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1.
J Clin Gastroenterol ; 2021 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33780222

RESUMO

GOAL: The goal of this study was to determine if bariatric surgeries are associated with de novo alcohol-related complications. BACKGROUND: Bariatric surgery is associated with an increased risk of alcohol use disorders. The effect of bariatric surgeries on other alcohol-related outcomes, including liver disease, is understudied. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using the IMS PharMetrics database, we performed a cohort study of adults undergoing bariatric surgery or cholecystectomy, excluding patients with an alcohol-related diagnosis within 1 year before surgery. The primary outcome was any alcohol-related diagnosis after surgery. We fit a multivariable Cox proportional hazards model to determine independent associations between bariatric surgeries [Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB); adjustable gastric band; sleeve gastrectomy] versus cholecystectomy and the development of de novo alcohol-related outcomes. We further fit complication-specific models for each alcohol-related diagnosis. RESULTS: RYGB was significantly associated with an increased hazard of any de novo alcohol-related diagnosis [adjusted hazard ratio (AHR)=1.51, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.40-1.62], while adjustable gastric band (AHR=0.55, 95% CI: 0.48-0.63) and sleeve gastrectomy (AHR=0.77, 95% CI: 0.64-0.91) had decreased hazards. RYGB was associated with a 2- to 3-fold higher hazard for alcoholic hepatitis (AHR=1.98, 95% CI: 1.17-3.33), abuse (AHR=2.05, 95% CI: 1.88-2.24), and poisoning (3.14, 95% CI: 1.80-5.49). CONCLUSIONS: RYGB was associated with higher hazards of developing de novo alcohol-related hepatitis, abuse, and poisoning compared with a control group. Patients without a history of alcohol use disorder should still be counseled on the increased risk of alcohol use and alcohol-related complications, including alcohol-related liver disease, following RYGB, and should be monitored long term for the development of alcohol-related complications.

2.
Clin Pharmacokinet ; 2021 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33751415

RESUMO

Nontuberculous mycobacteria can cause minimally symptomatic self-limiting infections to progressive and life-threatening disease of multiple organs. Several factors such as increased testing and prevalence have made this an emerging infectious disease. Multiple guidelines have been published to guide therapy, which remains difficult owing to the complexity of therapy, the potential for acquired resistance, the toxicity of treatment, and a high treatment failure rate. Given the long duration of therapy, complex multi-drug treatment regimens, and the risk of drug toxicity, therapeutic drug monitoring is an excellent method to optimize treatment. However, currently, there is little available guidance on therapeutic drug monitoring for this condition. The aim of this review is to provide information on the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic targets for individual drugs used in the treatment of nontuberculous mycobacteria disease. Lacking data from randomized controlled trials, in vitro, in vivo, and clinical data were aggregated to facilitate recommendations for therapeutic drug monitoring to improve efficacy and reduce toxicity.

3.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 17(3): e1008777, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33711014

RESUMO

Cancer occurs via an accumulation of somatic genomic alterations in a process of clonal evolution. There has been intensive study of potential causal mutations driving cancer development and progression. However, much recent evidence suggests that tumor evolution is normally driven by a variety of mechanisms of somatic hypermutability, which act in different combinations or degrees in different cancers. These variations in mutability phenotypes are predictive of progression outcomes independent of the specific mutations they have produced to date. Here we explore the question of how and to what degree these differences in mutational phenotypes act in a cancer to predict its future progression. We develop a computational paradigm using evolutionary tree inference (tumor phylogeny) algorithms to derive features quantifying single-tumor mutational phenotypes, followed by a machine learning framework to identify key features predictive of progression. Analyses of breast invasive carcinoma and lung carcinoma demonstrate that a large fraction of the risk of future clinical outcomes of cancer progression-overall survival and disease-free survival-can be explained solely from mutational phenotype features derived from the phylogenetic analysis. We further show that mutational phenotypes have additional predictive power even after accounting for traditional clinical and driver gene-centric genomic predictors of progression. These results confirm the importance of mutational phenotypes in contributing to cancer progression risk and suggest strategies for enhancing the predictive power of conventional clinical data or driver-centric biomarkers.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33734351

