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1.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 10(11)2021 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34829545

RESUMO

LW1497 suppresses the expression of the hypoxia-inducing factor (HIF)-1α inhibiting malate dehydrogenase. Although hypoxia and HIF-1α are known to be important in cancer, LW1497 has not been therapeutically applied to cancer yet. Thus, we investigated the effect of LW1497 on the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of lung cancer cells. A549 and H1299 lung cancer cells were induced to undergo via TGF-ß1 treatment, resulting in the downregulation of E-cadherin and upregulation of N-cadherin and Vimentin concurrently with increases in the migration and invasion capacities of the cells. These effects of TGF-ß1 were suppressed upon co-treatment of the cells with LW1497. An RNA-seq analysis revealed that LW1497 induced differential expression of genes related to hypoxia, RNA splicing, angiogenesis, cell migration, and metastasis in the A549 lung cancer cell lines. We confirmed the differential expression of Slug, an EMT-related transcription factor. Results from Western blotting and RT-PCR confirmed that LW1497 inhibited the expression of EMT markers and Slug. After orthotopically transplanting A549 cancer cells into mice, LW1497 was administered to examine whether the lung cancer progression was inhibited. We observed that LW1497 reduced the area of cancer. In addition, the results from immunohistochemical analyses showed that LW1497 downregulated EMT markers and Slug. In conclusion, LW1497 suppresses cancer progression through the inhibition of EMT by downregulating Slug.

2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(21)2021 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769231

RESUMO

Although the cause of neurological disease in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) has not been completely identified yet, recent papers have identified accumulated uremic toxin as its main cause. Additionally, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (ω-3 PUFA) plays an important role in maintaining normal nerve function, but its protective effects against uremic toxin is unclear. The objective of this study was to identify brain damage caused by uremic toxicity and determine the protective effects of ω-3 PUFA against uremic toxin. We divided mice into the following groups: wild-type (wt) sham (n = 8), ω-3 PUFA sham (n = 8), Fat-1 sham (n = 8), ischemia-reperfusion (IR) (n = 20), and ω-3 PUFA+IR (n = 20) Fat-1+IR (n = 20). Brain tissue, kidney tissue, and blood were collected three days after the operation of mice (sham and IR operation). This study showed that Ki67 and neuronal nuclei (NeuN) decreased in the brain of uremic mice as compared to wt mice brain, but increased in the ω-3 PUFA-treated uremic mice and the brain of uremic Fat-1 mice as compared to the brain of uremic mice. The pro-apoptotic protein expressions were increased, whereas anti-apoptotic protein expression decreased in the brain of uremic mice as compared to wt mice brain. However, apoptotic protein expression decreased in the ω-3 PUFA-treated uremic mice and the brain of uremic Fat-1 mice as compared to the brain of uremic mice. Furthermore, the brain of ω-3 PUFA-treated uremic mice and uremic Fat-1 mice showed increased expression of p-PI3K, p-PDK1, and p-Akt as compared to the brain of uremic mice. We confirm that uremic toxin damages the brain and causes cell death. In these injuries, ω-3 PUFA plays an important role in neuroprotection through PI(3)K-Akt signaling.

3.
Arch Plast Surg ; 48(6): 614-621, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34818707

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Reconstruction of congenital microtia remains challenging, particularly in patients with a history of ear canaloplasty due to insufficient regional soft tissue. The insertion of a tissue expander prior to implantation of the cartilage framework has traditionally been employed. However, this procedure could induce additional morbidity. Herein, we present a method using V-Y advancement of a temporal triangular flap to gain additional soft tissue in these challenging cases. METHODS: Congenital microtia patients with a history of ear canaloplasty who underwent auricular reconstruction using the Nagata technique between 2016 and 2020 were reviewed. To obtain additional soft tissue, V-Y advancement of a temporal triangular flap was performed concurrently with implantation of the costal cartilage framework, without prior insertion of a tissue expander. The outcomes of these patients with respect to postoperative complications and esthetics were evaluated. RESULTS: Eight patients with bilateral lesions were included. No specific complications developed after the first-stage surgery. However, one patient experienced complications after the second stage (auricular elevation). An analysis of the esthetic results showed most patients had excellent outcomes, achieving a satisfactory convolution. The median number of operations needed to complete reconstruction was 2, which was fewer than required using the conventional method with prior insertion of a tissue expander. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with a history of previous canaloplasty, V-Y advancement of a temporal triangular flap could serve as an alternative to tissue expansion for microtia reconstruction. This technique provided reliable and satisfactory results with a reduced number of surgical stages.

