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1.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 2): 131734, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34352545

RESUMO

Silane/ceramic combination provides the composites with several advantages from the advancements of new ceramic composite materials with good thermal conductivity, high mechanical and dielectric properties have wide significant applications in electrical and electronic industries. In this study, to enhance the dispersibility of dielectric barium titanate (BaTiO3) ceramic powder and additives for the fabrication of multilayer ceramic capacitors (MLCCs), surface treatment of the precursor of ceramic powder was performed using silane coupling agents. Dielectric ceramic sheets fabricated from ceramic powders that had been surface-treated with different amounts of N-[3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl]aniline (TMSPA) which increased the surface gloss. In particular, the dielectric properties of the multilayer ceramic sheet fabricated by stacking sheets from the TMSPA-treated ceramic powder sintering at 1200 °C, it was confirmed that the dielectric constant increased from 881 to 2382 and the dielectric loss dropped from 1.96 to 1.34% with utilization of the TMSPA treatment. The physical and dielectric properties of the TMSPA-treated multilayer ceramic sheet were also determined by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, glossmetry, and electrochemical impedance analysis. The results revealed that the TMSPA-modified BaTiO3 surfaces considerably increased the dielectric property of the fabricated nanocomposite.


Assuntos
Compostos de Bário , Silanos , Cerâmica , Pós , Titânio
2.
Environ Res ; 204(Pt A): 111953, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34454934

RESUMO

Absract In developed countries, age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of irreversible blindness in adults. The key pathways of AMD are suggested to be excessive oxidative stress and inflammation in the central retina. Because air pollution has been found capable of inducing oxidative stress and inflammation, it may play a role in development of AMD. This study investigated the association between ambient air pollution and AMD in 15,115 middle-aged and older adults (≥40 years) from Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2012. After controlling for important confounders, ambient NO2 and CO in current-to-5 prior years and PM10 in 2-to-5 prior years were significantly associated with higher prevalence of early AMD, while O3 in current-to-5 prior years was significantly associated with lower prevalence of early AMD. When modeled air pollution within administrative division units, its ORs with an IQR increase in NO2, CO, and O3 at current year were 1.24 (95% CI: 1.05-1.46), 1.22 (95% CI: 1.09-1.38), and 0.80 (95% CI: 0.70-0.92), respectively. Overall, results from air pollution at local/town units were consistent with those at administrative division units. Long-term exposures to ambient air pollution may play a role in the risk of AMD in middle-aged and older adults.

3.
Ann Dermatol ; 33(6): 515-521, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34858002

RESUMO

Background: A rifampicin (RF)-clindamycin (CL) combination therapy is recommended as the first-line treatment for moderate to severe hidradenitis suppurativa (HS). Although the long-term use of RF requires caution due to the possibility of developing resistant bacteria, only a few studies have investigated alternatives for this combination therapy. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of systemic CL mono-therapy and assess the prevalence and CL resistance of bacterial growth in HS patients. Methods: A total of 53 HS patients treated with CL mono-therapy were included. The efficacy was evaluated by identifying the rate of HS Clinical Response (Hi-SCR) achievers and comparing HS Physician's Global Assessment (HS-PGA) before (W0) and after (W8) the treatment. Purulent material from HS skin lesions was collected on the W0. Bacterial flora and antibiotic sensitivity were determined by bacterial cultures. Results: Of 53 HS patients, 34 were eligible for evaluation of the efficacy of the therapy. Twenty-one patients (61.76%) achieved Hi-SCR. The mean scoring of HS-PGA had significantly decreased from 3.24 to 2.15 (p=0.001). The prevalence of CL resistance was 15.00%. No significant differences in the efficacy of the therapy according to the presence of CL-resistant bacteria on the W0 were observed (p=0.906). Adverse events occurred in 26.42% of patients. Conclusion: Systemic CL mono-therapy may be a safe and useful alternative to RF-CL combination therapy, and no significant difference in the efficacy of the therapy depending on the presence of CL-resistant bacteria was observed.

