metabolic dysfunction that occur in obesity. To test this hypothesis, mice were randomly fed a high-fat diet (HFD) or HFD supplemented with myricitrin for 16 weeks. Myricitrin significantly reduced white adipose tissue (WAT) mass, adipocyte size, and plasma leptin levels, and also attenuated dyslipidemia. These changes appeared to result from increased energy expenditure and activation of the carnitine acyltransferase (CPT) and ß-oxidation in WAT. Expressions of the proinflammatory genes NF-κB, TLR2, MCP1, and TNF-α were also lower in the WAT of myricitrin-supplemented mice. Moreover, myricitrin markedly reduced hepatic triglyceride accumulation and plasma aspartate transaminase levels by increasing CPT activity and reducing fatty acid synthase activity in the liver. Myricitrin-supplemented mice also showed improved glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, and decreased hyperinsulinemia, along with decreased levels of circulating resistin. In conclusion, long-term consumption of a myricitrin-supplemented diet may effectively protect against HFD-induced obesity and related metabolic disorders.

20.
Ophthalmologica ; : 1-6, 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31553990

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the incidence and risk factors of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) including polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) or any type of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in fellow eyes of unilateral PCV. METHODS: This retrospective study included 48 patients with unilateral PCV. For the initial PCV diagnosis, optical coherence tomography and indocyanine green angiography were performed, and patients with and without neovascularization were compared. RESULTS: Of 48 fellow eyes, 10 (20.8%) had drusen, 9 (18.8%) had retinal pigment epitheliopathy, 9 (18.8%) had irregular retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) elevation, 13 (27.1%) had choroidal vascular dilation, 12 (25%) had choroidal vascular hyperpermeability, and 9 (18.8%) had branching vascular network (BVN) at baseline. The development of nAMD was noted in 8 eyes (17%). The subfoveal choroidal thickness (p = 0.001), irregular RPE elevation (p < 0.001), choroidal vascular dilation (p < 0.001), choroidal vascular hyperpermeability (p < 0.001), and BVN (p < 0.001) in fellow eyes were significantly correlated with development of PCV. After multivariate analysis, BVN (p = 0.045, odds ratio = 24.66) in the fellow eye was the only significant risk factor for the development of nAMD. CONCLUSIONS: PCV or CNV developed in 17% of fellow eyes during the 5 years. Unilateral PCV with contralateral BVN requires careful monitoring for future development of PCV or CNV in fellow eyes.

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