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1.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 20406, 2021 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34650107

RESUMO

Gut dysbiosis is closely associated with the occurrence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and psychiatric disorder. Here, to understand the difference of gut microbiota composition and physiological effect between IBD patients with (IBD/D+) or without depression (IBD/D-), we analyzed the fecal microbiota composition of patients with IBD with (/D+) or without depression (/D-) and healthy volunteers (HVs) and examined the effects of these fecal microbiota transplantations (FMTs) on the occurrence of systemic inflammation and anxiety/depression in mice. FMTs from patients with IBD/D+ or IBD/D- caused IBD-like colitis in the transplanted mice: they increased the myeloperoxidase activity, IL-1ß and IL-6 expression, and NF-κB+/CD11c+ cell population in the colon. Transplantation of the IBD/D+ patient feces (IBD/D+-F) caused IBD-like colitis more strongly than that of IBD/D--F. FMTs from patients with IBD/D+ also caused anxiety-/depression-like behaviors, increased the NF-κB+/Iba1+ and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)+/Iba1+ cell populations, and decreased the BDNF+/NeuN+ cell population in the hippocampus. They increased LPS levels in the blood. FMTs from patients with IBD/D- caused anxiety-like, but not depression-like, behaviors. α-/ß-diversities and composition of gut microbiota in IBD-F were different from those of HV feces (HV-F). The Enterobacteriaceae and Enterococcaceae populations and LPS levels were higher in the IBD-F than in the HV-F. The Enterococcaceae population was higher in IBD/D+-F vs. IBD/D--F. However, the transplantation of HV-F into mice previously transplanted with IBD/D+-F significantly reduced depression-like behaviors, NF-κB+/Iba1+ and LPS+/Iba1+ cell populations in the hippocampus, LPS levels in the feces and blood, and IL-1ß expression in the colon. These findings suggest that the outbreak of depression/anxiety may be dependent on the systemic inflammation with a leaky gut through the gut dysbiosis-attributable overproduction of bacterial LPS and suppression of tight junction protein expression in patients with IBD.

2.
Eur J Radiol ; 144: 109990, 2021 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34638082

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the feasibility of using 3-dimensional MRF for bone marrow evaluation in the field of view of prostate MRI for T1 and T2 quantification of prostate cancer bone metastases, as well as comparing it to the ADC value. METHODS: In this retrospective study, 30 prostate MRIs were included: 14 cases with prostate cancer bone metastasis and 16 cases without prostate cancer (control). MRF was obtained twice before (nonenhanced [NE] MRF) and after contrast injection (contrast-enhanced [CE] MRF), and T1 and T2 maps were generated from each MRF. Two radiologists independently drew regions of interest (ROIs) on the MRF maps and the ADC maps. Mann-Whitney U tests and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) evaluated the two-reader means of T1, T2 and ADC values between bone metastasis and normal bone. RESULTS: There were 83 ROIs, including 39 bone metastases and 44 normal bone. The two-reader average ADC, NE T2 and CE T2 values were significantly lower and NE T1 and CE T1 values were significantly higher in metastatic bone compared with normal bone (P < 0.001). The AUROC of the ADC was lowest (0.685), which was significantly lower than those of NE T1 (1.0, P = 0.001), NE T2 (0.932, P = 0.004), and CE T2 (0.876, P = 0.031). CONCLUSION: MRF to assess the pelvic bone during a prostate gland evaluation provides a reliable parametric map for skeletal work-up. With higher diagnostic performance than the ADC value, NE MRF is a potential alternative for quantifying bone marrow metastases in prostate cancer patients.

3.
Food Funct ; 2021 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34605514

RESUMO

Memory decline occurs due to various factors, including stress, depression, and aging, and lowers the quality of life. Several nutritional supplements and probiotics have been used to enhance memory function, and efforts have been made to develop mixed supplements with maximized efficacy. In this study, we aimed to examine whether a novel formulation composed of Cuscuta seeds and Lactobacillus paracasei NK112, CCL01, enhances memory function and induces neurogenesis via nerve growth factor (NGF) induction. Firstly, we orally administered CCL01 to normal mice and assessed their memory function 4 weeks after the first administration by performing a step-through passive avoidance test. We found that CCL01 at 100 mg kg-1 treatment enhanced the fear-based memory function. By analyzing the expression of Ki-67 and doublecortin, which are the markers of proliferating cells and immature neurons, respectively, we observed that CCL01 induced neuronal proliferation and differentiation in the hippocampus of the mice. Additionally, we found that the expression of synaptic markers increased in the hippocampus of CCL01-treated mice. We measured the NGF expression in the supernatant of C6 cells after CCL01 treatment and found that CCL01 increased NGF release. Furthermore, treatment of CCL01-conditioned glial media on N2a cells increased neuronal differentiation via the TrkA/ERK/CREB signaling pathway and neurotrophic factor expression. Moreover, when CCL01 was administered and scopolamine was injected, CCL01 ameliorated memory decline. These results suggest that CCL01 is an effective enhancer of memory function and can be applied to various age groups requiring memory improvement.

