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1.
J Pathol Transl Med ; 2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34614346

RESUMO

Background: Papillary breast lesions (PBLs) comprise diverse entities from benign and atypical lesions to malignant tumors. Although PBLs are characterized by a papillary growth pattern, it is challenging to achieve high diagnostic accuracy and reproducibility. Thus, we investigated the diagnostic reproducibility of PBLs in core needle biopsy (CNB) specimens with World Health Organization (WHO) classification. Materials and Methods: Diagnostic reproducibility was assessed using interobserver variability (kappa value, κ) and agreement rate in the pathologic diagnosis of 60 PBL cases on CNB among 20 breast pathologists affiliated with 20 medical institutions in Korea. This analysis was performed using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining and immunohistochemical (IHC) staining for cytokeratin 5 (CK5) and p63. The pathologic diagnosis of PBLs was based on WHO classification, which was used to establish simple classifications (4-tier, 3-tier, and 2-tier). Results: On WHO classification, H&E staining exhibited 'fair agreement' (κ = 0.21) with a 47.0% agreement rate. Simple classifications presented improvement in interobserver variability and agreement rate. IHC staining increased the kappa value and agreement rate in all the classifications. Despite IHC staining, the encapsulated/solid papillary carcinoma (EPC/SPC) subgroup (κ = 0.16) exhibited lower agreement compared to the non-EPC/SPC subgroup (κ = 0.35) with WHO classification, which was similar to the results of any other classification systems. Conclusion: Although the use of IHC staining for CK5 and p63 increased the diagnostic agreement of PBLs in CNB specimens, WHO classification exhibited a higher discordance rate compared to any other classifications. Therefore, this result warrants further intensive consensus studies to improve the diagnostic reproducibility of PBLs with WHO classification.

2.
Histol Histopathol ; : 18378, 2021 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34617578

RESUMO

Purpose Epithelial membrane protein (EMP) 1, EMP2, and EMP3 are expressed in various types of tumors and have been reported to be involved in carcinogenesis. In this study, we aimed to investigate the expression of these proteins in primary and metastatic thyroid cancer and its clinical implication. Methods EMP1, EMP2, and EMP3 immunohistochemistry was performed using tissue microarrays of 545 primary thyroid carcinomas [338 papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), 111 follicular carcinoma (FC), 69 medullary carcinoma (MC), 23 poorly differentiated carcinoma (PDC), and 4 anaplastic carcinoma (AC)] and 59 recurrent or metastatic PTCs. Results EMP1 showed high expression in AC, PTC, FC (P<0.001), and EMP2 was highly expressed in AC (P<0.001). EMP1 and EMP2 were not expressed in stromal cells. Expression of EMP3 in tumor cells [EMP3 (T)] was higher in PDC, PTC, and AC (P<0.001), and expression in stromal cells [EMP3 (S)] was observed only in AC and PTC (P=0.001). The expression of EMP1 (P=0.002) and EMP3 (T) (P<0.001) was higher in conventional PTC than in follicular variant PTC. PTC with BRAF V600E mutation showed higher expression of EMP1 (P<0.001), EMP3 (T) (P<0.001), and EMP3 (S) (P=0.012) than PTC without BRAF V600E mutation. In the PTC without BRAF V600E mutation group, expression of EMP3 (S) was associated with shorter disease free survival (P=0.004). Metastatic PTC showed higher EMP2 (3.4% vs. 0%, P=0.022) and lower EMP3 (T) (44.1% vs. 66%, P=0.001) than primary PTC. Conclusions Expression of EMP1, EMP2, and EMP3 is different according to the subtypes of thyroid cancer. Further studies are needed to determine their role as prognostic markers and treatment target in thyroid cancer.