4.
ACS Biomater Sci Eng ; 2021 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34817170

RESUMO

The self-expanding metal stent (SEMS) is a versatile, palliative treatment method for unresectable, malignant, non-vascular strictures. Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the candidates for the application of the SEMS, in combination with the photothermal ablation (PTA) technique that enhances its therapeutic efficacy. The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of stent-mediated PTA therapy in an endoscopy-guided, orthotopic rectal cancer model. A total of 30 of 40 mice with the tumor size of grade 4 were included and were divided into three groups of 10 mice each. Group A underwent a gold nanoparticle (AuNP)-coated SEMS but no near-infrared (NIR) irradiation, group B received an uncoated control SEMS with NIR irradiation, and group C received a AuNP-coated SEMS and NIR irradiation together. Colonoscopy and in vivo imaging, immunohistochemical analysis, and quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction of major tumor markers were performed. Stent placement and PTA were technically successful using colonoscopy. The tumor grade reduction after PTA is significant in group C, compared with groups A or B (p < 0.001). Molecular analysis validated this observation with a significantly reduced Mapk1 proliferation marker or increased Jnk expression. Histological analysis confirmed the localized PTA therapy using AuNP-coated SEMS profoundly ablated tumor outgrowth through the stent. Our results indicate that this novel strategy of localized PTA therapy could be a promising option for palliative treatment of CRC and to support prolonged stent patency with a decreased tumor volume.

6.
Food Funct ; 12(23): 12161, 2021 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34778895

RESUMO

Correction for 'CCL01, a novel formulation composed of Cuscuta seeds and Lactobacillus paracasei NK112, enhances memory function via nerve growth factor-mediated neurogenesis' by In Gyoung Ju et al., Food Funct., 2021, 12, 10690-10699, DOI: 10.1039/D1FO01403J.

7.
Bioresour Technol ; : 126404, 2021 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34826566

RESUMO

Microalgal research has made significant progress in terms of the high-value-added industrial application of microalgal biomass and its derivatives. However, cost-effective techniques for producing, harvesting, and processing microalgal biomass on a large scale still need to be fully explored in order to optimize their performance and achieve commercial robustness. In particular, technologies for harvesting microalgae are critical in the practical process as they require excessive energy and equipment costs. This review focuses on microalgal flocculation, dewatering, and drying techniques and specifically covers the traditional approaches and recent technological progress in harvesting microalgal biomass. Several aspects, including the characteristics of the target microalgae and the type of final value-added products, must be considered when selecting the appropriate harvesting technique. Furthermore, considerable aspects and possible future directions in flocculation, dewatering, and drying steps are proposed to develop scalable and low-cost microalgal harvesting systems.

8.
Immune Netw ; 21(5): e33, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34796037

RESUMO

IL-1ß plays critical roles in the priming and effector phases of immune responses such as the differentiation, commitment, and memory formation of T cells. In this context, several reports have suggested that the IL-1ß signal is crucial for CTL-mediated immune responses to viral infections and tumors. However, little is known regarding whether IL-1ß acts directly on CD8+ T cells and what the molecular mechanisms underlying expression of IL-1 receptors (IL-1Rs) on CD8+ T cells and features of IL-1R+CD8+ T cells are. Here, we provide evidence that the expression of IL-1R type I (IL-1RI), the functional receptor of IL-1ß, is preferentially induced by IL-21 on TCR-stimulated CD8+ T cells. Further, IL-1ß enhances the effector function of CD8+ T cells expressing IL-21-induced IL-1RI by increasing cytokine production and release of cytotoxic granules containing granzyme B. The IL-21-IL-1RI-IL-1ß axis is involved in an augmented effector function through regulation of transcription factors BATF, Blimp-1, and IRF4. Moreover, this axis confers a unique effector function to CD8+ T cells compared to conventional type 1 cytotoxic T cells differentiated with IL-12. Chemical inhibitor and immunoprecipitation assay demonstrated that IL-21 induces a unique pattern of STAT activation with the formation of both STAT1:STAT3 and STAT3:STAT5 heterodimers, which are critical for the induction of IL-1RI on TCR-stimulated CD8+ T cells. Taken together, we propose that induction of a novel subset of IL-1RI-expressing CD8+ T cells by IL-21 may be beneficial to the protective immune response against viral infections and is therefore important to consider for vaccine design.

