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1.
Eur J Med Chem ; 193: 112233, 2020 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32199136

RESUMO

Antimicrobial peptides (AMP) with anticancer activity have drawn remarkable attention in modern treatments. However, long peptide length and protease instability are the most addressing factors, which hampers their further development as therapeutic agents. In view of this, herein, we designed and synthesized a series of AZT-based cationic small molecule incorporating a variety of hydrophobic groups and cationic charges, including amine and guanidine groups to mimic the amphipathic structure of AMPs. These compounds were evaluated for their antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Through an extensive structure activity relationship study (SAR), we identified ADG-2e as the most potent antibacterial agent, which exhibited remarkable potency against drug resistant bacterial strains such as MRSA and MDRPA. Further, ADG-2e was examined for their anti-metastatic ability by investigating the cancer cell migration and invasiveness through scratch wound-healing assay and transwell invasive assay, respectively. In addition, time-lapse cell tracking analysis also performed for analyzing the cell movement pattern. Treatment of ADG-2e against metastatic breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231) suppressed tumor cell migration by multi-directional lamellipodium formation, indicating their anti-metastatic potential. Thus, our cationic AZT based small molecules may evolve as an appealing class of antibacterial agents with anti-metastasis potential.

2.
Br J Dev Psychol ; 2020 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32212408

RESUMO

This study examined whether infants assume that people will help others to achieve specific goals. Seventeen-month-old infants watched familiarization events in which a competent agent succeeded in climbing hills while an incompetent agent failed to do so. In subsequent test events, the competent agent either helped the incompetent agent reach the top of the hill (helping event) or simply passed the incompetent agent and reached the top of the hill alone (ignoring event). The infants looked reliably longer at the ignoring event than at the helping event. These findings suggest that, by at least the age of 17 months, infants expect a competent agent to help an incompetent agent. Our findings provide evidence that infants in their second year of life possess some expectations of others' prosociality. Statement of contribution What is already known? Infants begin to reliably produce helping behaviours during their second year of life. Infants expect others to help an agent who is in need, not one who is not in need. Infants expect others to help, not ignore, another in need when linguistic information explicitly signals that the agent and the recipient belong to the same social group. What the present study adds? Infants expect someone to provide help rather than to ignore another in need under some circumstances with no linguistic information about their social group membership. Infants expect an agent to be a helper, not a bystander, even when they lack information about the agent's moral characteristics.

3.
BMC Neurol ; 20(1): 85, 2020 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32151248

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The search for noninvasive biomarkers of neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration has focused on various neurological disorders, including epilepsy. We sought to determine whether α-synuclein and cytokines are correlated with the degree of neuroinflammation and/or neurodegeneration in children with epilepsy and with acquired demyelinating disorders of the central nervous system (CNS), as a prototype of autoimmune neuroinflammatory disorders. METHODS: We analyzed serum and exosome levels of α-synuclein and serum proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines among 115 children with epilepsy and 10 acquired demyelinating disorders of the CNS and compared to 146 controls. Patients were enrolled prospectively and blood was obtained from patients within 48 h after acute afebrile seizure attacks or relapse of neurological symptoms. Acquired demyelinating disorders of the CNS include acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, multiple sclerosis, neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders, and transverse myelitis. The controls were healthy age-matched children. The serum exosomes were extracted with ExoQuick exosome precipitation solution. Serum α-synuclein levels and serum levels of cytokines including IFN-ß, IFN-γ, IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α were measured using single and multiplex ELISA kits. Data were analyzed and compared with measures of disease severity, such as age at disease onset, duration of disease, and numbers of antiepileptic drug in use. RESULTS: Serum α-synuclein levels were significantly increased in patients with epilepsy and acquired demyelinating disorders of the CNS compared to controls (both, p < 0.05) and showed correlation with measures of disease severity both in epilepsy (p < 0.05, r = 0.2132) and in acquired demyelinating disorders of the CNS (p < 0.05, r = 0.5892). Exosome α-synuclein showed a significant correlation with serum α-synuclein (p < 0.0001, r = 0.5915). Serum IL-1ß levels were correlated only with the numbers of antiepileptic drug used in children with epilepsy (p < 0.001, r = 0.3428), suggesting drug resistant epilepsy. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study in children demonstrating that serum α-synuclein levels were significantly increased in children with epilepsy and with acquired demyelinating disorders of the CNS and correlated with measures of disease severity. Serum IL-1ß levels showed significant correlation only with drug resistance in children with epilepsy. Thus, these data support that serum levels of α-synuclein and IL-1ß are potential prognostic biomarkers for disease severity in children with epilepsy. CNS, central nervous system.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32150380