4.
Pathobiology ; : 1-10, 2021 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34518477

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate the expression patterns of glucose metabolism-related proteins and their clinicopathologic implications in adrenal cortical neoplasms (ACN) and pheochromocytoma (PCC). METHODS: Immunohistochemical staining was performed to evaluate glucose metabolism-related proteins (GLUT1, CAIX, hexokinase II, G6PDH, PHGDH, and SHMT1) in 132 ACN cases (115 adrenal cortical adenoma [ACA] and 17 adrenal cortical carcinoma [ACC]) and 189 PCC cases. RESULTS: Expression levels of GLUT1 in tumor cells ([T]; p < 0.001), GLUT1 in stromal cells ([S]; p < 0.001), G6PDH (p < 0.001), and SHMT1 (p = 0.002) were higher in ACN than in PCC. GLUT1 (T; p = 0.045) and PHGDH (p = 0.043) levels were higher in ACC than in ACA. In a univariate analysis of ACN, GLUT1 (T; p = 0.017), CAIX (S; p = 0.003), and PHGDH (p = 0.009) levels were correlated with a shorter overall survival (OS). GLUT1 (T; p = 0.001) and PHGDH (p < 0.001) were related to a shorter OS in PCC. GLUT1 (T) positivity (p = 0.043) in ACN predicted a poor OS in a multivariate Cox analysis. In PCC, high GAPP score (p = 0.026), GLUT1 (T; p = 0.002), and PHGDH (p < 0.001) were independent prognostic factors for poor OS. CONCLUSIONS: The adrenal gland tumors ACN and PCC had different expression patterns of glucose metabolism-related proteins (GLUT1, G6PDH, and SHMT1), with higher expression levels in ACN than in PCC. GLUT1 and PHGDH were significant prognostic factors in these adrenal neoplasms.

5.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371956

RESUMO

We examined the immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects of asiatic acid (AA) in atopic dermatitis (AD). AA treatment (5-20 µg/mL) dose-dependently suppressed the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α level and interleukin (IL)-6 protein expression in interferon (IFN)-γ + TNF-α-treated HaCaT cells. The 2,4-dinitrocholrlbenzene (DNCB)-induced AD animal model was developed by administering two AA concentrations (30 and 75 mg/kg/d: AD + AA-L and AD + AA-H groups, respectively) for 18 days. Interestingly, AA treatment decreased AD skin lesions formation and affected other AD characteristics, such as increased ear thickness, lymph node and spleen size, dermal and epidermal thickness, collagen deposition, and mast cell infiltration in dorsal skin. In addition, in the DNCB-induced AD animal model, AA treatment downregulated the mRNA expression level of AD-related cytokines, such as Th1- (TNF-α and IL-1ß and -12) and Th2 (IL-4, -5, -6, -13, and -31)-related cytokines as well as that of cyclooxygenase-2 and CXCL9. Moreover, in the AA treatment group, the protein level of inflammatory cytokines, including COX-2, IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-8, as well as the NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways, were decreased. Overall, our study confirmed that AA administration inhibited AD skin lesion formation via enhancing immunomodulation and inhibiting inflammation. Thus, AA can be used as palliative medication for regulating AD symptoms.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Dermatite Atópica/tratamento farmacológico , Fatores Imunológicos/farmacologia , Triterpenos Pentacíclicos/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular , Colágeno/análise , Citocinas/genética , Dermatite Atópica/imunologia , Dermatite Atópica/patologia , Derme/patologia , Dinitroclorobenzeno , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Epiderme/patologia , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Imunomodulação , Tecido Linfoide/patologia , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Mastócitos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos , Triterpenos Pentacíclicos/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
6.
AJR Am J Roentgenol ; 2021 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34378399