4.
Nutr Res Pract ; 15(5): 579-590, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34603606

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Petasites japonicus Maxim (P. japonicus) has been used as an edible and medicinal plant and contains many bioactive compounds. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of P. japonicus on osteogenesis. MATERIALS/METHODS: The leaves and stems of P. japonicus were separated and extracted with hot water or ethanol, respectively. The total phenolic compound and total polyphenol contents of each extract were measured, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of each extract was evaluated to determine their effect on bone metabolism. To investigate the effect on osteoblast differentiation of the aqueous extract of P. japonicus leaves (AL), which produced the highest ALP activity among the tested extracts, collagen content was measured using the Sirius Red staining method, mineralization using the Alizarin Red S staining method, and osteocalcin production through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analysis. Also, real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was performed to investigate the mRNA expression levels of Runt-related transcriptional factor 2 (Runx2) and Osterix. RESULTS: Among the 4 P. japonicus extracts, AL had the highest values in all of the following measures: total phenolic compounds, total polyphenols, and ALP activity, which is a major biomarker of osteoblast differentiation. The AL-treated MC3T3-E1 cells showed significant increases in induced osteoblast differentiation, collagen synthesis, mineralization, and osteocalcin production. In addition, mRNA expressions of Runx2 and Osterix, transcription factors that regulate osteoblast differentiation, were significantly increased. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that AL can regulate osteoblasts differentiation, at least in part through Runx2 and Osterix. Therefore, it is highly likely that P. japonicus will be useful as an alternate therapeutic for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.

5.
MicroPubl Biol ; 20212021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34604714

RESUMO

Y RNA is a conserved small non-coding RNA whose functions in aging remain unknown. Here, we sought to determine the role of C. elegans Y RNA homologs, CeY RNA (CeY) and stem-bulge RNAs (sbRNAs), in aging. We found that the levels of CeY and sbRNAs generally increased during aging. We showed that CeY was downregulated by oxidative and thermal stresses, whereas several sbRNAs were upregulated by oxidative stress. We did not observe lifespan phenotypes by mutations in CeY-coding yrn-1. Future research under various genetic and environmental conditions is required to further evaluate the role of Y RNA in C. elegans aging.

6.
Toxicol Res ; 37(4): 435-442, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34631500

RESUMO

In vivo phototoxicity testing is important for predicting drug-induced phototoxicity in humans. Currently, there is no internationally validated in vivo test method for the photosafety evaluation of pharmaceuticals. In this study, we evaluated the phototoxicity of systemically administered drugs using SD rats. We first determined the appropriate ultraviolet A (UVA) dose using 8-methoxypsoralen, a well-known phototoxic drug. Compared to lower and higher UVA doses, we found that a UVA dose of 10 J/cm2 allowed for the detection of phototoxic responses in both a dose- and time-dependent manner. We next performed a phototoxicity study using seven pharmaceutical drugs which included known phototoxic and non-phototoxic drugs using a UVA dose of 10 J/cm2. In order to improve the accuracy of our assessment, we evaluated both gross skin findings as well as histopathological findings. Using gross skin findings alone resulted in an accuracy of 85.7% which could be increased to 100% accuracy when the gross skin findings were combined with histopathological findings. This study suggests that the inclusion of histopathological findings increases the accuracy of the phototoxicity evaluation of systemically administered drugs in SD rats. In conclusion, we found that for studying drug-induced phytotoxicity, a 10 J/cm2 UVA dose serves as the optimal radiation dose, and that the inclusion of histopathological findings increases the accuracy of the phototoxicity evaluation of the drugs.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34480676