4.
Food Funct ; 2021 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34608923

RESUMO

Bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a risk factor for the outbreak of Alzheimer's disease. Therefore, we isolated Lactobacillus plantarum NK151 and Bifidobacterium longum NK173 from a human fecal bacteria collection, which inhibited Escherichia coli LPS production, and examined their effects on the Escherichia coli K1- or LPS-induced cognitive impairment in mice. Oral gavage of NK151, NK173, or their (4 : 1) mixture (NKm) significantly alleviated Escherichia coli K1-induced cognitive impairment-like behaviors in the Y-maze and novel object recognition tasks. Their treatments decreased IL-1ß, IL-6, and TNF-α expression and NF-κB+/Iba1+ and LPS+/Iba1+ cell populations in the hippocampus, while the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)+/neuronal nuclei (NeuN)+ cell population and BDNF to proBNDF expression increased. They suppressed LPS-induced cognition impairment-like behaviors and neuroinflammation marker levels in the hippocampus. Treatment with them reduced Escherichia coli K1- or LPS-induced LPS and apolipoprotein E levels in the blood and inflammatory marker levels in the colon. Furthermore, treatment with them modulated fecal Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Verrucomicrobia populations. Of these gut bacteria, Bacteroidaceae, Odoribacteraceae, Lactobacillaceae, Bifidobacteriaceae, Rikenellaceae, Helicobacteraceae, and Deferribacteraceae are correlated with cognitive function and blood and fecal LPS levels. These findings suggest that NK151 and NK173 may alleviate cognitive impairment with colitis by upregulating NF-κB-mediated BDNF expression through the suppression of fecal and blood bacterial LPS levels.

5.
BMC Ophthalmol ; 21(1): 364, 2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34645396

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To evaluate the effects of pretreatment for dry eye disease (DED) on the accuracy of intraocular lens (IOL) power calculation. METHODS: Patients who underwent uneventful cataract surgery were included in the study. IOL power was determined using the SRK/T and Barrett Universal II (Barrett) formulas. The patients were divided into non-pretreatment and pretreatment groups, and those in the pretreatment group were treated with topical 0.5% loteprednol etabonate and 0.05% cyclosporin A for 2 weeks prior to cataract surgery. Ocular biometry was performed in all groups within 2 days before surgery. The mean prediction error, mean absolute error (MAE), and proportions of refractive surprise were compared between the non-pretreatment and pretreatment groups at 1 month postoperatively. Refractive surprise was defined as MAE ≥ 0.75D. RESULTS: In a total of 105 patients, 52 (52 eyes) were in the non-pretreatment group and 53 (53 eyes) in the pretreatment group. The MAE was 0.42 ± 0.33, 0.38 ± 0.34 (SRK/T, Barrett) and 0.23 ± 0.19, 0.24 ± 0.19 in the non-pretreatment and pretreatment groups, respectively (p < 0.001/=0.008). The number of refractive surprises was also significantly lower in the pretreatment group. [non-pretreatment/pretreatment: 9/2 (SRK/T); 8/1 (Barrett); p = 0.024/0.016]. Pretreatment of DED was related to a reduction in postoperative refractive surprise. [SRK/T/Barrett: OR = 0.18/0.17 (95% CI: 0.05-0.71/0.05-0.60), p = 0.014/0.006]. CONCLUSIONS: The accuracy of IOL power prediction can be increased by actively treating DED prior to cataract surgery.