RESUMO

Background: Postoperative mammograms present interpretive challenges due to postoperative distortion and hematomas. The application of digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) and artificial intelligence-based computer-aided detection (AI-CAD) after breast concerving therapy (BCT) has not been widely investigated. Objective: To assess the impact of additional DBT or AI-CAD on recall rate and diagnostic performance in women undergoing mammographic surveillance after BCT. Methods: This retrospective study included 314 women (mean age 53.2±10.6 years; 4 with bilateral breast cancer) who underwent BCT followed by DBT (mean interval from surgery to DBT of 15.2±15.4 months). Three breast radiologists independently reviewed images in three sessions: digital mammography (DM), DM with DBT (DM+DBT), and DM with AI-CAD (DM+AI-CAD). Recall rates and diagnostic performance were compared between DM, DM+DBT, and DM+AI-CAD, using readers' mean results. Results: Of the 314 women, 6 breast recurrences (3 ipsilateral, 3 contralateral) developed at the time of surveillance mammography. Ipsilateral breast recall rate was lower for DM+AI-CAD (1.9%) than for DM (11.2%) or DM+DBT (4.1%) (p<.001). Contralateral breast recall rate was lower for DM+AI-CAD (1.5%, p<.001) than for DM (6.6%) but not DM+DBT (2.7%, p=.08). In ipsilateral breast, accuracy was higher for DM+AI-CAD (97.0%) than for DM (88.5%) or DM+DBT (94.8%) (p<.05); specificity was higher for DM+AICAD (98.3%) than for DM (89.3%) or DM+DBT (96.1%) (p<.05); sensitivity was lower for DM+AI-CAD (22.2%) than for DM (66.7%, p=.03) but not DM+DBT (22.2%, p>.99). In contralateral breast, accuracy was higher for DM+AI-CAD (97.1%) than for DM (92.5%, p<.001) but not DM+DBT (96.1%, p=.25); specificity was higher for DM+AI-CAD (98.6%) than for DM (93.7%, p<.001) but not DM+DBT (97.5%) (p=.09); sensitivity was not different between DM (33.3%), DM+DBT (22.2%), and DM+AI-CAD (11.1%) (p>.05). Conclusion: After BCT, adjunct DBT or AI-CAD reduced recall rates and improved accuracy in the ipsilateral and contralateral breasts compared with DM. In the ipsilateral breast, addition of AI-CAD resulted in lower recall rate and higher accuracy than addition of DBT. Clinical Impact: AI-CAD may help address the challenges of post-BCT surveillance mammograms.

8.
Res Vet Sci ; 139: 67-77, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34256183

RESUMO

Humans may serve as a reservoir host of Staphylococcus aureus, resulting in transmission to animals. Previously, we used RNA polymerase beta subunit gene (rpoB)-based genotyping and classified S. aureus strains into rpoB sequence types (RSTs). According to our previous work, the predominant genotypes of S. aureus in humans and cows differ in Korea, but some predominant genotypes (RST4-1 and RST2-1) in humans have been isolated from bovine mastitis. Therefore, it needs to be determined whether some strains of the predominant human genotypes have adapted to or caused occasional infections in cows. We determined the whole genome sequences of 2 bovine mastitis-origin strains, PMB179 (RST4-1) and PMB196 (RST2-1), and performed comparative genomics with the corresponding RST4-1 and RST2-1 S. aureus strains in the NCBI database. We identified 257 and 180 pseudogenes among 131 RST4-1 and 54 RST2-1 strains, respectively, for the comparison of pseudogene profiles. RST4-1 strains shared more common pseudogenes than RST2-1 strains, and some epidemiologically related strains shared common pseudogenes. However, most of the pseudogenes were strain-specific, and diverse pseudogene profiles were apparent in both the RST4-1 and RST2-1 strains. Furthermore, analysis of the mobile genetic elements, virulence genes, and antibiotic resistance genes revealed no molecular markers to differentiate PMB179 and PMB196 from human strains. Interestingly, the collective comparison of RST4-1 or RST2-1 strains revealed cumulative acquisition steps of genomic islands and antibiotic resistance genes. In conclusion, our data support PMB179 and PMB196 causing occasional infections that result in bovine mastitis.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Genômica , Mastite Bovina , Infecções Estafilocócicas , Staphylococcus aureus , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/genética , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Mastite Bovina/epidemiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/veterinária , Staphylococcus aureus/genética
9.
J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 31(8): 1134-1143, 2021 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34226410

RESUMO

In the present study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of heat-killed Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) and live E. faecalis on benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). The BPH rat model was established by administering male rats with testosterone propionate (TP, 5 mg/kg, in corn oil) via subcutaneous injections daily for four weeks after castration. The rats were divided into five groups: Con, corn oil-injected (s.c.) + DW administration; BPH, TP (5 mg/kg, s.c.) + DW administration; BPH+K_EF, TP (5 mg/kg, s.c.) + heat-killed E. faecalis (7.5 × 1012 CFU/g, 2.21 mg/kg) administration; BPH+L_EF, TP (5 mg/kg, s.c.) + live E. faecalis (1 × 1011 CFU/g, 166 mg/kg) administration; BPH+Fi, TP (5 mg/kg, s.c.) + finasteride (1 mg/kg) administration. In both of BPH+K_EF and BPH+L_EF groups, the prostate weight decreased and histological changes due to TP treatment recovered to the level of the Con group. Both of these groups also showed regulation of androgen-signaling factors, growth factors, and apoptosis-related factors in prostate tissue. E. faecalis exhibited an inhibitory effect on benign prostatic hyperplasia, and even heat-killed E. faecalis showed similar efficacy on the live cells in the BPH rat model. As the first investigation into the effect of heat-killed and live E. faecalis on BPH, our study suggests that heat-killed E. faecalis might be a food additive candidate for use in various foods, regardless of heat processing.