RESUMO

We fabricated 3D nanoporous metal structures from poly(2-vinylpyridine)-block-poly(4-vinylpyridine) copolymer (P24VP) thin film with vertically oriented lamellar nanodomains by coordinating corresponding metal precursors followed by reduction to metals. Although metal precursors are coordinated with both P2VP and P4VP blocks, the metal coordination power toward P4VP block is much greater than that toward P2VP block. Thus, most of the metal precursors are located in the P4VP block, while a few exist in the P2VP block. After the metal precursors were reduced to corresponding metals by reactive ion etching, metals located in P4VP regions became continuous main frames. However, metals in P2VP regions could not be continuous because of smaller amounts, resulting in nanoporous structures. Using these 3D nanoporous structures, we measured the electrocatalytic activity for hydrogen evolution reaction. 3D nanoporous platinum (Pt) showed enhanced catalytic activity compared with Pt flat film due to the large surface area. Moreover, 3D nanoporous Pt/cobalt bimetallic structures showed better catalytic activity than 3D nanoporous Pt structures.

5.
J Med Food ; 2020 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32186941

RESUMO

Changing consumption patterns and increasing health awareness, especially in Europe, are resulting in an increased demand for sesame seeds. In 2016, Asia imported the highest quantity of sesame seeds, followed by Europe and North America. We examined, for the first time, the effects of treatment with sesame oil and sesamin in hearing impairment models. Sesame oil exhibited an ameliorative effect on auditory impairment in a hair cell line in zebrafish and mice. In ototoxic zebrafish larvae, neuromasts and otic cells increased in numbers because of sesame oil. Furthermore, auditory function in noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) was studied through auditory brainstem response to evaluate the therapeutic effects of sesame oil. Sesame oil reduced the hearing threshold shift in response to clicks and 8, 16-kHz tone bursts in NIHL mice. Auditory-protective effect of sesame oil was seen in zebrafish and mice; therefore, we used chromatographic analysis to study sesamin, which is the major effective factor in sesame oil. To investigate its effects related to auditory function, we studied the hearing-related gene, Tecta, using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazoliumbromide (MTT) assay. Auditory cell proliferation was induced by treatment with sesame oil and sesamin using Tecta (Tectorin Alpha) regulation. The expression of Tecta increases in the apex area of the cochlear hair cells as they grow, and their activity is enhanced by sesame oil and sesamin. These results provide a novel mechanistic insight into the sesame oil activities and suggest that sesamin, the key constituent in sesame oil, is responsible for its auditory function related benefits, including protection of auditory cells and reversal of their impairments.

6.
Sci Total Environ ; 720: 137568, 2020 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32145629

RESUMO

Developmental exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) is associated with liver dysfunction and diseases in adulthood. The aims of this study were to assess the effects of prenatal BPA exposure on the hepatic transcriptome and proteome in female and male offspring and to understand adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) to observed phenotypic effects. Pregnant Wistar rats were exposed to 50 or 5000 µg BPA/kg bw/day, or 17ß-estradiol (E2, 50 µg/kg bw/day) from embryonic day 3 to 18. The liver transcriptome and proteome profiles were analyzed in the newborn (postnatal day 1; PND1) and weaning (PND21) rat offspring. Based on the differentially expressed genes/proteins derived from transcriptome and proteome profiles, we performed pathway, transcription factor, and disease enrichment analyses. A principal component analysis of transcriptome data demonstrated that prenatal BPA exposure caused masculinization of the hepatic transcriptome in females. Both of transcriptomic and proteomic data showed that prenatal BPA exposure led to the disruption of cell cycle, lipid homeostasis, and hormone balance in offspring. Most of the effects at the transcript level were extended from newborn to weaning in males, but were moderated until weaning in females. The alterations at the transcript and protein levels were accordant with the observation of increases in body weight and anogenital distance and changes in hepatosomatic index in the offspring. Collectively, we constructed AOPs with evidence of sex- and age-specific actions of prenatal BPA exposure in the offspring.