6.
Palliat Med ; 35(8): 1629-1633, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34524045

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pain management is crucial in palliative care for patients with advanced cancer. Here, we report a case of shoulder pain in a patient with renal cell carcinoma. CASE PRESENTATION: A 36-year-old male diagnosed metastatic renal cell carcinoma presented with pain and weakness on left shoulder for more than 6 months. Physical examination showed limited range of motion and atrophic changes on supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscles. Weakness in shoulder abduction and external rotation was also noted. POSSIBLE COURSES OF ACTION: In this case, suprascapular neuropathy, adhesive capsulitis of shoulder and metastatic lesions involving shoulder joint were suspected. FORMULATION OF A PLAN: We planned imaging studies including X-ray, bone scan, magnetic resonance imaging, and electrodiagnostic studies. OUTCOME: Imaging and electrodiagnostic studies showed suprascapular neuropathy by bone metastasis. Conservative treatment including injection and rehabilitation therapy reduced the patient's pain and improved the range of motion limitation. LESSONS FROM THE CASE: Clinicians should be aware that bone metastasis in patients with advanced cancer can cause suprascapular neuropathy, shoulder pain and shoulder dysfunction. VIEW ON RESEARCH PROBLEMS, OBJECTIVES, OR QUESTIONS GENERATED BY THE CASE: More research is expected on development of an early surveillance model, barriers to cancer pain management, communication from patients' perspectives.

7.
J Biol Chem ; 297(4): 101170, 2021 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492268

RESUMO

Elevated intracellular levels of dNTPs have been shown to be a biochemical marker of cancer cells. Recently, a series of mutations in the multifunctional dNTP triphosphohydrolase (dNTPase), sterile alpha motif and histidine-aspartate domain-containing protein 1 (SAMHD1), have been reported in various cancers. Here, we investigated the structure and functions of SAMHD1 R366C/H mutants, found in colon cancer and leukemia. Unlike many other cancer-specific mutations, the SAMHD1 R366 mutations do not alter cellular protein levels of the enzyme. However, R366C/H mutant proteins exhibit a loss of dNTPase activity, and their X-ray structures demonstrate the absence of dGTP substrate in their active site, likely because of a loss of interaction with the γ-phosphate of the substrate. The R366C/H mutants failed to reduce intracellular dNTP levels and restrict HIV-1 replication, functions of SAMHD1 that are dependent on the ability of the enzyme to hydrolyze dNTPs. However, these mutants retain dNTPase-independent functions, including mediating dsDNA break repair, interacting with CtIP and cyclin A2, and suppressing innate immune responses. Finally, SAMHD1 degradation in human primary-activated/dividing CD4+ T cells further elevates cellular dNTP levels. This study suggests that the loss of SAMHD1 dNTPase activity induced by R366 mutations can mechanistically contribute to the elevated dNTP levels commonly found in cancer cells.

8.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 19383, 2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34588536

RESUMO

The long-term results of surgical treatment of intermittent exotropia (X(T)) according to the type of surgery are controversial. We conducted a retrospective cohort study to compare the long-term results between unilateral recession-resection (RR) and bilateral lateral rectus recession (BLR) with an average follow-up of 9.5 years in children with basic-type X(T). Patients with basic-type X(T), who underwent RR (RR group) or BLR (BLR group) and were followed-up for more than 5 years postoperatively, were analyzed. Of the 560 patients, 363 patients received BLR and 197 patients underwent RR. There was no significant difference in the success rates between the two groups until postoperative 3 years. At an average of 9.5 ± 2.6 years after surgery, the success rate of the RR group was significantly higher than that of the BLR group starting from the fourth post-operative year until the last follow-up examination (64.5% vs 43.3%, P < 0.001). By multivariate analysis, preoperative hyperopia of more than + 2.00 diopters, younger age of onset, younger age at surgery, larger exodeviation at near than at distance of > 5 prism diopters, and the type of surgery (BLR) were risk factors of recurrence. In conclusion, RR was more successful than BLR with a lower recurrence rate in the long-term follow-up of patients with basic-type X(T).

9.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34579150

RESUMO

Lactobacillus plantarum C29 and DW2009 (C29-fermented soybean) alleviate cognitive impairment through the modulation of the microbiota-gut-brain axis. Therefore, we examined whether combining donepezil, a well-known acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, with C29 or DW2009 could synergistically alleviate cognitive impairment in mice. Oral administration of donepezil combined with or without C29 (DC) or DW2009 (DD) alleviated lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cognitive impairment-like behaviors more strongly than treatment with each one alone. Their treatments significantly suppressed the NF-κB+/Iba1+ (activated microglia) population, NF-κB activation, and tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1ß expression in the hippocampus, while the brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF)+/NeuN+ cell population and BDNF expression increased. Their treatments strongly suppressed LPS-induced colitis. Moreover, they increased the Firmicutes population and decreased the Cyanobacteria population in gut microbiota. Of these, DD most strongly alleviated cognitive impairment, followed by DC. In conclusion, DW2009 may synergistically or additively increase the effect of donepezil against cognitive impairment and colitis by regulating NF-κB-mediated BDNF expression.