RESUMO

Mechanical fall is common among elders and has been associated with a lack of anticoagulant therapy among patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). However, anticoagulant therapy is recommended despite frequent fall due to an increased risk of a thromboembolic event. Using data from a large health system, we investigated the predictors of anticoagulation prescription on discharge in AF elderly patients after an in-hospital fall. In this retrospective analysis, we examined patients aged 60 years and older discharged from 2013 to 2018 with a diagnosis of AF and a secondary diagnosis of in-hospital fall. The primary outcome was the prescription of anticoagulation at discharge. We obtained patients' demographical (race, sex, and health insurance status) and clinical (management by a resident team, receipt of a head CT or a cardiology consultation, ambulation status and discharge location) data. We further categorized the type of anticoagulation prescribed as warfarin or novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs). We ran chi-square and Fischer's exact tests on all data and multivariable logistic regressions on those of patients with pre-existing AF to identify the predictors of anticoagulation prescription on discharge. In total, 67% of 235 patients were discharged on anticoagulation. Of patients admitted on anticoagulation, 91% were prescribed anticoagulation on discharge (p < 0.001), while only 40% of patients with new-onset AF were discharged on anticoagulation (p < 0.001). Patients over the age of 90, compared to those aged 60-89, with existing AF had lower odds (OR = 0.34 [95% CI 0.12-0.98]) of being prescribed anticoagulation on discharge. Among patients with preexisting AF, being admitted on anticoagulation increased the odds (OR = 39.8 [15.2-104.0]) of anticoagulation prescription on discharge. Asian patients with prior AF were less likely (OR = 0.12 [0.026-0.060]) to receive anticoagulation on discharge. Of patients with new AF, 81% were prescribed a NOAC as opposed to warfarin (p < 0.05). These results suggest that provider's decisions on anticoagulation initiation seem to be guided more by their concerns over bleeding complications than by the patient's risk for stroke. However, anchoring bias strongly influences anticoagulation prescription. It may benefit AF patients already on anticoagulation, but it may prevent anticoagulation prescription in patients with new AF and Asian patients.

9.
Inflammopharmacology ; 29(5): 1475-1486, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468900

RESUMO

Novel treatment strategies are urgently required for osteoarthritis (OA). Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) is a naturally occurring fatty acid amide with analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects. We aimed to examine its effect on OA and elucidate the molecular mechanism of actions in monosodium iodoacetate (MIA)-induced OA Sprague-Dawley rats. The experimental animals were divided into normal control group (injected with saline + treated with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), NOR), control group (injected with MIA + treated with PBS, CON), 50 or 100 mg/kg body weight (BW)/day PEA-treated group (injected with MIA + treated with 50 or 100 mg of PEA/kg BW/day, PEA50 or PEA100), and positive control group (injected with MIA + treated with 6 mg of diclofenac/kg BW/day, DiC). The changes in blood parameters, body parameters, gene expression of inflammatory mediators and cytokines, knee thickness, and joint tissue were observed. Oral administration of PEA had no adverse effects on the BW, liver, or kidneys. PEA reduced knee joint swelling and cartilage degradation in MIA-induced OA rats. The serum levels of leukotriene B4, nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1ß, and prostaglandin E2 considerably reduced in the PEA100 group compared with those in the CON group. In the synovia of knee joints, the mRNA expression of iNOS, 5-Lox, Cox-2, Il-1ß, Tnf-α, and Mmp-2, -3, -9, and -13 apparently increased with MIA administration. Meanwhile, Timp-1 mRNA expression apparently decreased in the CON group but increased to the normal level with PEA treatment. Thus, PEA can be an effective therapeutic agent for OA.

10.
BMC Res Notes ; 14(1): 299, 2021 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34353369

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study is to examine the prevalence of social needs by English proficiency using data from Northwell Health's social determinants of health screening program. The screening program evaluates 12 domains of social needs: material need, employment, medical-legal assistance, health insurance, public benefits, health literacy, transportation, medical care, utilities, housing quality, food security, and housing insecurity. We have identified patients to have limited English proficiency if they have selected a language other than English as their primary language. RESULTS: The study population includes 92,958 individuals; of these, 83,445 (89.8%) patients are English proficient, and 9513 (10.2%) patients have limited English proficiency. A higher percentage of patients with limited English proficiency has social needs, including material need, employment, medical-legal assistance, health insurance, public benefit, health literacy, medical care, utility bill, poor housing quality, and food insecurity (all p-values < 0.05). In multivariable logistic regression models adjusting for sociodemographic information, LEP status (odds ratio = 1.36 [1.25-1.49]) has been associated with having social needs. These findings suggest that system-wide SDH screening and referral programs should identify ways to ensure capturing social needs among patients with limited English proficiency.