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In TB, therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is recommended for linezolid; however, implementation is challenging in endemic settings. Non-invasive saliva sampling using a mobile assay would increase the feasibility of TDM. OBJECTIVES: To validate a linezolid saliva assay using a mobile UV spectrophotometer. METHODS: The saliva assay was developed using NanoPhotometer NP80® and linezolid concentrations were quantified using second-order derivative spectroscopy. Sample preparation involved liquid-liquid extraction of saliva, using saturated sodium chloride and ethyl acetate at 1:1:3 (v/v/v). The assay was validated for accuracy, precision, selectivity, specificity, carry-over, matrix effect, stability and filters. Acceptance criteria were bias and coefficient of variation (CV) <15% for quality control (QC) samples and <20% for the lower limit of quantification (LLOQ). RESULTS: Linezolid concentrations correlated with the amplitude between 250 and 270 nm on the second-order derivative spectra. The linezolid calibration curve was linear over the range of 3.0 to 25 mg/L (R2 = 0.99) and the LLOQ was 3.0 mg/L. Accuracy and precision were demonstrated with bias of -7.5% to 2.7% and CV ≤5.6%. The assay met the criteria for selectivity, matrix effect, carry-over, stability (tested up to 3 days) and use of filters (0.22 µM Millex®-GV and Millex®-GP). Specificity was tested with potential co-medications. Interferences from pyrazinamide, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, rifampicin, abacavir, acetaminophen and trimethoprim were noted; however, with minimal clinical implications on linezolid dosing. CONCLUSIONS: We validated a UV spectrophotometric assay using non-invasive saliva sampling for linezolid. The next step is to demonstrate clinical feasibility and value to facilitate programmatic implementation of TDM.

5.
Handb Exp Pharmacol ; 2021 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33547588

RESUMO

Pain is complex and is a unique experience for individuals in that no two people will have exactly the same physiological and emotional response to the same noxious stimulus or injury. Pain is composed of two essential processes: a sensory component that allows for discrimination of the intensity and location of a painful stimulus and an emotional component that underlies the affective, motivational, unpleasant, and aversive response to a painful stimulus. Kappa opioid receptor (KOR) activation in the periphery and throughout the neuroaxis modulates both of these components of the pain experience. In this chapter we focus on recent findings that KORs contribute to the emotional, aversive nature of chronic pain, including how expression in the limbic circuitry contributes to anhedonic states and components of opioid misuse disorder. While the primary focus is on preclinical pain models, we also highlight clinical or human research where there is strong evidence for KOR involvement in negative affective states associated with chronic pain and opioid misuse.

6.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 26(1): 20, 2021 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33573606

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mounting evidence implicates an association between ambient air pollution and impaired reproductive potential of human. Our study aimed to assess the association between air pollution and ovarian reserve in young, infertile women. METHODS: Our study included 2276 Korean women who attended a single fertility center in 2016-2018. Women's exposure to air pollution was assessed using concentrations of particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and ozone (O3) that had been collected at 269 air quality monitoring sites. Exposure estimates were computed for 1, 3, 6, and 12 months prior to the ovarian reserve tests. Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) ratio (defined as an observed-to-expected AMH based on age) and low AMH (defined as < 0.5 ng/mL) were employed as indicators of ovarian reserve. We included a clustering effect of 177 districts in generalized estimating equations approach. A secondary analysis was conducted restricting the analyses to Seoul residents to examine the association in highly urbanized setting. RESULTS: The mean age was 36.6 ± 4.2 years and AMH level was 3.3 ± 3.1 ng/mL in the study population. Average AMH ratio was 0.8 ± 0.7 and low AMH was observed in 10.3% of women (n=235). The average concentration of six air pollutants was not different between the normal ovarian reserve and low AMH groups for all averaging periods. In multivariable models, an interquartile range (IQR)-increase in 1 month-average PM10 was associated with decrease in AMH ratio among total population (ß= -0.06, 95% confidence interval: -0.11, 0.00). When we restrict our analysis to those living in Seoul, IQR-increases in 1 and 12 month-average PM2.5 were associated with 3% (95% CI: -0.07, 0.00) and 10% (95% CI: -0.18, -0.01) decrease in AMH ratio. The ORs per IQR increase in the six air pollutants were close to null in total population and Seoul residents. CONCLUSIONS: In a cohort of infertile Korean women, there was a suggestive evidence of the negative association between ambient PM concentration and ovarian reserve, highlighting the potential adverse impact of air pollution on women's fertility.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Infertilidade Feminina/etiologia , Reserva Ovariana/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Reserva Ovariana/efeitos dos fármacos , República da Coreia
7.
Dig Dis Sci ; 2021 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33528686

