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1.
Anal Chem ; 2021 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34807579

RESUMO

Turn-on type fluorescence sensing of O2 is considered a promising approach to developing ways to measure O2 in microenvironments with spatially distributed O2 levels. As a class of nanomaterials with a high degree of control over composition and structure, dendrimer-encapsulated nanoparticles (DENs) are promising candidates to mimic biological enzymes. Here, we report a strategy to monitor spatially distributed O2 across a three-dimensional (3D) human intestinal epithelial layer in a gut-on-a-chip in a turn-on fluorescence sensing manner. The strategy is based on the oxidase-mimetic activity of Pt DENs for catalytic oxidation of nonfluorescent Amplex Red to highly fluorescent resorufin in the presence of O2. We synthesized Pt DENs using two different types of dendrimers (i.e., amine-terminated or hydroxyl-terminated generation 6 polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers) with six different Pt2+/dendrimer ratios (i.e., 55, 200, 220, 550, 880, and 1320). After clarifying the intrinsic oxidase-mimetic activity of Pt DENs, we determined tunable oxidase-mimetic activity of Pt DENs, especially with fine-tuning the ratios of the Pt precursor ions and dendrimers. Particularly, the optimal Pt DENs having a Pt2+/dendrimer ratio of 1320 exhibited an ∼117-fold increase in the oxidase-mimetic activity for catalyzing the aerobic oxidation of Amplex Red to resorufin compared to one having a Pt2+/dendrimer ratio of 200. This study exemplified a simple yet effective approach for spatially resolved imaging of O2 using metal nanoparticle-based oxidase mimics in microphysiological environments like a human gut-on-a-chip.

2.
Anal Chem ; 93(45): 14996-15004, 2021 11 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34736319

RESUMO

The conventional tissue biopsy method yields isolated snapshots of a narrow region. Therefore, it cannot facilitate comprehensive disease characterization and monitoring. Recently, the detection of tumor-derived components in body fluids─a practice known as liquid biopsy─has attracted increased attention from the biochemical research and clinical application viewpoints. In this vein, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) has been identified as one of the most powerful liquid-biopsy analysis techniques, owing to its high sensitivity and specificity. Moreover, it affords high-capacity spectral multiplexing for simultaneous target detection and a unique ability to obtain intrinsic biomolecule-fingerprint spectra. This paper presents the fabrication of silver nanosnowflakes (SNSFs) using the polyol method and their subsequent dropping onto a hydrophobic filter paper. The SERS substrate, which comprises the SNSFs and hydrophobic filter paper, facilitates the simultaneous detection of creatinine and cortisol in human sweat using a hand-held Raman spectrometer. The proposed SERS system affords Raman spectrometry to be performed on small sample volumes (2 µL) to identify the normal and at-risk creatinine and cortisol groups.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas Metálicas , Prata , Creatinina , Humanos , Hidrocortisona , Análise Espectral Raman , Suor
3.
Biomater Res ; 25(1): 39, 2021 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34819173

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The addition of bioactive glass (BG), a highly bioactive material with remineralization potential, might improve the drawback of weakening property of mineral trioxide aggregates (MTA) when it encounters with body fluid. This study aims to evaluate the effect of BG addition on physical properties of MTA. METHODS: ProRoot (MTA), and MTA with various concentrations of BG (1, 2, 5 and 10% BG/MTA) were prepared. Simulated body fluid (SBF) was used to investigate the effect of the storage solution on dentin remineralization. Prepared specimens were examined as following; the push-out bond strength to dentin, compressive strength, setting time solubility and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. RESULTS: The 2% BG/MTA showed higher push-out bond strengths than control group after 7 days of SBF storage. The 2% BG/MTA exhibited the highest compressive strength. Setting times were reduced in the 1 and 2% BG/MTA groups, and solubility of all experimental groups were clinically acceptable. In all groups, precipitates were observed in dentinal tubules via SEM. XRD showed the increased hydroxyapatite peaks in the 2, 5 and 10% BG/MTA groups. CONCLUSION: It was verified that the BG-added MTA increased dentin push-out bond strength and compressive strength under SBF storage. The addition of BG did not negatively affect the MTA maturation reaction; it increased the amount of hydroxyapatite during SBF maturation.

4.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 22934, 2021 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34824319

RESUMO

Although surgery is the gold standard for treatment of primary spontaneous pneumothorax (PSP), recurrence after surgery remains a concern. This study sought to evaluate the efficacy of simultaneous pleurodesis using Viscum album (VA) extract and video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) bullectomy for the treatment of PSP. From March 2016 to June 2020, 175 patients with PSP underwent bullectomy and intraoperative pleurodesis with VA extract at a single institution. All operations were performed through thoracoscopy by one surgeon. Upon completion of bullectomy, a polyglycolic acid sheet was used to cover the stapler lines, and 40 mg of VA extract was instilled over the entire chest wall before chest tube placement. The median operating time was 20 min (interquartile ranges, 15-30) and the median indwelling time of chest drainage was 2 days (interquartile ranges, 2-3). There were no postoperative complications over grade 3. During the median follow-up period of 38 months (interquartile ranges, 15-48), no recurrence of pneumothorax was observed. The results of this study demonstrated that simultaneous Viscum pleurodesis and VATS bullectomy provides a feasible and effective treatment option for preventing postoperative pneumothorax in patients with PSP.