Assuntos
Proficiência Limitada em Inglês , Barreiras de Comunicação , Humanos , Seguro Saúde , Idioma , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde
11.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 167: 198-209, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34365290

RESUMO

Two pepper methionine sulfoxide reductase B2 (CaMsrB2) gene expressing transgenic rice lines (L-8 and L-23) were interrogated with respect to their physiological and photochemical attributes along with control (WT, Ilmi) as a standard against varying levels of salt concentration which are 75 mM, 150 mM and 225 mM. Against various levels of salt (NaCl) concentration, recurring detrimental effects of extreme salt stress was observed and more pronounced in the wild type plants as compared to our transgenic lines. As the exacerbated effects of salinity is responsible for pushing the plants to their ecological tolerance, our transgenic lines performed well uplifted in different realms of physiology and photochemistry such as relative water content (RWC = 60-75%), stomatal conductance (gs = 70-190 mmolm-2s-1), performance index (PIABS = 1.0-4.5), maximal photochemical yield of PSII (FV/FM = 0.48-0.72) and chlorophyll content index (CCI = 5-7.2 au) in comparison to the control. Relative gene expression, ion analysis and antioxidants activity were analyzed in all treatments to ensure the hypothesis obtained from data of physiology and photochemistry. Photosynthetic apparatus is known to lose energy in various forms such as NPQ, DIO/CS, damages of reaction center (FV/FO) which are the markers of poor health were clearly decreased in the L-23 line as compared to L-8 and WT. Present study revealed the protruding tolerance of L-23 and L-8 transgenic lines with L-23 line in the lead in comparison to control and L-8 transgenic lines.


Assuntos
Metionina Sulfóxido Redutases , Oryza , Capsicum/enzimologia , Clorofila , Ecossistema , Metionina Sulfóxido Redutases/genética , Oryza/genética , Oryza/fisiologia , Fotossíntese , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico
12.
Psychiatry Res ; 304: 114133, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34352593

RESUMO

Smartphone is one of the essential items. However, it may negatively affect a user's mental health when it is overused. The study aimed to investigate associations of smartphone overuse with depression, anxiety, and the relationship with other addictive behaviors and disorders. A total of 2,509 subjects were randomly selected through a one-person-per-household method. Smartphone Overuse Screening Questionnaire (SOS-Q) and the Korean version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (K-CIDI) were used. Linear regression and Pearson correlation analyses were performed to evaluate associations of smartphone overuse with depression, anxiety, and relationship with other addictive psychiatric disorders respectively. Among 2509 participants, 138 (14.76%) demonstrated smartphone overuse. Participants who used their smartphones for more than three hours a week were more likely to be single and females compared to those who used their smartphones for less than three hours a week. Smartphone overuse showed significant associations with depression, anxiety disorder, and a significant relationship with internet and game overuse, alcohol dependence, and nicotine dependence disorder. Internet-related behavior showed the strongest relationship with smartphone overuse. Although the sample size was adequate, a large number of subjects did not complete the questionnaire. People with psychiatric disorders should be advised to use smartphones in moderation.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo , Smartphone , Adulto , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade , Comportamento Aditivo/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , República da Coreia/epidemiologia
13.
J Affect Disord ; 294: 786-793, 2021 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34375203

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effect of dynamic changes in metabolic parameters over time on the development of depression has yet to be examined. In this study, we aimed to determine the association between the variability of metabolic parameters and the development of depression using nationally representative data. METHODS: We used health examination data provided by the South Korean National Health Insurance System (NHIS) and included those who underwent the examination ≥ 3 times within five years of enrollment, without a previous history of depression (n = 9,058,424). The variability of each metabolic parameter including weight circumference, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride levels was estimated using variability independent of mean (VIM) indices. High variability was defined as the highest quartile (Q4) of variability. RESULTS: Each metabolic parameter with high variability was associated with a higher risk of newly diagnosed depression compared to those with low variability, after adjusting for age, sex, smoking, alcohol drinking, regular exercise, income status, baseline diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. As the number of highly variable metabolic parameters increased, the risk for newly diagnosed depression increased even after adjusting for the aforementioned covariates (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.4, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.3 - 1.4 in those with five highly variable parameters compared to those with no highly variable parameter). LIMITATIONS: relatively short observation period; no systematic measure of depression severity. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the variability of metabolic parameters is an independent risk factor for depression.