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients' motivations for undergoing direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapy for chronic hepatitis C may include anticipation of treatment benefits not well described in the literature. AIMS: Evaluate patients' anticipated and actualized improvements in several domains of functioning before and after viral cure. METHODS: Pre-post-study utilizing in-depth interviews with 28 patients prior to, and several months after, DAA therapy. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, coded, and analyzed by two qualitative experts. RESULTS: Patients had a median age of 54 years, 43% were male, 57% white, 25% had cirrhosis, and 71% were treated with sofosbuvir/ledipasvir. Pre-treatment, patients hoped for improvements in several domains including psychological, emotional, physical, social, and occupational functioning. After viral cure, increased energy and less fear of transmission were pathways to better quality of life. Psychological and emotional improvements positively affected physical, social, and occupational functioning. Social improvements were due to better mood and motivation, fewer symptoms, and reduced fear of stigma and transmission. Occupational benefits were linked to increased stamina, self-confidence, and less pain, anxiety, and stigma. Reduced fear of stigma had a pervasive impact on all life improvements after cure. Patient characteristics such as the presence of cirrhosis or psychiatric issues influence treatment motivations. Qualitative data correspond with change in pre-post-survey scores. CONCLUSIONS: Tremendous hope is placed on the ability of DAA therapy to bring about substantial improvements in life functioning after viral cure. Highly interconnected effects on quality of life worked synergistically through improved physical and psychological well-being. Stakeholders should appreciate the multi-dimensional benefits that viral eradication bestows upon individuals and society.

8.
J Neuropathol Exp Neurol ; 80(4): 294-305, 2021 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33576426

RESUMO

Spina bifida (SB) is an umbrella term for multiple conditions characterized by misclosure of vertebral arches. Neuropathologic findings in SB cases are often reported with imprecise and overlapping terminology. In view of the increasing identification of SB-associated genes and pathomechanisms, the precise description of SB subtypes is highly important. In particular, the term "myelomeningocele" is applied to various and divergent SB subtypes. We reevaluated 90 cases with SB (58 prenatal; 32 postnatal). The most frequent SB phenotype in our cohort was myeloschisis, which is characterized by an open neural plate with exposed ependyma (n = 28; 31.1%). An open neural plate was initially described in only in two-thirds of the myeloschisis cases. An additional 21 cases (23.3%) had myelomeningocele; 2 cases (2.2%) had a meningocele; and 21 cases (23.3%) had an unspecified SB aperta (SBA) subtype. Overall, the SB phenotype was corrected in about one-third of the cases. Our findings highlight that "myelomeningocele" and "SB aperta" cannot be used as synonymous terms and that myeloschisis is an underreported SB phenotype. Based on our findings and a review of literature we propose a classification of SB subtypes in SB occulta and the 3 SBA subtypes, meningocele, myelomeningocele, and myeloschisis.

9.
Cancer Res ; 2021 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33441310

RESUMO

Low-grade serous ovarian carcinoma (LGSOC) is a rare tumor subtype with high case fatality rates in patients with metastatic disease. There is a pressing need to develop effective treatments using newly available preclinical models for therapeutic discovery and drug evaluation. Here we use multiomics integration of whole exome sequencing, RNA sequencing, and mass spectrometry-based proteomics on fourteen LGSOC cell lines to elucidate novel biomarkers and therapeutic vulnerabilities. Comparison of LGSOC cell line data to LGSOC tumor data enabled predictive biomarker identification of MEK inhibitor (MEKi) efficacy, with KRAS mutations found exclusively in MEKi-sensitive cell lines and NRAS mutations found mostly in MEKi-resistant cell lines. Distinct patterns of COSMIC mutational signatures were identified in MEKi-sensitive and MEKi-resistant cell lines. Deletions of CDKN2A/B and MTAP genes were more frequent in cell lines than tumor samples and possibly represent key driver events in the absence of KRAS/NRAS/BRAF mutations. These LGSOC cell lines were representative models of the molecular aberrations found in LGSOC tumors. For prediction of in vitro MEKi efficacy, proteomic data provided better discrimination than gene expression data. Condensin, MCM, and RFC protein complexes were identified as potential treatment targets in MEKi-resistant cell lines. This study suggests that CDKN2A/B or MTAP deficiency may be exploited using synthetically lethal treatment strategies, highlighting the importance of using proteomic data as a tool for molecular drug prediction. Multiomics approaches are crucial to improving our understanding of the molecular underpinnings of LGSOC and applying this information to develop new therapies.