9.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 145: 112402, 2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34773763

RESUMO

PAI-1 and CTGF are overexpressed in kidney diseases and cause fibrosis of the lungs, liver, and kidneys. We used a rat model of unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) to investigate whether 6-BIO, a glycogen synthase kinase-3ß inhibitor, attenuated fibrosis by inhibiting PAI-1 and CTGF in vivo. Additionally, TGFß-induced cellular fibrosis was observed in vitro using the human kidney proximal tubular epithelial cells (HK-2), and rat interstitial fibroblasts (NRK49F). Expression of fibrosis-related proteins and signaling molecules such as PAI-1, CTGF, TGFß, αSMA, SMAD, and MAPK were determined in HK-2 and NRK49F cells using immunoblotting. To identify the transcription factors that regulate the expression of PAI-1 and CTGF the promoter activities of AP-1 and SP-1 were analyzed using luciferase assays. Confocal microscopy was used to observe the co-localization of AP-1 and SP-1 to PAI-1 and CTGF. Expression of PAI-1, CTGF, TGFß, and α-SMA increased in UUO model as well as in TGFß-treated HK-2 and NRK49F cells. Furthermore, UUO and TGFß treatment induced the activation of P-SMAD2/3, SMAD4, P-ERK 1/2, P-P38, and P-JNK MAPK signaling pathways. PAI-1, CTGF, AP-1 and SP-1 promoter activity increased in response to TGFß treatment. However, treatment with 6-BIO decreased the expression of proteins and signaling pathways associated with fibrosis in UUO model as well as in TGFß-treated HK-2 and NRK49F cells. Moreover, 6-BIO treatment attenuated the expression of PAI-1 and CTGF as well as the promoter activities of AP-1 and SP-1, thereby regulating the SMAD and MAPK signaling pathways, and subsequently exerting anti-fibrotic effects on kidney cells.

10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(22)2021 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34830010

RESUMO

Dry eye disease (DED) is one of the major ophthalmological healthcare challenges worldwide. DED is a multifactorial disease characterized by a loss of homeostasis of the tear film, and its main pathogenesis is chronic ocular surface inflammation related with various cellular and molecular signaling cascades. The animal model is a reliable and effective tool for understanding the various pathological mechanisms and molecular cascades in DED. Considerable experimental research has focused on developing new strategies for the prevention and treatment of DED. Several experimental models of DED have been developed, and different animal species such as rats, mice, rabbits, dogs, and primates have been used for these models. Although the basic mechanisms of DED in animals are nearly identical to those in humans, proper knowledge about the induction of animal models is necessary to obtain better and more reliable results. Various experimental models (in vitro and in vivo DED models) were briefly discussed in this review, along with pathologic features, analytical approaches, and common measurements, which will help investigators to use the appropriate cell lines, animal, methods, and evaluation parameters depending on their study design.

11.
Food Funct ; 12(21): 10690-10699, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34605514

RESUMO

Memory decline occurs due to various factors, including stress, depression, and aging, and lowers the quality of life. Several nutritional supplements and probiotics have been used to enhance memory function, and efforts have been made to develop mixed supplements with maximized efficacy. In this study, we aimed to examine whether a novel formulation composed of Cuscuta seeds and Lactobacillus paracasei NK112, CCL01, enhances memory function and induces neurogenesis via nerve growth factor (NGF) induction. Firstly, we orally administered CCL01 to normal mice and assessed their memory function 4 weeks after the first administration by performing a step-through passive avoidance test. We found that CCL01 at 100 mg kg-1 treatment enhanced the fear-based memory function. By analyzing the expression of Ki-67 and doublecortin, which are the markers of proliferating cells and immature neurons, respectively, we observed that CCL01 induced neuronal proliferation and differentiation in the hippocampus of the mice. Additionally, we found that the expression of synaptic markers increased in the hippocampus of CCL01-treated mice. We measured the NGF expression in the supernatant of C6 cells after CCL01 treatment and found that CCL01 increased NGF release. Furthermore, treatment of CCL01-conditioned glial media on N2a cells increased neuronal differentiation via the TrkA/ERK/CREB signaling pathway and neurotrophic factor expression. Moreover, when CCL01 was administered and scopolamine was injected, CCL01 ameliorated memory decline. These results suggest that CCL01 is an effective enhancer of memory function and can be applied to various age groups requiring memory improvement.

