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1.
Liver Int ; 2021 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33641244

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has been associated with sarcopenia. However, mortality in the setting of NAFLD-related sarcopenia remains undefined. We aim to determine the all-cause and cause-specific mortality from sarcopenia among adults with NAFLD in the United States (US). METHODS: 11,065 individuals in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were studied and linked mortality through 2015 was analyzed. NAFLD was diagnosed based on presence of ultrasonographic hepatic steatosis without other known liver diseases. Sarcopenia was defined as skeletal muscle index determined by bioelectrical impedance analysis. The Cox proportional hazard model was used to assess all-cause mortality and cause-specific mortality, and hazard ratio (HR) adjusted for known risk factors. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 23 years or more, sarcopenia was associated with increased all-cause mortality (HR 1.27, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.11-1.44). Only in individuals with NAFLD, sarcopenia was associated with a higher risk for all-cause mortality, while this association was absent in those without NAFLD. Individuals with both sarcopenia and NAFLD had a higher risk for all-cause mortality (HR 1.28 95% CI 1.06-1.55) compared with those without sarcopenia and NAFLD. Furthermore, sarcopenia was associated with a higher risk for cancer- and diabetes-related mortality among those with NAFLD. This association was not noted in those without NAFLD. CONCLUSION: In this nationally representative sample of US adults, sarcopenia was associated with a higher risk for all-cause, cancer- and diabetes-related mortality in individuals with NAFLD.

2.
Eur Spine J ; 2021 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33611718

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the present study was to perform a meta-analysis comparing biomechanical and clinical outcomes between anterior-only and combined anterior and posterior fusions to determine which method of cervical fusion yielded better results for unstable cervical injuries. METHODS: The MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Web of Science and SCOPUS electronic databases were searched for relevant articles published through 2000-2019 that compared the biomechanical and clinical outcomes of anterior-only and combined anterior and posterior fusion for unstable cervical fracture. RESULTS: Eight biomechanical and four clinical studies were included in the analysis. There were significant biomechanical differences between the groups with respect to flexion-extension, axial rotation and lateral bending. Combined fusion provided better biomechanical stability for unstable cervical injuries than anterior-only fusion, regardless of the number of corpectomies or the presence of a posterior column injury. However, despite significant biomechanical differences, there were no significant differences in clinical outcomes, such as the degree of neurologic improvement and complications between the two groups. CONCLUSION: Anterior-only and combined anterior and posterior fusions for unstable subaxial cervical injuries can both restore cervical stability. Although combined fusion might have some advantages in terms of stability biomechanically, there were no significant differences in clinical outcomes, such as the degree of neurologic improvement and perioperative complications. Therefore, rather than the routine use of combined fusion for unstable cervical injuries, the selective use of anterior-only or combined fusion according to the type of injury is recommended.

3.
Int J Med Sci ; 18(4): 861-872, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33456343

RESUMO

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common joint disease characterized by degradation and inflammation of cartilage extracellular matrix. We aimed to evaluate the protective effect of Caragana sinica root (CSR) on interleukin (IL)-1ß-stimulated rat chondrocytes and a monosodium iodoacetate (MIA)-induced model of OA. In vitro, cell viability of CSR-treated chondrocytes was measured by MTT assay. The mRNA expression of Matrix metallopeptidases (MMPs), a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs (ADAMTSs) and extracellular matrix (ECM) were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Moreover, the protein expression of MAPK (phosphorylation of EKR, JNK, p38), inhibitory kappa B (IκBα) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB p65) was detected by western blot analysis. In vivo, the production of nitric oxide (NO) was detected by Griess reagent, while those of inflammatory mediators, MMPs and ECM were detected by ELISA. The degree of OA was evaluated by histopathological analyses, Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OARSI) score and micro-CT analysis. CSR significantly inhibited the expression of MMPs, ADAMTSs and the degradation of ECM in IL-1ß-stimulated chondrocytes. Furthermore, CSR significantly suppressed IL-1ß-stimulated of MAPKs, NF-κB signaling pathway. In vivo, CSR and Indomethacin inhibited the production of inflammatory mediators, MMPs and degradation of ECM in MIA-induced model of OA. In addition, CSR improved the severity of OA. Taken together, these results suggest CSR is a potential therapeutic active agent in the treatment of OA.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33300216