11.
Liver Transpl ; 2020 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33300288

RESUMO

The recent surge in telemedicine during the COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted how imperative it is to understand: 1) how liver transplant (LT) recipients use smartphone technology, and 2) what they need in terms of remote support to assist with post-transplant recovery. Smartphone applications (i.e. apps) have been used in other chronic medical conditions to improve coordination of care, patient education, and medication adherence (1).

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33007507

RESUMO

Oxaliplatin is an alkylating agent given with fluorouracil and leucovorin as a mainstay adjuvant chemotherapy for stage III colorectal cancer (CRC). Liver injury from oxaliplatin ranges from mild liver enzyme increases in 42% to 57% of patients in clinical trials1 to rare severe injury leading to acute liver failure.2 Chronic injury from endothelial cell damage and architectural distortion may manifest years later with nodular regenerative hyperplasia (NRH), portal sclerosis, and noncirrhotic portal hypertension (NCPH).2,3 Chronic subclinical injury occurs in up to 78% of patients.3 Diagnosis may be confounded by nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and long-term outcomes from chronic injury are unclear.

13.
14.
Hepatol Commun ; 4(10): 1502-1515, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33024919

RESUMO

Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) are associated with decreased health-related quality of life and debilitating symptoms. These experiences can be defined as patient-reported outcome (PRO) concepts and measured using PRO instruments. We identified all PRO concepts and instruments used in the PBC and PSC literature. This systematic review identified PBC and/or PSC studies from January 1, 1990, to May 6, 2019, that measured at least one PRO concept. Study population, design, PRO concept, PRO instrument, and validation data for PRO instruments were investigated. We provided descriptive statistics of PRO concepts and instruments used, stratified by population type. Use of PRO concepts and instruments were assessed over time. The search yielded 318 articles (69% in PBC, 18% in PSC, 13% in both, and 24% in drug trials). Forty-nine unique PRO concepts were identified. The five most common PRO concepts included pruritus (25%), fatigue (19%), broad health-related quality of life (16%), gastrointestinal adverse events (6%), and physical adverse events (6%). Only 60% of PRO concepts were measured with a PRO instrument, most of which were nonvalidated visual analogue or numeric rating scales. Only three of 83 PRO instruments were developed with feedback from the target populations (one for PBC, one for PSC, and one for both), and only six documented any psychometric testing in the target populations. Use of PRO instruments increased over time from 30% in the 1990s to 67% by 2019. Conclusion: The overwhelming majority of PRO instruments used in PBC/PSC were nonspecific and lacked patient validation or empirical justification. Significant opportunities exist to use qualitative methods to better understand patient experiences, and translate this knowledge into meaningful, patient-driven study outcomes.

15.
Expert Opin Pharmacother ; : 1-14, 2020 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32955946

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Since the developmentof combined antiretroviral therapy (cART), HIV-associated mortality and the incidence of HIV-associated end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) has decreased. However, in the United States, an increase in non-HIV-associated kidney diseases within the HIV-positive population is expected. AREAS COVERED: In this review, the authors highlight the risk factors for kidney disease within an HIV-positive population and provide the current recommendations for risk stratification and for the monitoring of its progression to chronic kidney disease (CKD), as well as, treatment. The article is based on literature searches using PubMed, Medline and SCOPUS. EXPERT OPINION: The authors recommend clinicians (1) be aware of early cART initiation to prevent and treat HIV-associated kidney diseases, (2) be aware of cART side effects and discriminate those that may become more nephrotoxic than others and require dose-adjustment in the setting of eGFR ≤ 30ml/min/1.73m2, (3) follow KDIGO guidelines regarding screening and monitoring for CKD with a multidisciplinary team of health professionals, (4) manage other co-infections and comorbidities, (5) consider changing cART if drug induced toxicity is established with apparent eGFR decline of ≥ 10ml/min/1.73m2 or rising creatinine (≥0.5mg/dl) during drug-drug interactions, and (6) strongly consider kidney transplant in appropriately selected individuals with end stage kidney failure.