7.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 20(1): 35, 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32024503

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Osteoporosis is related to the number and activity of osteoclasts. The goal of the present study was to demonstrate the effect of Chaenomelis Fructus (CF) on osteoclastogenesis and its mechanism of bone loss prevention in an OVX-induced osteoporosis model. METHODS: Osteoclasts were induced by RANKL in RAW 264.7 cells. TRAP assay was performed to measure the inhibitory effect of CF on osteoclast differentiation. Then, Expression of nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFATc1), c-Fos which are essential transcription factors in osteoclastogenesis were detected using western blot and RT-PCR. The osteoclast-related markers were measured by RT-PCR. Moreover, the ability of CF to inhibit bone loss was researched by ovariectomized (OVX)-induced osteoporosis. RESULTS: Cell experiments showed that CF inhibited osteoclast differentiation and its function. Immunoblot analyses demonstrated that CF suppressed osteoclastogenesis through the NFATc1 and c-Fos signaling pathways. RT-PCR determined that CF inhibited osteoclast-related markers, such as tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), cathepsin K (CTK), osteoclast-associated immunoglobulin-like receptor (OSCAR), ATPase H+ Transporting V0 Subunit D2 (ATP6v0d2) and carbonic anhydrase II (CA2). In animal experiments, CF showed an inhibitory effect on bone density reduction through OVX. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining analysis data showed that CF inhibited OVX-induced trabecular area loss. TRAP staining and immunohistochemical staining analysis data showed that CF displayed an inhibitory effect on osteoclast differentiation through NFATc1 inhibition in femoral tissue. CONCLUSION: Based on the results of in vivo and in vitro experiments, CF inhibited the RANKL-induced osteoclasts differentiation and its function and effectively ameliorated OVX-induced osteoporosis rats.

8.
EMBO Rep ; : e48693, 2020 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32103600

RESUMO

The tumor suppressor Smad4, a key mediator of the TGF-ß/BMP pathways, is essential for development and tissue homeostasis. Phosphorylation of Smad4 in its linker region catalyzed by the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) plays a pivotal role in regulating its transcriptional activity and stability. In contrast, roles of Smad4 dephosphorylation as a control mechanism of TGF-ß/BMP signaling and the phosphatases responsible for its dephosphorylation remain so far elusive. Here, we identify Wip1 as a Smad4 phosphatase. Wip1 selectively binds and dephosphorylates Smad4 at Thr277, a key MAPK phosphorylation site, thereby regulating its nuclear accumulation and half-life. In Xenopus embryos, Wip1 limits mesoderm formation and favors neural induction by inhibiting TGF-ß/BMP signals. Wip1 restrains TGF-ß-induced growth arrest, migration, and invasion in human cells and enhances the tumorigenicity of cancer cells by repressing the antimitogenic activity of Smad4. We propose that Wip1-dependent dephosphorylation of Smad4 is critical for the regulation of TGF-ß signaling.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31954091