RESUMO

Background & Aims While many studies demonstrated an association between visceral adiposity and colorectal adenoma (CRA), the effect of longitudinal changes in body fat composition on CRA is unclear. We investigated the longitudinal association between changes in visceral adiposity and CRA occurrence. METHODS: Between 2006 and 2018, 732 (62.8%) of 1165 subjects in a prospective cohort voluntarily underwent follow-up abdominal fat computed tomography and colonoscopy. We defined incident and recurrent CRA as adenoma detected at follow-up colonoscopy from negative and positive adenoma at baseline colonoscopy, respectively. Multilevel survival analysis examined the longitudinal association between changes in visceral fat and CRA. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 7.4 years, 400 (54.6%) subjects developed CRA. In multivariable analysis, increasing changes in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) area were associated with higher risk of incident adenoma (hazard ratio [HR] 1.21, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.00-1.46 for change per 10 cm2 increase; HR 1.79, 95% CI 1.08-2.97 for highest vs. lowest quartile, p values for trend= 0.045). Likewise, increasing changes in VAT area were independently associated with a higher risk of recurrent adenoma (HR 1.35, 95% CI 1.13-1.62 for change per 10 cm2 increase; HR 1.62, 95% CI 1.04-2.52 for highest vs. lowest quartile, p values for trend= 0.001). Changes in subcutaneous adipose tissue area were not independently associated with CRA. CONCLUSION: Increasing changes in VAT area were longitudinally associated with a higher risk of incident and recurrent CRA, independent of risk factors, suggesting that visceral adiposity may be an important target in CRA prevention.

5.
Clin Mol Hepatol ; 2020 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33317243

RESUMO

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a multisystemic disease and a rapidly growing cause of chronic liver disease in children and adults worldwide. Diagnosis and management of extrahepatic manifestations of NAFLD, including cardiovascular disease (CVD), type 2 diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, chronic kidney disease, obstructive sleep apnea, polycystic ovarian syndrome, hypothyroidism, psoriasis, and extrahepatic malignancy are crucial for the treatment of patients with NAFLD. The leading cause of death in NAFLD is primarily from CVD, followed by liver-related mortality, extrahepatic cancer, liver cancer, and diabetes-related mortality. Therefore, clinicians need to identify high-risk patients earlier in the disease course and be aware of the extrahepatic manifestations of NAFLD to improve liver disease outcomes. In this review, we focus on the monitoring and management of the extrahepatic manifestations of NAFLD.

6.
J Emerg Nurs ; 2020 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33229000

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Trauma is a leading cause of death in South Korea. This study aimed to identify the factors associated with secondary traumatic stress of nurses working at regional trauma centers. METHODS: A survey-based cross-sectional design was utilized. Data were collected through a structured questionnaire consisting of 5 rating scales and demographic data. Data were analyzed via descriptive statistics, t test, analysis of variance, Pearson's correlation, and multiple regression. RESULTS: One hundred eighty-six nurses participated, and most (84.4%) reported moderate to severe secondary traumatic stress. Exposure to traumatic events averaged 34.33 (SD = 6.25) out of 65 points. Average problem-focused coping was 3.00 (SD = 0.37), emotion-focused coping was 2.57 (SD = 0.26), and dysfunctional coping was 2.17 (SD = 0.41) out of 4 points. Social support from family and friends averaged 5.85 (SD = 0.75), social support from coworkers was 5.78 (SD = 0.83), and social support from supervisors was 4.65 (SD = 1.18) out of 7 points. The factors affecting the respondents' secondary traumatic stress were type D personality (ß = 0.39, P < .001), dysfunctional coping (ß = 0.28, P < .001), problem-focused coping (ß = 0.19, P < .01), desire for job rotation (ß = 0.17, P < .01), and social support from supervisors (ß = -0.12, P = < .05). This regression model was statistically significant and the explanatory power was 46.7% (F = 33.47, P < .001, Adj R2 = 0.47). DISCUSSION: Along with a personal effort to engage in stress management programs, administrators, managers, and supervisors should prioritize developing practical strategies for reducing secondary traumatic stress of nurses.