16.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 12(39): 43553-43559, 2020 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32799439

RESUMO

Radiative cooling can alleviate urban heat island effects and passively improve personal thermal comfort. Among many emerging approaches, infrared (IR) transparent films and fabrics are promising because they can allow objects to directly radiate heat through bands of atmospheric transparency while blocking solar heating. However, achieving high solar reflectance while maintaining IR transmittance using scalable nanostructured materials requires control over the shape and size distribution of the nanoscale building blocks. Here, we investigate the scattering and transmission properties of electrospun polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibers that feature spherical, ellipsoidal, and cylindrical morphologies. We find that nanofibers that have ellipsoidal beads exhibit the most efficient solar scattering, mainly due to the additive dielectric resonances of the ellipsoidal and cylindrical geometries, as confirmed through electromagnetic simulations. This favorable scattering decreases the amount of material needed to reach above 95% solar reflectance, which, in turn, enables high infrared transmittance (>70%) despite PAN's intrinsic IR absorption. We further show that these PAN nanofibers (nanoPAN) can enable cooling of surfaces with relatively low solar reflectance, which is demonstrated by covering a reference blackbody surface with beaded nanoPAN. During peak solar hours, this configuration lowers the temperature of the black surface by approximately 50 °C and is able to achieve as low as 3 °C below the ambient air temperature. More broadly, our demonstration using PAN, which is not as IR transparent as more commonly used polyethylene, provides a method for utilizing lower purity materials in radiative cooling.

18.
Sci Adv ; 6(30): eaba3064, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32832663

RESUMO

Interpreting the function of noncoding mutations in cancer genomes remains a major challenge. Here, we developed a computational framework to identify putative causal noncoding mutations of all classes by joint analysis of mutation and gene expression data. We identified thousands of SNVs/small indels and structural variants as putative causal mutations in five major pediatric cancers. We experimentally validated the oncogenic role of CHD4 overexpression via enhancer hijacking in B-ALL. We observed a general exclusivity of coding and noncoding mutations affecting the same genes and pathways. We showed that integrated mutation profiles can help define novel patient subtypes with different clinical outcomes. Our study introduces a general strategy to systematically identify and characterize the full spectrum of noncoding mutations in cancers.

19.
J Diabetes Complications ; 34(11): 107706, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32843283

RESUMO

AIMS: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) accelerates progression of chronic liver disease to cirrhosis, yet the effects of most glucose-lowering drugs (GLDs) on cirrhosis risk in T2D are unknown. To address this gap, we compared cirrhosis risk following initiation of newer second-line GLDs vs. thiazolidinediones (TZDs), which improve histology in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using the US Medicare Fee-for-Service database (2007-2015) and an active comparator, new-user design, we estimated crude incidence rates (IRs) and propensity-score adjusted hazard ratios (aHR) for incident cirrhosis, comparing newer GLDs (dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP4i), glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP1RA), and sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i)) vs. TZDs. RESULTS: Among 239,549 total initiators, we observed 318, 151, and < 30 cirrhosis events when comparing DPP4i vs. TZD, GLP1RA vs. TZD, and SGLT2i vs. TZD, respectively. IRs ranged from 1.7 [95% CI, 0.8-3.6] to 3.6 [2.5-5.2] events per 1000 person-years. Point aHR estimates for cirrhosis were elevated among newer GLD initiators vs. TZD (DPP4i: 1.15 [0.89-1.50]; GLP1RA: 1.34 [0.82-2.20]; SGLT2i: 1.16, [0.44-3.08]), although estimates were imprecise due to short durations of drug exposure. CONCLUSIONS: We observed mildly elevated cirrhosis risk with newer GLDs vs. TZD; however, uncertainty remains due to imprecise and statistically non-significant effect estimates.

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