RESUMO

WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: People in their twenties, including college students, experience a high level of stress and prevalence of related mental health problems including depression, anxiety and alcohol addiction, but they are the least likely age group in Korea to utilize professional help for mental health issues. Mental health literacy (MHL) refers to the knowledge and abilities necessary for maintaining mental health and preventing mental health problems. MHL also plays an important role in help-seeking for mental health issues. Therefore, studying MHL and other variables related to help-seeking is likely to enhance our overall understanding of students' mental health. WHAT THIS STUDY ADDS TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: Although there have been some studies of college students' MHL in Korea, this is the first study to identify the paths and relationships between MHL and help-seeking intentions in Korean college students. Additionally, this study examined the mediating role of stigma in the relationship between MHL and attitudes toward help-seeking. The findings of this study suggest that MHL promotion can have a positive impact on the mental health of Korean college students by improving their attitudes toward help-seeking and increasing their help-seeking intentions. This study supports the idea that increased social support among Korean college students may reduce stigma and facilitate their seeking of professional help. The paths and relationships found in the present study provide evidence that a nursing intervention on-campus that improves students' MHL and reduces stigma may facilitate more effective use of help-seeking services among college students. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: MHL plays a significant role in how college students manage their mental health and the likelihood that they will seek professional help for mental health issues. Increasing MHL reduces mental health-related stigma and promotes positive attitudes toward help-seeking. A mental health nursing intervention that includes MHL improvement strategies would likely enhance students' utilization of mental health services on campus. Although students' MHL is improved by existing campus programmes and educational efforts to raise awareness of mental health, interventions should also address campus culture and stigma to facilitate mental health help-seeking. Ultimately, enhancing MHL will contribute to the prevention of mental health problems and protect the deterioration of mental health among college students. ABSTRACT: Introduction There is a high prevalence of mental health problems among college students in Korea. Although the usage rate for mental health services among Korean college students was not reported, it is known that the usage rate for Koreans is low compared to that in the United States. Aim To explore the relationships linking mental health literacy (MHL) to intentions of help-seeking in a sample of Korean college students. Method Using a cross-sectional study, data from 200 participants were analysed using a structural equation modelling approach. Results Mental health literacy had both direct and indirect effects on attitudes toward help-seeking and an indirect effect on attitudes toward help-seeking through stigma. The direct effect of MHL on attitudes toward help-seeking was fully mediated by stigma. Discussion Mental health nursing professionals have a responsibility and a challenge to enhance MHL in college students through individual or group interventions. Implications for practice MHL plays a significant role in individuals' willingness to seek professional help when in need of mental health care. Thus, mental health nursing interventions that include MHL improvement strategies would favourably enhance students' use of adequate sources of care and contribute to the prevention of mental health problems in college students.

10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(1): e18540, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31895791

RESUMO

Infection with influenza virus increases morbidity and mortality in patients with risk factors, including cardiovascular disease (CVD). This study aimed to evaluate factors associated with influenza vaccination coverage in Korean CVD patients.We included 19,599 adults from the 2010 to 2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Influenza vaccination rates were compared in subjects with and without CVD. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with influenza vaccination in Korean adults with CVD before and after stratification for age (<65 and ≥65 years).Significantly higher vaccination rates were observed in individuals with CVD than in those without CVD (61.4% vs 31.0%, P < .001). However, young individuals (19-49 years) had decreased influenza vaccination rates, with no difference based on CVD status (20.3% vs 21.6%, P = .859). A lack of private insurance (odds ratio [OR], 0.47; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.23-0.98) and recent health screening (OR, 4.56; 95% CI, 1.90-10.92) were independent factors for influenza vaccination in CVD patients aged <65 years, whereas female sex (OR, 3.71; 95% CI, 1.24-11.07) and less education (OR, 4.59; 95% CI, 1.27-16.61) were independent factors in CVD patients aged ≥65 years.Improving influenza vaccination coverage for Korean adults with CVD is important, especially in young patients. For young patients with CVD, influenza vaccination status is independently associated with the presence of private insurance and recent health screening. This finding could help establish public health policies to promote influenza vaccination in this population.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/virologia , Vacinas contra Influenza/uso terapêutico , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Cobertura Vacinal/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Prevalência , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
11.
Cells ; 9(1)2020 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31935914

RESUMO

The interleukin-22 (IL-22) signaling pathway is well known to be involved in the progression of various cancer types but its role in bone metastatic breast cancer remains unclear. We demonstrate using human GEO profiling that bone metastatic breast cancer displays elevated interleukin-22 receptor 1 (IL-22R1) and sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1PR1) expression. Importantly, IL-22 stimuli promoted the expression of IL-22R1 and S1PR1 in aggressive MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. IL-22 treatment also increased sphingosine-1-phosphate production in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and induced the sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P)-mediated chemotactic migration of MDA-MB-231 cells. This effect was inhibited by an S1P antagonist. In addition to the S1PR1 axis, IL-22 stimulated the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), thereby promoting breast cancer cell invasion. Moreover, IL-22 induced IL22R1 and S1PR1 expression in macrophages, myeloid cell, and MCP1 expression in MSCs to facilitate macrophage infiltration. Immunohistochemistry indicated that IL-22R1 and S1PR1 are overexpressed in invasive malignant breast cancers and that this correlates with the MMP-9 levels. Collectively, our present results indicate a potential role of IL-22 in driving the metastasis of breast cancers into the bone microenvironment through the IL22R1-S1PR1 axis.