10.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34196861

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Because no prior studies have evaluated the chronological trends of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) despite the increasing number of surgeries performed for DCIS, this study analyzed how the clinical, radiologic, and pathologic characteristics of DCIS changed during a 10-year period. METHODS: Of 7123 patients who underwent primary breast cancer surgery at a single institution from 2006 to 2015, 792 patients with pure DCIS were included in this study. The chronological trends of age, symptoms, method for detecting either mammography or ultrasonography, tumor size, nuclear grade, comedonecrosis, and molecular markers were calculated using Poisson regression for all patients and asymptomatic patients. RESULTS: During 10 years, DCIS surgery rates significantly increased (p < 0.001). Despite the high percentage of DCIS detected on mammography, the detection rate for DCIS by mammography significantly decreased (97.3% in 2006 to 67.6% in 2015; p = 0.025), whereas the detection rate by ultrasound significantly increased (2.7% to 31.0%; p < 0.001). Conservation surgery rates (odds ratio [OR], 1.058), low-to-intermediate nuclear grade rates (OR, 1.069), and the absence of comedonecrosis (OR, 1.104) significantly increased over time (all p < 0.05). Estrogen receptor (ER) negativity (OR, 0.935) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) positivity rates (OR, 0.953) significantly decreased (all p < 0.05). The same trends were observed for the 613 asymptomatic patients. CONCLUSION: The rate of DCIS detected on ultrasound only significantly increased during 10 years. Low-to-intermediate nuclear grade rates significantly increased, whereas ER negativity and HER2 positivity rates significantly decreased during the same period. These findings suggest that DCIS detected on screening ultrasound is less aggressive than DCIS detected on mammography.

11.
Eur Radiol ; 2021 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34226990

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate machine learning approaches for radiomics-based prediction of prognostic biomarkers and molecular subtypes of breast cancer using quantification of tumor heterogeneity and angiogenesis properties on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). METHODS: This prospective study examined 291 invasive cancers in 288 patients who underwent breast MRI at 3 T before treatment between May 2017 and July 2019. Texture and perfusion analyses were performed and a total of 160 parameters for each cancer were extracted. Relationships between MRI parameters and prognostic biomarkers were analyzed using five machine learning algorithms. Each model was built using only texture features, only perfusion features, or both. Model performance was compared using the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC) and the DeLong method, and the importance of MRI parameters in prediction was derived. RESULTS: Texture parameters were associated with the status of hormone receptors, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2, and Ki67, tumor size, grade, and molecular subtypes (p < 0.002). Perfusion parameters were associated with the status of hormone receptors and Ki67, grade, and molecular subtypes (p < 0.003). The random forest model integrating texture and perfusion parameters showed the highest performance (AUC = 0.75). The performance of the random forest model was the best with a special scale filter of 0 (AUC = 0.80). The important parameters for prediction were texture irregularity (entropy) and relative extracellular extravascular space (Ve). CONCLUSIONS: Radiomic machine learning that integrates tumor heterogeneity and angiogenesis properties on MRI has the potential to noninvasively predict prognostic factors of breast cancer. KEY POINTS: • Machine learning, integrating tumor heterogeneity and angiogenesis properties on MRI, can be applied to predict prognostic biomarkers and molecular subtypes in breast cancer. • The random forest model showed the best predictive performance among the five machine learning models (logistic regression, decision tree, naïve Bayes, random forest, and artificial neural network). • The most important MRI parameters for predicting prognostic factors in breast cancer were texture irregularity (entropy) among texture parameters and relative extracellular extravascular space (Ve) among perfusion parameters.