10.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 18938, 2021 09 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34556739

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has been spreading all over the world; however, its incidence and case-fatality ratio differ greatly between countries and between continents. We investigated factors associated with international variation in COVID-19 incidence and case-fatality ratio (CFR) across 107 northern hemisphere countries, using publicly available COVID-19 outcome data as of 14 September 2020. We included country-specific geographic, demographic, socio-economic features, global health security index (GHSI), healthcare capacity, and major health behavior indexes in multivariate models to explain this variation. Multiple linear regression highlighted that incidence was associated with ethnic region (p < 0.05), global health security index 4 (GHSI4) (beta coefficient [ß] 0.50, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 0.14-0.87), population density (ß 0.35, 95% CI 0.10-0.60), and water safety level (ß 0.51, 95% CI 0.19-0.84). The CFR was associated with ethnic region (p < 0.05), GHSI4 (ß 0.53, 95% CI 0.14-0.92), proportion of population over 65 (ß 0.71, 95% CI 0.19-1.24), international tourism receipt level (ß - 0.23, 95% CI - 0.43 to - 0.03), and the number of physicians (ß - 0.37, 95% CI - 0.69 to - 0.06). Ethnic region was the most influential factor for both COVID-19 incidence (partial [Formula: see text] = 0.545) and CFR (partial [Formula: see text] = 0.372), even after adjusting for various confounding factors.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/mortalidade , Mortalidade/tendências , Saúde Global , Humanos , Incidência , Densidade Demográfica , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade
12.
Adv Drug Deliv Rev ; 177: 113954, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34478780

RESUMO

Photomedicine has long been used for treating cancerous diseases. With advances in chemical and material sciences, various types of light-activated photosensitizers (PSs) have been developed for effective photodynamic therapy (PDT) and photothermal therapy (PTT). However, conventional organic/inorganic materials-based PSs lack disease recognition capability and show limited therapeutic effects in addition to side effects. Recently, intelligent dynamic nanoassemblies that are activated in a tumor environment have been extensively researched to target diseased tissues more effectively, for increasing therapeutic effectiveness while minimizing side effects. This paper presents the latest dynamic nanoassemblies for effective PDT or PTT and combination phototherapies, including immunotherapy and image-guided therapy. Dynamic self-assembly exhibits great potential for clinical translation in diagnosis and treatment through its integrated versatility. Nanoassemblies based on multidisciplinary technology are a promising technique for treating incurable cancerous diseases in the future.

13.
Clin Exp Pediatr ; 2021 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34592804

RESUMO

The Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus is the leading cause of vaccine-preventable encephalitis in Asia. Since the introduction of a universal JE vaccination program and urbanization of Korea, the incidence of JE has dramatically decreased in Korea. However, recent JE cases have occurred, predominantly among unvaccinated adults and with a shift in age distribution. Here we aimed to review the changes in age-specific JE seroprevalence over time and discuss the implications of JE vaccination programs in Korea. Following the last epidemic in 1982-1983, mandatory vaccination for all children aged 3-15 years was conducted annually until 1994. However, JE has reemerged, predominantly affecting unvaccinated adults aged 40 years or older and demonstrating a shift in age distribution toward older populations. The age-specific seroprevalence of the JE virus in Korea has changed noticeably over time. Seropositivity in children and adolescents increased from 10-59% in the 1970s to 90-92% in the 1980s after the implementation of the JE vaccination program and increased further to 98% in 2012. No age-specific difference in the seroprevalence of JE was found, and appropriate levels of immunity to JE were maintained for all age groups. Continuous surveillance of the seroprevalence of JE is essential to establish a proper immunization policy in Korea.