12.
Scand J Gastroenterol ; 55(2): 163-168, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31984815

RESUMO

Objective: Non-invasive stool tests, including the fecal immunochemical test (FIT) and fecal calprotectin (FC), are reliable biomarkers for mucosal healing (MH) in ulcerative colitis (UC). However, which fecal test is superior for predicting MH in inactive UC patients requires evaluation. We aimed to compare the accuracy of FIT and FC results for predicting MH in quiescent UC patients.Methods: This prospective, multicenter study was conducted at three tertiary hospitals. UC patients in clinical remission for at least three months underwent colonoscopy and MH was evaluated using the Mayo endoscopic sub-score (MES). The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and cutoff value with the best accuracy for predicting MH were assessed.Results: Among 127 patients, 65 (51.2%) showed MH (MES = 0). The area under the curve (AUC) for predicting MH (MES = 0) was significantly higher for FC than for FIT (AUC 0.858 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.784-0.913) vs. 0.707 (95% CI 0.620-0.784), p < .001); there was no difference when MH included MES = 1 (MES ≤ 1) (AUC 0.820 (95% CI 0.742-0.883) vs. 0.813 (95% CI 0.734-0.877), p = .891). When the cutoff value was 70 µg/g for FC and 10 ng/mL for FIT, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value were 89.2, 71, 76.3, and 86.3, respectively, for FC and 92.3, 50, 65.9, and 86.1, respectively, for FIT.Conclusion: FC is more accurate than FIT for predicting MH in quiescent UC patients. The superiority of FC might be related to the distinctive performance of FC in differentiating inflammatory levels, particularly in low-grade mucosal activity.

13.
Epilepsy Behav ; 102: 106719, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31805508

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate differences in stigma, disclosure management of epilepsy, and knowledge about epilepsy between patients with epilepsy who recognized and did not recognize the new Korean term for epilepsy. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional, multicenter study. The Stigma Scale-Revised, the Disclosure Management Scale, the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, and a questionnaire assessing knowledge about epilepsy were used. The set of questionnaires had two versions, using either the old or new name for epilepsy. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used. RESULTS: A total of 341 patients with epilepsy and 509 family members were recruited. Approximately 62% of patients felt some degree of epilepsy-related stigma. Mild stigma, severe concealment of epilepsy diagnosis, and increased knowledge about epilepsy were independently identified as factors associated with recognition of the new term in patients. Recognition of the new term was more prevalent in patients and family members with higher education, female family members, and family members having patients with younger age at seizure onset and shorter duration of epilepsy. There were no significant differences between the two types of questionnaires. About 81% of patients and 93% of family members had a positive attitude about renaming epilepsy. CONCLUSION: The use of the new Korean term for epilepsy (cerebroelectric disorder) increased knowledge about epilepsy but did not reduce stigma and concealment of epilepsy diagnosis in Korean adults with epilepsy. Higher education may be an important factor for knowing the new term in patients and family members.

14.
Environ Sci Technol ; 54(3): 1770-1781, 2020 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31841312

RESUMO

Polar bear (Ursus maritimus) populations accumulate dioxins and related compounds (DRCs) at levels that are of health concern. The toxicities of DRCs are primarily mediated via aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) signaling pathway. To evaluate the sensitivity and responses to DRCs in polar bears, we assessed the activation potencies of polar bear-specific AHR (pbAHR) by DRCs through in vitro and in silico approaches. In vitro assays showed that the pbAHR was as sensitive to DRCs as C3H/lpr mouse AHR, which is well-known to be highly sensitive to DRCs. Comparison of pbAHR transactivation potencies indicated that TCDF, 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF, and BaP exhibited high induction equivalency factors (IEFs). Considering the accumulation levels of DRCs in polar bears, PCB126 was found to be the most active inducer of pbAHR. The in vitro transactivation potencies of ligands of pbAHR showed a significant relationship with in silico ligand docking energies in a pbAHR homology model. The protein ligand interaction fingerprint (PLIF) analysis showed different interaction patterns depending on the ligands. Several amino acids which are highly conserved among mammals may be involved in species-specific responses via backbone interactions with neighboring amino acid residues which are specific to pbAHR. We document high susceptibility of polar bears to DRCs, through a mechanistic approach, for the first time.