12.
J Med Food ; 24(11): 1169-1171, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34704834

RESUMO

The immunomodulatory effects of Lactobacillus rhamnosus HDB1258 were evaluated in mice with colitis induced by Klebsiella oxytoca (KO). L. rhamnosus HDB1258 was cultured in the lava seawater (LS) to improve its probiotic properties. It increased adhesive ability to mucin with mRNA expression levels of chaperone proteins (such as GroEL/ES, DnaKJ, and HtrA). In the in vivo experiments, administration of KO caused an inflammation on the colon with gut dysbiosis. LH group (oral gavage of HDB1258 1.0 × 109 colony forming units/day) showed that inflammatory biomarkers, including IL-1ß, TNF-α, IL-6, and PGE2, were significantly decreased to less than half of the KO group, and Th1 cells were decreased in the spleen, but Treg cells were not affected. In contrast, the expression levels of secretory IgA and IL-10 were significantly increased, and the composition of gut microbiota in the LH group tended to recover similar to normal mice without any effect on the α-diversity. In conclusion, L. rhamnosus HDB1258 cultured in the LS could regulate competitively pathogenic bacteria in imbalanced flora with its improved mucin adhesive ability and was an effective immunomodulatory adjuvant for treating colitis by its regulatory function on intestinal inflammation.


Assuntos
Colite , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Lactobacillus rhamnosus , Probióticos , Animais , Colite/induzido quimicamente , Colite/tratamento farmacológico , Colite/genética , Citocinas , Camundongos , Água do Mar
13.
J Vasc Interv Radiol ; 32(11): 1569-1574.e11, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34717835

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to define the optimal infusion parameters and operator radiation exposure for yttrium-90 (90Y) radioembolization in the VX2 rabbit model of liver cancer. Forty-one rabbits with VX2 were treated with glass microspheres with vial sizes of 1, 3, and 5 GBq. The mean administered activity was 51.5 MBq (95% CI, 39.1-63.9). Delivery efficiency improved with 1 GBq versus with 3 GBq (residual 11.0% vs 46.4%, respectively; P = .0013) and improved with 1 GBq versus with 5 GBq (residual 11.0% vs 33.8%, respectively; P = .0060). The mean operator extremity exposure was 41.7 µSv/infusion. The optimal minimum infusion volume and rate was 49 mL and 21 mL/min, respectively. Fecal elimination occurred with microsphere uptake in the gallbladder at 1 and 2 weeks. 90Y radioembolization can be safely and efficiently performed in the VX2 rabbit model. Methodological considerations as a "how-to" for the setup of a preclinical 90Y laboratory are included to support future translational research.

14.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 20659, 2021 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34667205

RESUMO

Gut lactobacilli and bifidobacteria on the immune homeostasis. Therefore, to understand the mechanism in vivo, we selected human fecal Lactobacillus rhamnosus NK210 and Bifidobacterium longum NK219, which strongly suppressed the IFN-γ to IL-10 expression (IIE) ratio in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages. Thereafter, we examined their effects on the endotoxin, antibiotics, or antitumor drug-stimulated immune imbalance in mice. Intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide and oral gavage of ampicillin increased IFN-γ and TNF-α expression in the spleen, colon, and hippocampus, while IL-10 expression decreased. However, intraperitoneal injection of cyclophosphamide suppressed IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-10 expression. LPS exposure induced splenic natural killer cell cytotoxicity against YAC-1 cells (sNK-C) and peritoneal macrophage phagocytosis against Candida albicans (pMA-P) activities, while cyclophosphamide and ampicillin treatments suppressed sNK-C and pMA-P activities. However, LPS, ampicillin, cyclophosphamide all increased IIE and TNF-α to IL-10 expression (TIE) ratios. Oral administration of NK210 and/or NK219 significantly reduced LPS-induced sNK-C, pMA-P, and IFN-γ expression, while cyclophosphamide- or ampicillin-suppressed sNK-C and pMA-P activities, cyclophosphamide-suppressed IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-10 expression, and ampicillin-suppressed IL-10 expression increased. Nevertheless, they suppressed LPS-, ampicillin-, or cyclophosphamide-induced IIE and TIE ratios, cognitive impairment, and gut dysbiosis. In particular, NK219, but not NK210, increased the IIE expression ratio in vitro and in vivo, and enhanced sNK-C and pMA-P activities in normal control mice, while cognitive function and gut microbiota composition were not significantly affected. These findings suggest that NK210, Lactobacillus sp, and NK219, Bifidobacterium additively or synergistically alleviate gut dysbiosis, inflammation, and cognitive impairment with immune imbalance by controlling IIE and TIE ratios.