12.
Asian J Surg ; 2021 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34148749

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify the clinical and sonographic risk factors for aggressive behavior of Medullary Thyroid Carcinomas (MTCs). MATERIAL AND METHODS: This is a retrospective analysis. The informed consents were waived. Totally, 127 patients were selected from the database. Two radiologists were invited to review the clinical records and ultrasonic images and scored all the cases according to ACR TI-RADS, retrospectively. Kappa test was used to evaluate the consistency between the two reviewers. Logistic regression analysis was carried to identify the risk factors for aggressive behaviors of MTCs. Comparison of survival proportions between different groups were calculated by Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test. RESULTS: Female patients with MTCs were more commonly seen than male (1.7:1), male sex was a risk factor for both metastasis (OR: 4.471, P = 0.001) and perithyroidal invasion (OR = 4.674, P = 0.004). Consistency between the two reviewers were quite high (K value, 0.797-0.988). On sonograms, typical MTCs manifest as hypoechoic (96.9%) solid nodules (94.5%). Sex of patients (P = 0.001), margin (P = 0.003) and focality (P = 0.01) of the nodule were independent risk factors for metastasis, whereas sex of the patients (P = 0.004) and margin (P = 0.000) were independent risk factors for perithyroidal invasion. By Kaplan-Meier analysis, survival proportions different between groups with/without perithyroidal extension (P = 0.000) but not between groups with/without metastasis (P = 0.473). CONCLUSION: High frequency ultrasound and TI-RADS were effective methods for preoperative diagnosis of MTC. Sex of the patients and margin of the nodule are common risk factors for both metastasis and perithyroidal invasion. Focality of the tumor is another independent risk factor for metastasis.

13.
Clin Breast Cancer ; 2021 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34078566

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Incidental breast cancers can be detected on chest computed tomography (CT) scans. With the use of deep learning, the sensitivity of incidental breast cancer detection on chest CT would improve. This study aimed to evaluate the performance of a deep learning algorithm to detect breast cancers on chest CT and to validate the results in the internal and external datasets. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This retrospective study collected 1170 preoperative chest CT scans after the diagnosis of breast cancer for algorithm development (n = 1070), internal test (n = 100), and external test (n = 100). A deep learning algorithm based on RetinaNet was developed and tested to detect breast cancer on chest CT. RESULTS: In the internal test set, the algorithm detected 96.5% of breast cancers with 13.5 false positives per case (FPs/case). In the external test set, the algorithm detected 96.1% of breast cancers with 15.6 FPs/case. When the candidate probability of 0.3 was used as the cutoff value, the sensitivities were 92.0% with 7.36 FPs/case for the internal test set and 93.0% with 8.85 FPs/case for the external test set. When the candidate probability of 0.4 was used as the cutoff value, the sensitivities were 88.5% with 5.24 FPs/case in the internal test set and 90.7% with 6.3 FPs/case in the external test set. CONCLUSION: The deep learning algorithm could sensitively detect breast cancer on chest CT in both the internal and external test sets.

14.
Clin Imaging ; 79: 201-203, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34116295

RESUMO

We present serial sonographic findings of a case of supraclavicular lymphadenopathy that occurred after COVID-19 vaccination. Ipsilateral lymphadenopathy near the vaccine injection site following COVID-19 vaccination is a rather uncommon but expected adverse reaction. While axillary lymphadenopathy is more common, cases of supraclavicular lymphadenopathy in the setting of recent vaccination against COVID-19 are also being reported. Radiologists as well as referring physicians should be aware of this self-limiting process along with its ultrasonographic features and manage patients conservatively rather than performing an unnecessary immediate biopsy.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Linfadenopatia , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Seguimentos , Humanos , Linfadenopatia/diagnóstico por imagem , Linfadenopatia/etiologia , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Ultrassonografia , Vacinação/efeitos adversos
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34073706