Assuntos
Dioxinas , Ursidae , Animais , Simulação por Computador , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C3H , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico
15.
BMC Med Educ ; 19(1): 445, 2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31791321

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In South Korea, community pharmacy experiential practice (CPEP) is very important because most pharmacists (71.8%) work in community pharmacies, which also employ the majority of students after graduation. The present study investigated student responses to the current CPEP status, suggestions for improvement, and advancement in their competency after practice based on evaluation of Community Pharmacy Experiential Practice Model (CPEPM) outcomes. METHODS: A nationwide cross-sectional, self-administered online survey was conducted in 2017 for the sixth-year pharmacy students who completed CPEP, using 50 item questionnaire. The answers were evaluated using the 4-point Likert scale, used a scoring system from 1 (strongly disagree) to 4 (strongly agree). Responses of 1 and 2 were considered negative, and 3 and 4 were considered positive. To identify factors affecting CPEPM outcomes, multivariate linear regression analysis was performed. RESULTS: Initially, 1138 students participated in the survey. Of these, responses from 492 students were excluded due to missing data and eventually, data from 646 students were included in the analysis. In total, 95% of students responded in the affirmative that practical training influenced their future career decision. In addition, 78.5% of students were satisfied with the training. Further, they responded that their ability improved based on CPEPM outcomes. The most positive capability change was in the subdomain "personal and professional development", followed by "inter professional collaboration". CONCLUSIONS: Students responded with the higher rating for satisfaction factor, who regarded CPEP as helpful in future career decision making, and those who wanted to practice elective Advanced Pharmacy Practice Education at a community pharmacy had a positive CPEPM outcome, while age was found to be a negative factor in terms of the regression analysis. These are valuable findings as they represent the current student perception of CPEP nationwide. They provide a basis to improve the quality of CPEP-based education not only in Korea, but in other countries as well.

16.
Ann Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg ; 23(4): 339-343, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31824999

RESUMO

Backgrounds/Aims: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) has become widely used and preferred standard treatment for gallbladder (GB) disease in many countries. In this study, we aimed to compare the overall clinical outcomes of 3-dimensional (3D) LC system with those of the 2D LC method. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed patients who underwent LC for acute cholecystitis between January 2010 and March 2019 at the National Medical Center in Korea. We entered them into 3D LC (group A) and 2D LC (group B) groups. We used Olympus CLV-190 laparoscopic device with dual lenses, capable of displaying both 3D and 2D images. Postoperative variables considered for evaluating between-group differences in clinical outcomes included diet resumption period after surgery, postoperative hospital length-of-stay, outpatient department follow-up period, surgical time, and postoperative surgery-related complications (blood loss and open conversion). Results: We analyzed 278 acute cholecystitis patients (Group A, n=116; Group B, n=162). Compared to group B, group A had a significantly reduced surgical time and postoperative hospital stay. Although underlying diseases and abdominal surgical history were more prevalent in the 3D LC group, no significant between-group differences in blood loss and open conversion rate were observed. Conclusions: The 3D imaging system offered many advantages over 2D LC, including reduced surgical time and shorter postoperative hospital stay; therefore, it has significance in reducing hospital costs.

17.
Cells ; 8(12)2019 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31817755

RESUMO

Interleukin-22 (IL-22) is a cytokine with important functions in host defense and inflammatory responses and has recently been suggested to play a role in immune-inflammatory system in the context of obesity and its metabolic consequences. The specific cellular targets and mechanisms of IL-22-mediated obesity are largely unknown however. We here identified a previously unknown subset of monocyte-derived Duffy antigen receptors for chemokines (DARC)+ macrophages in epididymal fat adipose tissue and found that they are preferentially recruited into the crown-like structures of adipose tissue in the mouse upon high fat diet-induced obesity. Importantly, DARC+ macrophages highly express the IL-22 receptor (IL-22Ra1). Exposure to recombinant IL-22 shifts macrophages to an alternative M2 polarization pathway and augments DARC expression via a STAT5b signaling axis. STAT5b directly binds to the DARC promoter and a STAT5 inhibitor abrogates the IL-22-mediated induction of DARC. These M2-like DARC+ subpopulations of monocytes/macrophages were elevated in obese db/db mice compared to WT lean mice. Furthermore, subsets of CD14+ and/or CD16+ monocytes/macrophages within human peripheral blood mononuclear cell populations express DARC and the prevalence of these subsets is enhanced by IL-22 stimuli. This suggested that IL-22 is a critical cytokine that promotes the infiltration of adipose tissue macrophages, that regulate inflammatory processes. Taken together, our present findings provide important insights into the molecular mechanism by which IL-22 signal modulates DARC expression in M2-like macrophages.