14.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 2): 131734, 2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34352545

RESUMO

Silane/ceramic combination provides the composites with several advantages from the advancements of new ceramic composite materials with good thermal conductivity, high mechanical and dielectric properties have wide significant applications in electrical and electronic industries. In this study, to enhance the dispersibility of dielectric barium titanate (BaTiO3) ceramic powder and additives for the fabrication of multilayer ceramic capacitors (MLCCs), surface treatment of the precursor of ceramic powder was performed using silane coupling agents. Dielectric ceramic sheets fabricated from ceramic powders that had been surface-treated with different amounts of N-[3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl]aniline (TMSPA) which increased the surface gloss. In particular, the dielectric properties of the multilayer ceramic sheet fabricated by stacking sheets from the TMSPA-treated ceramic powder sintering at 1200 °C, it was confirmed that the dielectric constant increased from 881 to 2382 and the dielectric loss dropped from 1.96 to 1.34% with utilization of the TMSPA treatment. The physical and dielectric properties of the TMSPA-treated multilayer ceramic sheet were also determined by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, glossmetry, and electrochemical impedance analysis. The results revealed that the TMSPA-modified BaTiO3 surfaces considerably increased the dielectric property of the fabricated nanocomposite.

15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445513

RESUMO

The activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), as well as up-regulation of cytokines and growth factors to promote STAT3 activation, have been found in the epidermis of psoriatic lesions. Recently, a series of synthetic compounds possessing the Michael acceptor have been reported as STAT3 inhibitors by covalently binding to cysteine of STAT3. We synthesized a Michael acceptor analog, SKSI-0412, and confirmed the binding affinity between STAT3 and SKSI-0412. We hypothesized that the SKSI-0412 can inhibit interleukin (IL)-17A-induced inflammation in keratinocytes. The introduction of IL-17A increased the phosphorylation of STAT3 in keratinocytes, whereas the inactivation of STAT3 by SKSI-0412 reduced IL-17A-induced STAT3 phosphorylation and IκBζ expression. In addition, human ß defensin-2 and S100A7, which are regulated by IκBζ, were significantly decreased with SKSI-0412 administration. We also confirmed that SKSI-0412 regulates cell proliferation, which is the major phenotype of psoriasis. Based on these results, we suggest targeting STAT3 with SKSI-0412 as a novel therapeutic strategy to regulate IL-17A-induced psoriatic inflammation in keratinocytes.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Interleucina-17/efeitos adversos , Queratinócitos/citologia , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/síntese química , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Regulação para Baixo , Humanos , Queratinócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Queratinócitos/metabolismo , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Cultura Primária de Células , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/química , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/síntese química , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/química
16.
Tissue Eng Regen Med ; 18(5): 797-805, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34386942

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Decellularized nerve allografting is one of promising treatment options for nerve defect. As an effort to develop more efficient nerve graft, recently we have developed a new decellularization method for nerve allograft. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and biocompatibility of nerve graft decellularized by our newly developed method. METHODS: Forty-eight inbred male Lewis rats were divided into two groups, Group I (autograft group, n = 25), Group II (decellularized isograft group, n = 23). Decellularized nerve grafts were prepared with our newly developed methods using amphoteric detergent and nuclease treatment. Serum cytokine level measurements at 0, 2, and 4 weeks and histologic evaluation for inflammatory cell infiltration at 6 and 16 weeks after nerve graft. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in mean maximum isometric tetanic force and weight of tibialis anterior muscle or ankle angle at toe-off phase between two groups at 6 and 16 weeks survival time points (p > 0.05). There was no inflammatory cell infiltration in either group and histomorphometric assessments of 6- and 16-week specimens of the isograft group did not differ from those in the autograft group with regard to number of fascicle, cross sectional area, fascicle area ratio, and number of regenerated nerve cells. CONCLUSION: Based on inflammatory reaction, axonal regeneration, and functional outcomes, our newly developed decellularized nerve grafts were fairly biocompatible and had comparable effectiveness to autografts for nerve regeneration, which suggested it would be suitable for nerve reconstruction as an alternative to autograft.


Assuntos
Regeneração Nervosa , Nervo Isquiático , Aloenxertos , Animais , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos Lew , Transplante Homólogo
17.
Polymers (Basel) ; 13(16)2021 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34451320

RESUMO

A superabsorbent polymer (SAP) was synthesized by copolymerizing itaconic acid and vinyl sulfonic acid. The typically low absorbency of itaconic acid-based SAPs under mechanical loads was improved by introducing surface crosslinking. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were used to characterize the synthesis and surface-crosslinking reactions in the SAP. Various conditions for surface-crosslinking reactions, such as the surface-crosslinking solution, content of surface-crosslinking agent, and reaction temperature, were explored and correlated with the gel strength and absorption characteristics of the resulting SAP particles. The distilled water content in the surface-crosslinking solution strongly influenced the absorption capacity of the SAP, but this sensitivity decreased when acetone was used as a co-solvent. Itaconic acid-based SAP that was crosslinked under optimal conditions exhibited centrifuge retention capacity and absorbency under a load of 31.1 and 20.2, respectively.