7.
Cell Transplant ; 29: 963689720971245, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33172296

RESUMO

Islet transplantation has emerged as a promising treatment for type 1 diabetes mellitus. Liraglutide, a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist, protects beta cells after islet transplantation by improving glycemic control through several mechanisms. In this study, we compared the effects of local pretreatment and systemic treatment with liraglutide on islet transplantation in a diabetic mouse model. Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic C57BL/6 mice were transplanted with syngeneic islets under the kidney capsule. Isolated islets were either locally treated with liraglutide before transplantation or mice were treated systemically by intraperitoneal injection after islet transplantation. Local pretreatment of islets with liraglutide was more effective in increasing body weight, decreasing hemoglobin A1c levels, and lowering blood glucose levels in STZ-diabetic mice transplanted with islets. Local pretreatment was also more effective in increasing insulin secretion and islet survival in STZ-diabetic mice. Histological analysis of the transplantation site revealed fewer apoptotic cells following local pretreatment compared with systemic injection of liraglutide. These findings indicate that liraglutide administered once locally before transplantation might have superior effects on islet preservation than systemic administration.

8.
J Viral Hepat ; 2020 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33147365

RESUMO

We examined trends in mortality from hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and alcoholic liver disease (ALD) in the setting of drug overdose. Using US Census and national mortality records (2009-2018), we identified deaths with HCV infection, ALD and drug overdose. HCV-related mortality without drug overdose increased up to 2014, followed by a marked decrease. Mortality from HCV and drug overdose increased significantly. Whereas ALD-related mortality without drug overdose continued to rise, no significant trend from ALD with drug overdose was noted. HCV-related mortalities reduced after the introduction of DAA agents, while drug overdose-related mortality in HCV was constantly increased.

9.
Cancer ; 127(1): 45-55, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33103243

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients from rural and low-income households may have suboptimal access to liver disease care, which may translate into worse HCC outcomes. The authors provide a comprehensive update of HCC incidence and outcomes among US adults, focusing on the effect of rural geography and household income on tumor stage and mortality. METHODS: The authors retrospectively evaluated adults with HCC using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results data from 2004 to 2017. HCC incidence was reported per 100,000 persons and was compared using z-statistics. Tumor stage at diagnosis used the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results staging system and was evaluated with multivariate logistic regression. HCC mortality was evaluated using Kaplan-Meier and multivariate Cox proportional hazards methods. RESULTS: HCC incidence plateaued for most groups, with the exception of American Indians/Alaska Natives (2004-2017: APC, 4.17%; P < .05) and patients in the lowest household income category (<$40,000; 2006-2017: APC, 2.80%; P < .05). Compared with patients who had HCC in large metropolitan areas with a population >1 million, patients in more rural regions had higher odds of advanced-stage HCC at diagnosis (odds ratio, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.00-1.20; P = .04) and higher mortality (hazard ratio, 1.05; 95% CI, 1.01-1.08; P = .02). Compared with the highest income group (≥$70,000), patients with HCC who earned <$40,000 annually had higher odds of advanced-stage HCC (odds ratio, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.01-1.32; P = .03) and higher mortality (hazard ratio, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.16-1.31; P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Patients from rural regions and lower-income households had more advanced tumor stage at diagnosis and significantly higher HCC mortality. These disparities likely reflect suboptimal access to consistent high-quality liver disease care, including HCC surveillance.

10.
Biomedicines ; 8(9)2020 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32899155

RESUMO

Oxidative stress was implicated in the functional impairment of the frontal cortex observed in early Alzheimer's disease (AD). To elucidate this role in an animal AD model, we assessed cognitive function of 4-month-old five familial AD (5XFAD) transgenic (Tg) mice using a learning strategy-switching task requiring recruitment of the frontal cortex and measuring levels of 4-hydroxy-2-trans-nonenal (4-HNE), a marker of oxidative stress, in their frontal cortex. Mice were sequentially trained in cued/response and place/spatial versions of the water maze task for four days each. 5XFAD and non-Tg mice exhibited equal performance in cued/response training. However, 5XFAD mice used spatial search strategy less than non-Tg mice in the spatial/place training. Immunoblot and immunofluorescence staining showed that 4-HNE levels increased in the frontal cortex, but not in the hippocampus and striatum, of 5XFAD mice compared to those in non-Tg mice. We report early cognitive deficits related to the frontal cortex and the frontal cortex's oxidative damage in 4-month-old 5XFAD mice. These results suggest that 4-month-old 5XFAD mice be a useful animal model for the early diagnosis and management of AD.