RESUMO

This study investigated the effects of Momordica charantia (M. charantia) extract in obesity and abnormal lipid metabolism in mice fed high fat diet (HFD). Fruit, root, stem, and leaf extracts of M. charantia were obtained using distilled water, 70% ethanol and 95% hexane. M. charantia leaf distilled water extract (MCLW) showed the highest antioxidant activity in both 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity tests and reducing power. Metabolite profiles of M. charantia leaf extracts were analyzed for identification of bioactive compounds. HFD-fed mice were treated with MCLW (oral dose of 200 mg/kg/d) for 4 weeks. MCLW reduced lipid accumulation, body weight, organ weight, and adipose tissue volume and significantly improved glucose tolerance and insulin resistance in HFD mice. Furthermore, MCLW administration reduced serum total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and increased serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol compared with HFD mice. Moreover, MCLW significantly reduced the levels of serum urea nitrogen, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and aspartate aminotransferase; alleviated liver and kidney injury. MCLW decreases expression of genes that fatty acid synthesis; increase the expression of catabolic-related genes. These results indicate that MCLW has an inhibitory effect on obese induced by high fat diet intake, and the mechanism may be related to the regulation of abnormal lipid metabolism in liver and adipose tissue, suggesting that MCLW may be a suitable candidate for the treatment of obesity.


Assuntos
Momordica charantia , Animais , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Fígado/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Obesidade/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
16.
J Clin Nurs ; 2021 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34096659

RESUMO

AIM: The purpose of this study was to identify the incidence of postoperative delirium in PCC (patients with colorectal cancer) and the related factors of postoperative delirium by analysing the differences in the general, disease-related and operation-related characteristics. BACKGROUND: Previous studies had some limitations in generalising the risk factors for postoperative delirium in PCC due to the lack of relevant factors, such as disease- and operation-related characteristics. There is a need to investigate the factors of postoperative delirium by including cancer and surgical characteristics. DESIGN: The current study is a cross-sectional study to investigate the correlated factors of postoperative delirium in PCC. METHODS: A total of 196 patients who underwent colorectal cancer surgery at the Keimyung University Dongsan Hospital in Korea participated in the study. Data collection was performed from 15 August 2018 to 10 July 2019. Patients' general, disease-related and operation-related characteristics were collected from questionnaires and electronic medical records. Data analysis was performed using descriptive statistics, t test, Chi-square test and logistic regression using SPSS/WIN 22.0. The STROBE checklist has been used to report this study. RESULTS: The results of this study showed that 26 (13.2%) PCC exhibited postoperative delirium and the risk factors for postoperative delirium were physical activity (OR = 2.94, p = .001), infection (OR = 2.17, p = .001) and nutritional status (OR = 1.10, p = .028). CONCLUSION: To reduce and prevent the occurrence of postoperative delirium in PCC, encouraging participation in physical activity before and after surgery are required, and regular monitoring of the infection symptoms and nutritional status. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: Based on the results of this study, postoperative delirium in PCC could be decreased by encouraging physical activity immediately following operation, monitoring the signs and symptoms of infection using diverse objective laboratory findings and maintaining the nutritional status within the normal range.

17.
Korean J Radiol ; 22(8): 1266-1278, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33938648

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to compare the aortic valve area (AVA) calculated using fast high-resolution three-dimensional (3D) magnetic resonance (MR) image acquisition with that of the conventional two-dimensional (2D) cine MR technique. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We included 139 consecutive patients (mean age ± standard deviation [SD], 68.5 ± 9.4 years) with aortic valvular stenosis (AS) and 21 asymptomatic controls (52.3 ± 14.2 years). High-resolution T2-prepared 3D steady-state free precession (SSFP) images (2.0 mm slice thickness, 10 contiguous slices) for 3D planimetry (3DP) were acquired with a single breath hold during mid-systole. 2D SSFP cine MR images (6.0 mm slice thickness) for 2D planimetry (2DP) were also obtained at three aortic valve levels. The calculations for the effective AVA based on the MR images were compared with the transthoracic echocardiographic (TTE) measurements using the continuity equation. RESULTS: The mean AVA ± SD derived by 3DP, 2DP, and TTE in the AS group were 0.81 ± 0.26 cm², 0.82 ± 0.34 cm², and 0.80 ± 0.26 cm², respectively (p = 0.366). The intra-observer agreement was higher for 3DP than 2DP in one observer: intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of 0.95 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.94-0.97) and 0.87 (95% CI, 0.82-0.91), respectively, for observer 1 and 0.97 (95% CI, 0.96-0.98) and 0.98 (95% CI, 0.97-0.99), respectively, for observer 2. Inter-observer agreement was similar between 3DP and 2DP, with the ICC of 0.92 (95% CI, 0.89-0.94) and 0.91 (95% CI, 0.88-0.93), respectively. 3DP-derived AVA showed a slightly higher agreement with AVA measured by TTE than the 2DP-derived AVA, with the ICC of 0.87 (95% CI, 0.82-0.91) vs. 0.85 (95% CI, 0.79-0.89). CONCLUSION: High-resolution 3D MR image acquisition, with single-breath-hold SSFP sequences, gave AVA measurement with low observer variability that correlated highly with those obtained by TTE.