18.
Soft Robot ; 2021 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34388039

RESUMO

The human hand is one of the most complex and compact grippers that has arisen as a product of natural genetic engineering; it is highly versatile, as it handles power and precision tasks. Since proper contact points and force directions are required to ensure versatility and secure a stable grip on an object, there must be a large workspace and controllable tip force directions for the digits. Although they are important, many individuals with neuromuscular diseases experience loss of these features. Thus, we propose a high-degree-of-freedom (DOF) soft robotic glove inspired by the anatomical features of human hands. The mechanism for adjusting the position and force direction of each tip is based on the structure of the extrinsic and intrinsic muscle-tendon units. The large thumb workspace was achieved by assisting opposition/reposition and flexion/extension to enable various grasping postures. A bidirectional actuation control mechanism with a cable-actuated agonist and an elastomer antagonist increased the assisted DOF and maintained compactness. The kinematic and kinetic performances of our device were evaluated by performing tests with eight stroke survivors. The thumb workspace increased by 43%, 207%, and 248% in the distal-proximal, dorsal-palmar, and radial-ulnar directions, respectively. The pinching shear force decreased by 54% and 45% for the nonthumb digits and thumb, respectively. These device-assisted improvements allowed objects to be stably grasped and manipulated in various postures. The novel device can assist individuals with impaired hand function to improve their grasping performance. Clinical Research Information Service (CRIS) Registration Number: KCT0004855.

19.
Br J Radiol ; : 20210479, 2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34415785

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values and the T1 and T2 values derived from nonenhanced (NE) and contrast-enhanced (CE) magnetic resonance fingerprinting (MRF) in the prostate gland and to evaluate differences in values among prostate cancer, the normal peripheral zone (PZ) and the normal transition zone (TZ). METHODS: Fifty-seven patients (median age, 73 years; range, 48-86) with prostate cancer who underwent multiparametric MRI including NE and CE MRF were included in this study. T1 and T2 values were extracted from NE and CE MRF, respectively. Five quantitative values (the ADC, NE T1, NE T2, CE T1 and CE T2 values) were measured in three areas: prostate cancer, PZ and TZ. We compared the values among the three areas and evaluated the differences between NE MRF and CE MRF values. RESULTS: ADC values and MRF-derived values were significantly higher in PZ than prostate cancer or TZ (p < 0.001). TZ had a significantly lower CE T1 but significantly higher values of the other variables than prostate cancer (p < 0.001). The T1 values in all three areas and the T2 values in prostate cancer and TZ were significantly lower on CE MRF than on NE MRF (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Quantitative analysis of NE and CE MRI can be conducted by using the MRF technique. The ADC value and the T1 and T2 values from CE MRF and NE MRF were found to be significantly different between prostate cancer and normal prostate tissue. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: The T1 and T2 values from contrast-enhanced MR fingerprinting are significantly different between prostate cancer and normal prostate tissue.

20.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 11(7)2021 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34359308

RESUMO

This study aimed to validate the accuracy and prediction performance of machine learning (ML), deep learning (DL), and logistic regression methods in the treatment of medial meniscus posterior root tears (MMPRT). From July 2003 to May 2018, 640 patients diagnosed with MMPRT were included. First, the affecting factors for the surgery were evaluated using statistical analysis. Second, AI technology was introduced using X-ray and MRI. Finally, the accuracy and prediction performance were compared between ML&DL and logistic regression methods. Affecting factors of the logistic regression method corresponded well with the feature importance of the six top-ranked factors in the ML&DL method. There was no significant difference when comparing the accuracy, F1-score, and error rate between ML&DL and logistic regression methods (accuracy = 0.89 and 0.91, F1 score = 0.89 and 0.90, error rate = 0.11 and 0.09; p = 0.114, 0.422, and 0.119, respectively). The area under the curve (AUC) values showed excellent test quality for both ML&DL and logistic regression methods (AUC = 0.97 and 0.94, respectively) in the evaluation of prediction performance (p = 0.289). The affecting factors of the logistic regression method and the influence of the ML&DL method were not significantly different. The accuracy and performance of the ML&DL method in predicting the fate of MMPRT were comparable to those of the logistic regression method. Therefore, this ML&DL algorithm could potentially predict the outcome of the MMRPT in various fields and situations. Furthermore, our method could be efficiently implemented in current clinical practice.

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