11.
Int J Surg Case Rep ; 75: 286-291, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32979827

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Langerhans` Cell Histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare disease involving proliferation of Langerhans-type cells, which shares immunophenotypic and ultrastructural similarities. In this article, we report a case of Langerhans cell histiocytosis in solitary involvement of clavicle of adult male. PRESENTATION OF CASE: A 21-year-old male visited outpatient department on account of solitary palpable tumorous lesion in right clavicle. The lesion was found 2 weeks before the visit, and it triggered pain but no tenderness. Findings on X-ray, and CT were suggestive of homogeneous osteolytic lesion of the clavicle, and hot uptake was found in right clavicle on bone scan which is commensurate with site of the lesion. Based on findings on MRI, Ewing's sarcoma, osteomyelitis and malignant hematologic malignancies were initially suspected for differential diagnosis. For the purpose of excision and histologic analysis, excisional biopsy was performed. Biopsy concluded with diagnosis of LCH. DISCUSSION: LCH is widely renowned for its frequent occurrence in pediatric ages, and it occurs usually between ages of one and four. It occasionally occurs in adults. LCH in skeletal system usually involves cranium, vertebrae, rib and so forth. It is very rare for LCH to occur exclusively in clavicle when it involves skeletal system. For diagnosis of LCH, sole imaging studies are inadequate, and histologic, immunochemical analyses are confirmative modalities. Treatment of LCH is not currently standardized. CONCLUSIONS: Most of the solitary tumorous lesions in clavicle in adults call for various differential diagnoses. LCH should be considered in the diagnosis of a adult patient with a clavicle mass.

12.
Gut Liver ; 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32921636

RESUMO

The ongoing obesity epidemic and the increasing recognition of metabolic syndrome have contributed to the growing prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the most common form of liver disease worldwide. It is imperative to understand the incidence and prevalence of NAFLD as it is associated with a profound economic burden of hospitalizations, including the shifting trends in liver transplantation. The long-term cumulative healthcare cost of NAFLD patients has been shown to be 80% higher than that of non-NAFLD patients. We explore diagnostic challenges in identifying those with NAFLD who have a higher predilection to progress to end-stage liver disease. We aim to assess all-cause and cause-specific mortality as it relates to NAFLD.

13.
Clin Liver Dis (Hoboken) ; 16(2): 73-76, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32922754
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32950749

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Chronic liver disease (CLD) represents a major global health burden. We undertook this study to identify the factors associated with adverse outcomes in patients with CLD who acquire the novel coronavirus-2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: We conducted a multi-center, observational cohort study across 21 institutions in the United States (US) of adult patients with CLD and laboratory-confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 between March 1, 2020 and May 30, 2020. We performed survival analysis to identify independent predictors of all-cause mortality and COVID-19 related mortality, and multivariate logistic regression to determine the risk of severe COVID-19 in patients with CLD. RESULTS: Of the 978 patients in our cohort, 867 patients (mean age 56.9±14.5 years, 55% male) met inclusion criteria. The overall all-cause mortality was 14.0% (n = 121), and 61.7% (n = 535) had severe COVID-19. Patients presenting with diarrhea or nausea/vomiting were more likely to have severe COVID-19. The liver-specific factors associated with independent risk of higher overall mortality were alcohol-related liver disease (ALD) (hazard ratio [HR] 2.42, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.29-4.55), decompensated cirrhosis (HR 2.91 [1.70-5.00]) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) (HR 3.31 [1.53-7.16]). Other factors were increasing age, diabetes, hypertension, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and current smoker. Hispanic ethnicity (odds ratio [OR] 2.33 [1.47-3.70]) and decompensated cirrhosis (OR 2.50 [1.20-5.21]) were independently associated with risk for severe COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: The risk factors which predict higher overall mortality among patients with CLD and COVID-19 are ALD, decompensated cirrhosis and HCC. Hispanic ethnicity and decompensated cirrhosis are associated with severe COVID-19. Our results will enable risk stratification and personalization of the management of patients with CLD and COVID-19. Clinicaltrials.gov number NCT04439084.