15.
Food Funct ; 12(21): 10750-10763, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34608923

RESUMO

Bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a risk factor for the outbreak of Alzheimer's disease. Therefore, we isolated Lactobacillus plantarum NK151 and Bifidobacterium longum NK173 from a human fecal bacteria collection, which inhibited Escherichia coli LPS production, and examined their effects on the Escherichia coli K1- or LPS-induced cognitive impairment in mice. Oral gavage of NK151, NK173, or their (4 : 1) mixture (NKm) significantly alleviated Escherichia coli K1-induced cognitive impairment-like behaviors in the Y-maze and novel object recognition tasks. Their treatments decreased IL-1ß, IL-6, and TNF-α expression and NF-κB+/Iba1+ and LPS+/Iba1+ cell populations in the hippocampus, while the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)+/neuronal nuclei (NeuN)+ cell population and BDNF to proBNDF expression increased. They suppressed LPS-induced cognition impairment-like behaviors and neuroinflammation marker levels in the hippocampus. Treatment with them reduced Escherichia coli K1- or LPS-induced LPS and apolipoprotein E levels in the blood and inflammatory marker levels in the colon. Furthermore, treatment with them modulated fecal Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Verrucomicrobia populations. Of these gut bacteria, Bacteroidaceae, Odoribacteraceae, Lactobacillaceae, Bifidobacteriaceae, Rikenellaceae, Helicobacteraceae, and Deferribacteraceae are correlated with cognitive function and blood and fecal LPS levels. These findings suggest that NK151 and NK173 may alleviate cognitive impairment with colitis by upregulating NF-κB-mediated BDNF expression through the suppression of fecal and blood bacterial LPS levels.

16.
BMC Ophthalmol ; 21(1): 364, 2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34645396

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To evaluate the effects of pretreatment for dry eye disease (DED) on the accuracy of intraocular lens (IOL) power calculation. METHODS: Patients who underwent uneventful cataract surgery were included in the study. IOL power was determined using the SRK/T and Barrett Universal II (Barrett) formulas. The patients were divided into non-pretreatment and pretreatment groups, and those in the pretreatment group were treated with topical 0.5% loteprednol etabonate and 0.05% cyclosporin A for 2 weeks prior to cataract surgery. Ocular biometry was performed in all groups within 2 days before surgery. The mean prediction error, mean absolute error (MAE), and proportions of refractive surprise were compared between the non-pretreatment and pretreatment groups at 1 month postoperatively. Refractive surprise was defined as MAE ≥ 0.75D. RESULTS: In a total of 105 patients, 52 (52 eyes) were in the non-pretreatment group and 53 (53 eyes) in the pretreatment group. The MAE was 0.42 ± 0.33, 0.38 ± 0.34 (SRK/T, Barrett) and 0.23 ± 0.19, 0.24 ± 0.19 in the non-pretreatment and pretreatment groups, respectively (p < 0.001/=0.008). The number of refractive surprises was also significantly lower in the pretreatment group. [non-pretreatment/pretreatment: 9/2 (SRK/T); 8/1 (Barrett); p = 0.024/0.016]. Pretreatment of DED was related to a reduction in postoperative refractive surprise. [SRK/T/Barrett: OR = 0.18/0.17 (95% CI: 0.05-0.71/0.05-0.60), p = 0.014/0.006]. CONCLUSIONS: The accuracy of IOL power prediction can be increased by actively treating DED prior to cataract surgery.


Assuntos
Síndromes do Olho Seco , Lentes Intraoculares , Facoemulsificação , Biometria , Humanos , Implante de Lente Intraocular , Óptica e Fotônica , Refração Ocular , Estudos Retrospectivos
17.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 20406, 2021 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34650107

RESUMO

Gut dysbiosis is closely associated with the occurrence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and psychiatric disorder. Here, to understand the difference of gut microbiota composition and physiological effect between IBD patients with (IBD/D+) or without depression (IBD/D-), we analyzed the fecal microbiota composition of patients with IBD with (/D+) or without depression (/D-) and healthy volunteers (HVs) and examined the effects of these fecal microbiota transplantations (FMTs) on the occurrence of systemic inflammation and anxiety/depression in mice. FMTs from patients with IBD/D+ or IBD/D- caused IBD-like colitis in the transplanted mice: they increased the myeloperoxidase activity, IL-1ß and IL-6 expression, and NF-κB+/CD11c+ cell population in the colon. Transplantation of the IBD/D+ patient feces (IBD/D+-F) caused IBD-like colitis more strongly than that of IBD/D--F. FMTs from patients with IBD/D+ also caused anxiety-/depression-like behaviors, increased the NF-κB+/Iba1+ and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)+/Iba1+ cell populations, and decreased the BDNF+/NeuN+ cell population in the hippocampus. They increased LPS levels in the blood. FMTs from patients with IBD/D- caused anxiety-like, but not depression-like, behaviors. α-/ß-diversities and composition of gut microbiota in IBD-F were different from those of HV feces (HV-F). The Enterobacteriaceae and Enterococcaceae populations and LPS levels were higher in the IBD-F than in the HV-F. The Enterococcaceae population was higher in IBD/D+-F vs. IBD/D--F. However, the transplantation of HV-F into mice previously transplanted with IBD/D+-F significantly reduced depression-like behaviors, NF-κB+/Iba1+ and LPS+/Iba1+ cell populations in the hippocampus, LPS levels in the feces and blood, and IL-1ß expression in the colon. These findings suggest that the outbreak of depression/anxiety may be dependent on the systemic inflammation with a leaky gut through the gut dysbiosis-attributable overproduction of bacterial LPS and suppression of tight junction protein expression in patients with IBD.