Assuntos
Glicemia , Depressão , Pressão Sanguínea , Estudos de Coortes , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/epidemiologia , Humanos , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
14.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 191: 113468, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34233257

RESUMO

To resolve time-consuming and imperceptible monitoring problems in the traditional systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX), we report gold nanoparticle-assisted SELEX (GNP-SELEX) as a visual, proofreading, and self-monitoring platform and its application to small molecule-binding single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) aptasensors. Through the colorimetric changes between rounds, GNP-SELEX enabled the rapid determination of target-specific aptamer library enrichment with neither target modification nor extra monitoring process. We identified ssDNA aptamers with high selectivity and binding affinity by targeting two small molecules (brassinolide; BL and bisphenol A; BPA) as a model. The rational design of selected aptamers by 3D molecular simulation increased their ability to detect BL or BPA in real samples as bioreceptors. These results suggest that GNP-SELEX is useful as a self-monitoring platform to discover ssDNA aptamers as well as to develop aptasensors for diverse targets in a rapid and simple way.


Assuntos
Aptâmeros de Nucleotídeos , Técnicas Biossensoriais , Nanopartículas Metálicas , DNA de Cadeia Simples , Ouro , Técnica de Seleção de Aptâmeros
15.
Aliment Pharmacol Ther ; 54(4): 402-411, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34227708

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tegoprazan is a novel, fast- and long-acting potassium-competitive acid blocker that suppresses gastric acid secretion, which could benefit patients with non-erosive reflux disease (NERD), a type of gastroesophageal reflux disease. AIM: To evaluate the efficacy and safety profiles of tegoprazan compared with those of a placebo in Korean patients with NERD. METHODS: In this phase 3, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre study, 324 Korean patients with NERD were randomised into three treatment groups: tegoprazan 50 mg, tegoprazan 100 mg and placebo. These drugs were provided once daily for 4 weeks. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients with complete resolution of major symptoms (both heartburn and regurgitation) for the last 7 days of the 4-week treatment period. Other outcomes related to efficacy, safety and tolerability were also evaluated. RESULTS: Among all, 42.5% (45/106), 48.5% (48/99) and 24.2% (24/99) of patients showed complete resolution of major symptoms at week 4 after receiving tegoprazan 50 mg, tegoprazan 100 mg, and placebo, respectively. Both doses of tegoprazan showed superior efficacy than the placebo (P = 0.0058 and P = 0.0004, respectively). The complete resolution rates of heartburn and proportions of heartburn-free days (as other efficacy outcomes) were significantly higher in both tegoprazan groups than in the placebo group (P < 0.05 for all). No significant difference in the incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events were noted. CONCLUSIONS: Tegoprazan 50 and 100 mg showed superior therapeutic efficacy compared with the placebo, as well as a favourable safety profile in patients with NERD. Registration number: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT02556021.


Assuntos
Refluxo Gastroesofágico , Imidazóis , Derivados de Benzeno , Método Duplo-Cego , Refluxo Gastroesofágico/tratamento farmacológico , Azia/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 679779, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34239463

RESUMO

While there has been a slew of review studies on suicide measurement tools until now, there were not any reviews focusing on suicide assessment tools available in Korea. This review aimed to examine the psychometric properties of tools developed in Korea or the translated versions from the original tools in their foreign language and to identify potential improvements and supplements for these tools. A literature search was done using the Korean academic information search service, Research Information Service System, to identify the suicide measures to be included in this review. Abstracts were screened to identify which measures were used to assess suicide-related factors. Based on the established inclusion and exclusion criteria, 18 tools remained and we assessed their psychometric properties. The current review indicated several major findings. First, many of the tools did not report predictive validity and even those with predictive validity were based on past suicide attempts. Second, some of the tools overlooked the interactive component for the cause of suicide. In addition, information to supplement the self-reported and clinician-administered reports by collecting reports from the subjects' families and acquaintances is needed. It is also important to develop a screening tool that examines other aspects of an individual's personal life, including unemployment, bereavement, divorce, and childhood trauma. Moreover, tools that have been studied in more diverse groups of the population are needed to increase external validity. Finally, the linguistic translation of the tools into Korean needs to consider other cultural, social, and psychological factors of the sample of interest.