15.
Aliment Pharmacol Ther ; 52(10): 1603-1614, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32892365

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) affects obese and non-obese individuals. However, mechanisms underlying non-obese non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) remain unclear. AIMS: To attempt to identify metabolic perturbations associated with non-obese and obese NAFLD using a lipidomics approach. METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis of 361 subjects with biopsy-proven NAFLD (157 NAFL and 138 NASH) and healthy controls (n = 66) was performed. Individuals were categorised as obese or non-obese based on the Asian cut-off for body mass index. Circulating lipidomic profiling of sera was performed based on the histological severity of NAFLD. Circulating lipidomic alterations were validated with an independent validation set (154 NAFLD subjects [93 NAFL and 61 NASH] and 21 healthy controls). RESULTS: Saturated sphingomyelin (SM) species were significantly associated with visceral adiposity in non-obese NAFLD (SM d38:0; P < 0.001) but not in obese NAFLD. Additionally, SM levels were significantly associated with systemic and adipose tissue insulin resistance (SM d38:0; P = 0.002 and <0.001, respectively). Five potential lipid metabolites for non-obese subjects and seven potential lipids for obese subjects were selected to predict NAFLD and NASH. These lipid combinations showed good diagnostic performance for non-obese (area under the curve [AUC] for NAFLD/NASH = 0.916/0.813) and obese (AUC for NAFLD/NASH = 0.967/0.812) subjects. Moreover, distinctly altered patterns of diacylglycerol (DAG), triacylglycerol (TAG) and SM levels were confirmed in the validation set depending on the histological severity of NAFLD. CONCLUSION: Non-obese and obese NAFLD subjects exhibit unique circulating lipidomic signatures, including DAGs, TAGs and SMs. These lipid combinations may be useful biomarkers for non-obese and obese NAFLD patients.

16.
Nanoscale ; 12(38): 19768-19775, 2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32966525

RESUMO

In the field of gas sensor studies, most researchers are focusing on improving the response of the sensors to detect a low concentration of gas. However, factors that make a large response, such as abundant or strong adsorption sites, also work as a source of noise, resulting in a trade-off between response and noise. Thus, the response alone cannot fully evaluate the performance of sensors, and the signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) should additionally be considered to design gas sensors with optimal performance. In this regard, thin-film-type sensing materials are good candidates thanks to their moderate response and noise level. In this paper, we investigate the effects of radio frequency (RF) sputtering power for deposition of sensing materials on the SNR of resistor- and field-effect transistor (FET)-type gas sensors fabricated on the same Si wafer. In the case of resistor-type gas sensors, the deposition conditions that improve the response also worsen the noise either by increasing the scattering at the bulk or damaging the interface of the sensing material. Among resistor-type gas sensors with sensing materials deposited with different RF powers, a sensor with low noise shows the largest SNR despite its small response. However, the noise of FET-type gas sensors is not affected by changes in RF power and thus there is no trade-off between response and noise. The results reveal different noise sources depending on the deposition conditions of the sensing material, and provide design guidelines for resistor- and FET-type gas sensors considering noise for optimal performance.

17.
Ann Transl Med ; 8(8): 561, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32775362

RESUMO

Background: Islet transplantation might be a logical strategy to restore insulin secretion for the treatment of diabetes, however, the scarcity of donors poses an obstacle for such a treatment. As an alternative islet source, differentiation of stem cells into insulin-producing cells (IPCs) has been tried. Many protocols have been developed to improve the efficiency of differentiation of stem cells into IPCs. In this study, we investigated whether glucosamine supplementation during differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs) into IPCs can improve the insulin secretory function. Methods: Glucosamine was added to the original differentiation medium at different stages of differentiation of hADSCs into IPCs for 12 days and insulin secretion was analyzed. Results: Addition of glucosamine alone to the growth medium of hADSCs did not affect the differentiation of hADSCs to IPCs. Supplementation of the differentiation medium with glucosamine at a later stage (protocol G3) proved to have the greatest effect on IPC differentiation. Basal and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) was significantly increased and the expression of insulin and C-peptide was increased in differentiated IPCs as compared with that in differentiated IPCs using the conventional protocol (protocol C). In addition, the expression of beta-cell specific transcription factors such as pancreatic and duodenal homeobox1 (PDX1) and neurogenin 3 (NGN3) was also increased. Furthermore, the expression of genes related to insulin secretion, including synaptotagmin 4 (Syt4), glucokinase (Gck) and glucose transporter 2 (Glut2), was also increased. Conclusions: We conclude that glucosamine supplementation potentiates the differentiation of hADSCs into IPCs.