18.
Ultrasonography ; 2021 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34674456

RESUMO

Musculoskeletal ultrasonography (US) has unique advantages, such as excellent spatial resolution for superficial structures, the capability for dynamic imaging, and the ability for direct correlation and provocation of symptoms. For these reasons, US is increasingly used to evaluate problems in small joints, such as the foot and ankle. However, it is almost impossible to evaluate every anatomic structure within a limited time. Therefore, US examinations can be faster and more efficient if radiologists know where to look and image patients with typical symptoms. In this review, common etiologies of heel pain are discussed in a problem-based manner. Knowing the common pain sources and being familiar with their US findings will help radiologists to perform accurate and effective US examinations.

19.
Drug Deliv ; 28(1): 2268-2277, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34668836

RESUMO

Intratympanic (IT) therapies have been explored to address several side effects that could be caused by systemic administration of steroids to treat inner ear diseases. For effective drug delivery to the inner ear, an IT delivery system was developed using poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) and thermosensitive gels to maintain sustained release. Dexamethasone (DEX) was used as a model drug. The size and zeta potential of PLGA NPs and the gelation time of the thermosensitive gel were measured. In vitro drug release was studied using a Franz diffusion cell. Cytotoxicity of the formulations was investigated using SK-MEL-31 cells. Inflammatory responses were evaluated by histological observation of spiral ganglion cells and stria vascularis in the mouse cochlea 24 h after IT administration. In addition, the biodistribution of the formulations in mouse ears was observed by fluorescence imaging using coumarin-6. DEX-NPs showed a particle size of 150.0 ± 3.2 nm in diameter and a zeta potential of -18.7 ± 0.6. The DEX-NP-gel showed a gelation time of approximately 64 s at 37 °C and presented a similar release profile and cytotoxicity as that for DEX-NP. Furthermore, no significant inflammatory response was observed after IT administration. Fluorescence imaging results suggested that DEX-NP-gel sustained release compared to the other formulations. In conclusion, the PLGA NP-loaded thermosensitive gel may be a potential drug delivery system for the inner ear.

20.
Yonsei Med J ; 62(11): 969-980, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34672130

RESUMO

The skin is the first line of defense of our body, and it is composed of the epidermis and dermis with diverse immune cells. Various in vitro models have been investigated to recapitulate the immunological functions of the skin and to model inflammatory skin diseases. The simplest model is a two-dimensional (2D) co-culture system, which helps understand the direct and indirect cell-to-cell interactions between immune and structural cells; however, it has limitations when observing three-dimensional (3D) interactions or reproducing skin barriers. Conversely, 3D skin constructs can mimic the human skin characteristics in terms of epidermal and dermal structures, barrier functions, cell migration, and cell-to-cell interaction in the 3D space. Recently, as the importance of neuro-immune-cutaneous interactions in the inflammatory response is emerging, 3D skin constructs containing both immune cells and neurons are being developed. A microfluidic culture device called "skin-on-a-chip," which simulates the structures and functions of the human skin with perfusion, was also developed to mimic immune cell migration through the vascular system. This review summarizes the in vitro skin models with immune components, focusing on two highly prevalent chronic inflammatory skin diseases: atopic dermatitis and psoriasis. The development of these models will be valuable in studying the pathophysiology of skin diseases and evaluating the efficacy and toxicity of new drugs.


Assuntos
Dermatite Atópica , Dermatopatias , Técnicas de Cocultura , Humanos , Imunidade , Pele
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