18.
J Clin Epidemiol ; 119: 100-108, 2019 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31816417

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Persistent efforts have been made to promote clinical trial transparency, which included encouraging trial registration and prospective registration, as well as protocol disclosure. This study aims to analyze the extent of registration, prospective registration and protocol disclosure in oncology clinical trials and their changing trends. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: All phase II and phase III oncology clinical trials published in 5 major journals, the Annals of Oncology, the Journal of Clinical Oncology, JAMA Oncology, The Lancet Oncology, and The New England Journal of Medicine, between January 2013 and December 2017, were included. Data on trial characteristics as well as registration status and availability of protocol and its location were collected. RESULTS: In total, 625 articles were included, 92% were registered, of which 76% were prospectively registered. Overall, 27% provided protocols. Increasing trends were observed in registration, prospective registration, and protocol disclosure (all P < 0.001). Studies with enrollment number larger than median number were more likely to be registered (adjusted odds ratio (aOR), 3.14 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.21-8.15]) and to provide protocols (aOR, 3.84 [95% CI, 2.24-6.57]) than those with smaller enrollment number. Studies with nonindustry funding was less likely to be prospectively registered (aOR, 0.37 [95% CI, 0.25-0.55]) but more likely to provide protocols (aOR, 1.69 [95% CI, 1.13-2.52]) than those with industry funding only. CONCLUSION: Although the rates of registration, prospective registration, and protocol disclosure of oncology trials have significantly increased over the years, there is still room for improvement.

19.
BMC Cancer ; 19(1): 1201, 2019 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31822268

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In patients diagnosed with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) with needle biopsy before surgery, invasive component (IC) is often found in the postoperative tissue, which results in altered post-surgical care. However, there are no clinically available factors to predict IC, and few MRI studies are available for the detection of IC in DCIS patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate which risk factors can predict IC preoperatively. METHODS: Patients with a DCIS diagnosis based on preoperative biopsy, who underwent breast surgery Kangbuk Samsung Hospital between Jan 2005 and June 2018, were retrospectively evaluated. Clinico-pathological and breast MRI factors were compared between DCIS and DCIS with IC in postsurgical specimens. RESULTS: Of the 431 patients with a preoperative diagnosis of DCIS, 34 (7.9%) showed IC during the postoperative pathological investigations, and 217 (50.3%) underwent breast MRI. Among MRI-related factors, Mass-like enhancement on MRI was the sole but significant predictor of IC (HR = 0.26, C.I. = 0.07-0.93, p = 0.038), while nipple-areolar complex invasion, enhancement peak and pattern were not statistically significant. Nuclear grade was the only significant predictor of IC in the analysis of other clinico-pathological factors (HR = 2.39, C.I. = 1.05-5.42, p = 0.038 in univariate analysis, HR = 2.86, C.I. = 1.14-7.14, p = 0.025 in multivariate analysis). CONCLUSIONS: Mass-like enhancement on MRI and high nuclear grade were associated with IC in patients with preoperative diagnosis of DCIS. Considering the high sensitivity of breast MRI for IC, further evaluation of the predictive value of MRI in preoperative DCIS patients is desirable.

20.
Korean J Radiol ; 20(12): 1562-1582, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31854146

RESUMO

This document is the third part of the guidelines for the protocol, the interpretation and post-processing of cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) studies. These consensus recommendations have been developed by the Consensus Committee of the Korean Society of Cardiovascular Imaging to standardize the requirements for image interpretation and post-processing of CMR. This third part of the recommendations describes tissue characterization modules, including perfusion, late gadolinium enhancement, and T1- and T2 mapping. Additionally, this document provides guidance for visual and quantitative assessment consisting of "What-to-See," "How-To," and common pitfalls for the analysis of each module. The Consensus Committee hopes that this document will contribute to the standardization of image interpretation and post-processing of CMR studies.

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