18.
Korean J Radiol ; 22(8): 1225-1239, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33987993

RESUMO

During the past decade, researchers have investigated the use of computer-aided mammography interpretation. With the application of deep learning technology, artificial intelligence (AI)-based algorithms for mammography have shown promising results in the quantitative assessment of parenchymal density, detection and diagnosis of breast cancer, and prediction of breast cancer risk, enabling more precise patient management. AI-based algorithms may also enhance the efficiency of the interpretation workflow by reducing both the workload and interpretation time. However, more in-depth investigation is required to conclusively prove the effectiveness of AI-based algorithms. This review article discusses how AI algorithms can be applied to mammography interpretation as well as the current challenges in its implementation in real-world practice.

19.
Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol ; 29(9): 685-692, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34029220

RESUMO

Programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4) is a tumor suppressor gene that inhibits tumor progression, invasion, and metastasis. Decreased PDCD4 expression is associated with poor prognosis in various types of cancers. We evaluated PDCD4 expression and its clinicopathologic correlation, including patient survival, in 289 surgically resected colorectal cancers. Low nuclear PDCD4 expression was identified in 177 (61.2%) cases and was associated with large tumor size, high pT classification, and the presence of lymphovascular and perineural invasion. The 5-year survival rate of patients with low nuclear PDCD4 expression was significantly lower than that of patients with high expression (72.2% vs. 93.3%, P<0.001). American Joint Committee on Cancer stage II and III colorectal cancer patients with low nuclear PDCD4 expression (76.9% and 67.2%, respectively) showed significantly worse overall survival than those with high expression (100% and 92.9%, P=0.002 and 0.032, respectively). Low nuclear PDCD4 expression was an independent poor prognostic factor in colorectal cancer patients (hazard ratio=3.556; 95% confidence interval, 1.739-7.271; P=0.001). Our study suggests that low PDCD4 expression is associated with aggressive behavior and can be used as a prognostic indicator of colorectal cancer patients.

20.
Sci Total Environ ; 789: 147764, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34051507

RESUMO

The World Health Organization (WHO) announced that severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) may spread through aerosols, so-called airborne transmission, especially in a poorly ventilated indoor environment. Ventilation protects the occupants against airborne transmission. Various studies have been performed on the importance of sufficient ventilation for diluting the concentration of virus and lowering any subsequent dose inhaled by the occupants. However, the ventilation situation can be problematic in public buildings and other shared spaces, such as shops, offices, schools, and restaurants. If ventilation is provided by opening windows, the outdoor airflow rate depends strongly on the specific local conditions (opening sizes, relative positions, climatic and weather conditions). This study uses field measurements to analyze the natural ventilation performance in a school building according to the window opening rates, positions, and weather conditions. The ventilation rates were calculated by the tracer gas decay method, and the infection risk was assessed using the Wells-Riley equation. Under cross-ventilation conditions, the average ventilation rates were measured at 6.51 h-1 for 15% window opening, and 11.20 h-1 for 30% window opening. For single-sided ventilation, the ventilation rates were reduced to about 30% of the values from the cross-ventilation cases. The infection probability is less than 1% in all cases when a mask is worn and more than 15% of the windows are open with cross-ventilation. With single-sided ventilation, if the exposure time is less than 1 h, the infection probability can be kept less than 1% with a mask. However, the infection probability exceeds 1% in all cases where exposure time is greater than 2 h, regardless of whether or not a mask is worn. Also, when the air conditioner was operated with a window opening ratio of 15%, power consumption increased by 10.2%.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , COVID-19 , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Instituições Acadêmicas , Ventilação
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