18.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(8): e0008554, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32810163

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Scabies is a common contagious skin disease. With the economic growth in South Korea, the incidence of scabies has decreased. However, with the recent advancements in medical facilities, mainly the establishment of long-term care hospitals (LTCHs), scabies is now considered an emerging public health problem. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To examine the prevalence and management of scabies in LTCHs in South Korea, we contacted all 1,336 LTCHs registered at the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service in South Korea in 2018. A total of 110 LTCHs completed a questionnaire, and we analyzed their responses. In the last 5 years, 71.8% (79/110) of LTCHs had a high incidence of scabies (suspected/confirmed cases). Usually, patients aged older than 80 years (45.5%) were diagnosed with the disease, with more women being affected than men. Only 30.0% of the patients were transferred to scabies-restricted rooms, and very few LTCHs (7.0%) had special departments for scabies. Fifty-five (61.1%) of 90 LTCHs reported contact between scabies patients and nurses, nurse aides, caregivers, and other employees (hereinafter, referred to as primary exposure), with 29 (32.2%) LTCHs reporting infections due to primary exposure. The most common challenges in managing scabies were patient isolation (47.8%), diagnosis (31.1%), management of individuals exposed to an individual with scabies (17.8%), lack of staff for managing the patients (16.7%), and treatment (11.1%). CONCLUSIONS: The incidence rate of scabies in LTCHs in South Korea has increased. Regular and enhanced staff training is needed, considering that most hospitals rarely focused on the handling of equipment and furniture used by scabies patients and on educating their healthcare staff. These findings can be used to develop various strategies to reduce the prevalence of scabies.


Assuntos
Hospitais , Assistência de Longa Duração , Escabiose/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde/educação , Humanos , Incidência , Controle de Infecções , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Administração dos Cuidados ao Paciente , Prevalência , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32801011

RESUMO

Fatty liver disease is a clinicopathologic spectrum that encompasses simple steatosis, steatohepatitis, advanced fibrosis, and cirrhosis. Transient elastography has evolved as an accurate technique and noninvasive tool for assessing hepatic fibrosis in clinical practice.1 The controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) score has been added to elastography, which computes ultrasound attenuation related to hepatic steatosis and improves the measurement of hepatic steatosis.1,2 To date, no population-based studies have estimated the recent prevalence of fatty liver disease and fibrosis assessed by transient elastography in the United States. We investigated the sex-, race/ethnicity-, and body mass index-based prevalence of fatty liver disease and hepatic fibrosis by CAP-enhanced transient elastography in the United States.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32714420

RESUMO

Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. (PM) root extracts have been used for treating graying hair in Oriental medicine; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying the melanogenic effects of PM root have not been fully understood. In the present study, we investigated the melanogenic effects of an ethanolic extract of PM root (PME) and the mechanisms involved. We examined the effects of PME on cell viability, cellular melanin content, and tyrosinase activity in B16F10 cells. The melanogenic mechanism of PME was explored using signaling inhibitors and examining the expression of melanogenic genes and signaling molecules by western blot and RT-qPCR analyses. PME did not exhibit any cytotoxicity in B16F10 cells compared to that in control cells. PME treatment significantly increased melanin production and tyrosinase activity. In addition, PME induced the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2) as well as that of melanogenic genes, such as microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MiTF), tyrosinase-related protein (Trp) 1, Trp2, and tyrosinase, in B16F10 cells. PME treatment increased the level of phosphorylated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and pretreatment with SB 203580, a p38 MAPK inhibitor, significantly suppressed this PME-induced increase in the expression of COX2 and melanogenic genes. These results indicate that PME induced the expression of melanogenic genes by inducing COX2 expression via the activation of the p38 MAPK pathway, thereby contributing to the enhancement of melanogenesis.

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