17.
Pharmaceutics ; 13(6)2021 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205797

RESUMO

Various frameworks and methods, such as quality by design (QbD), real time release test (RTRT), and continuous process verification (CPV), have been introduced to improve drug product quality in the pharmaceutical industry. The methods recognize that an appropriate combination of process controls and predefined material attributes and intermediate quality attributes (IQAs) during processing may provide greater assurance of product quality than end-product testing. The efficient analysis method to monitor the relationship between process and quality should be used. Process analytical technology (PAT) was introduced to analyze IQAs during the process of establishing regulatory specifications and facilitating continuous manufacturing improvement. Although PAT was introduced in the pharmaceutical industry in the early 21st century, new PAT tools have been introduced during the last 20 years. In this review, we present the recent pharmaceutical PAT tools and their application in pharmaceutical unit operations. Based on unit operations, the significant IQAs monitored by PAT are presented to establish a control strategy for CPV and real time release testing (RTRT). In addition, the equipment type used in unit operation, PAT tools, multivariate statistical tools, and mathematical preprocessing are introduced, along with relevant literature. This review suggests that various PAT tools are rapidly advancing, and various IQAs are efficiently and precisely monitored in the pharmaceutical industry. Therefore, PAT could be a fundamental tool for the present QbD and CPV to improve drug product quality.

18.
Foods ; 10(6)2021 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34203095

RESUMO

In the present study, we screened for potential probiotic yeast that could survive under extreme frozen conditions. The antimicrobial and heat-stable properties of the isolated yeast strains Saccharomyces boulardii (S. boulardii) (KT000032, KT000033, KT000034, KT000035, KT000036, and KT000037) was analyzed and compared with commercial probiotic strains. The results revealed that the tested S. boulardii KT000032 strain showed higher resistance to gastric enzymes (bile salts, pepsin, and pancreatic enzyme) at low pH, with broad antibiotic resistance. In addition, the strain also showed efficient auto-aggregation and co-aggregation abilities and efficient hydrophobicity in the in-vitro and in-vivo C. elegens gut model. Further, the KT000032 strain showed higher antimicrobial efficiency against 13 different enteropathogens and exhibited commensal relationships with five commercial probiotic strains. Besides, the bioactive compounds produced in the cell-free supernatant of probiotic yeast showed thermo-tolerance (95 °C for two hours). Furthermore, the thermo-stable property of the strains will facilitate their incorporation into ready-to-eat food products under extreme food processing conditions.

19.
Aust N Z J Psychiatry ; : 48674211025701, 2021 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34231416

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To prevent copycat suicides following media reporting of celebrity suicides, the South Korean government enacted a 'suicide prevention law' in 2012 and revised the media guidelines for suicide reporting in 2013. This study examined how these two regulatory measures affected suicide trends among the general population in South Korea. METHODS: We analyzed the individual effect estimates for the general population within 30 days following the media report of 24 celebrity suicides using multivariate negative binomial regression. We performed a meta-analysis to compute the pooled rate ratios of the two regulations. We examined the trends in daily suicides by month during three time intervals before and after enactment using an autoregressive model and tested their significance using a piecewise linear regression. RESULTS: Total suicides increased by 6.27 daily during the 30-day period after celebrity suicides. Compared with the 30 days prior to the reports on the suicide of 24 celebrities, the number of suicidal deaths in the general population increased by 13% during the 30 days after the reports were announced (pooled rate ratio 1.13, 95% confidence interval: 0.06-0.18; p < 0.001). There was a significant downward trend in the average daily suicide deaths, and no significant increase in suicide rates, after the enactment of the suicide prevention law (p < 0.001) and revision of the media guidelines (p = 0.014). CONCLUSIONS: Suicide prevention and media guidelines were effective in reducing the effect of celebrity suicides. In addition to regulating media reporting of celebrity suicide, measures are needed to address viral republication on social media and to prevent suicide among entertainers.

20.
J Nerv Ment Dis ; 209(11): 820-828, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34238894

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: In this study, we defined obsessive thoughts (OT) as bothersome, unpleasant thoughts about oneself that keep entering the mind against one's will, and compulsive behavior (CB) as behavior that a person repeats against his or her wishes. The study included 12,532 adults selected randomly through a one-person-per-household method. Each subject selected underwent a face-to-face interview using the Korean version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview with a questionnaire that examines lifetime suicide attempts (LSAs). Among the participants, 341 (2.74%) had OT and 639 (5.14%) had CB. The highest LSA rate was in subjects with both OT and CB, followed by those with either OT or CB; subjects with neither OT nor CB had the lowest LSA rate. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis of OT and CB, OT, ordering, and rituals of repeating words were significantly associated with LSAs. In subjects with OT and CB, those with MDD had a significantly higher risk of LSAs compared with those without, and MDD with both OT and CB showed odds of approximately 27-fold (adjusted odds ratio, 27.24; 13.29-55.82; p < 0.0001) compared with those without MDD, OT, or CB. OT and CB were associated with increased risk of LSAs, and comorbid MDD further increased LSAs.

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