5.
Foods ; 10(11)2021 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34828904

RESUMO

Chickpea flours are an interesting multifunctional ingredient for different food products. This study investigated the potential of differently processed chickpea flours as alternative thickening agents in an instant soup recipe, replacing potato starch. Dry instant soup powders were compared on bulk density and powder flowability, whereas prepared liquid instant soups were studied in terms of rheological behaviour (as influenced by microstructure) and volatile composition. The chickpea-flour-containing soup powders possessed similar powder flowability to a reference powder but were easier to mix and will potentially result in reduced blockages during filling. For prepared liquid instant soups, similar viscosities were reached compared to the potato starch reference soup. Nevertheless, the chickpea-flour-containing soups showed higher shear thinning behaviour due to the presence of larger particles and the shear induced breakdown of particle clusters. Flavour compounds from the soup mix interacted with chickpea flour constituents, changing their headspace concentrations. Additionally, chickpea flours introduced new volatile compounds to the soups, such as ketones, aldehydes, alcohols, and sulphur compounds, which can possibly alter the aroma and flavour. It was concluded that chickpea flours showed excellent potential as alternative thickening ingredient in instant soups, improving the protein, mineral and vitamin content, and the powder flowability of the soups, although the flavour of the soups might be affected by the changes in volatile profiles between the soups.

6.
Int J Cancer ; 2021 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34751444

RESUMO

Previous studies have reported inconsistent findings concerning the impact of statin use on cancer prevention. This study examined the association between statin use and cancer incidence and mortality related to breast and gynecologic cancers in South Korea. A population-based cohort study was conducted using the National Health Insurance claims database. Women aged 45-70 years old who had taken statins for at least 6 months were compared to statin non-users of the same age from January 2005 to June 2013. The primary outcomes were cancer incidence and mortality related to breast cancer, total gynecologic cancers, cervix uteri cancer, and ovarian cancer. Cox proportional hazards regression was conducted to calculate the adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). Out of 587 705 women, there were 3591 cases of breast cancer, 2239 cases of gynecologic cancers, and 565 breast and total gynecologic cancer deaths during 7.6 person-years. The aHRs for the association between the risk of each cancer and statin use were 0.88 (95% CI 0.79-0.97) for breast cancer and 0.83 (95% CI 0.67-0.99) for cervix uteri cancer. Statin use was associated with decreased breast cancer mortality (HR = 0.65, 95% CI 0.43-0.99) and total gynecologic cancer mortality (HR = 0.70, 95% CI 0.50-0.98). A dose-response relationship was only found for all-cancer mortality. Statin use for at least 6 months was significantly associated with a lower risk of breast and cervix uteri cancer incidence, and with lower mortality of breast and gynecologic cancers. Further research on these associations will be needed. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

7.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 6328, 2021 11 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34732723

RESUMO

The "mouthfeel" of food products is a key factor in our perception of food quality and in our appreciation of food products. Extensive research has been performed on what determines mouthfeel, and how it can be linked to laboratory measurements and eventually predicted. This was mainly done on the basis of simple models that do not accurately take the rheology of the food products into account. Here, we show that the subjectively perceived "thickness" of liquid foods, or the force needed to make the sample flow or deform in the mouth, can be directly related to their non-Newtonian rheology. Measuring the shear-thinning rheology and modeling the squeeze flow between the tongue and the palate in the oral cavity allows to predict how a panel perceives soup "thickness". This is done for various liquid bouillons with viscosities ranging from that of water to low-viscous soups and for high-viscous xanthan gum solutions. Our findings show that our tongues, just like our eyes and ears, are logarithmic measuring instruments in agreement with the Weber-Fechner law that predicts a logarithmic relation between stimulus amplitude and perceived strength. Our results pave the way for more accurate prediction of mouthfeel characteristics of liquid food products.

8.
Adv Healthc Mater ; : e2101768, 2021 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34747158

RESUMO

Tremendous advances have been made toward accurate recapitulation of the human intestinal system in vitro to understand its developmental process, and disease progression. However, current in vitro models are often confined to 2D or 2.5D microarchitectures, which is difficult to mimic the systemic level of complexity of the native tissue. To overcome this problem, physiologically relevant intestinal models are developed with a 3D hollow tubular structure using 3D bioprinting strategy. A tissue-specific biomaterial, colon-derived decellularized extracellular matrix (Colon dECM) is developed and it provides significant maturation-guiding potential to human intestinal cells. To fabricate a perfusable tubular model, a simultaneous printing process of multiple materials through concentrically assembled nozzles is developed and a light-activated Colon dECM bioink is employed by supplementing with ruthenium/sodium persulfate as a photoinitiator. The bioprinted intestinal tissue models show spontaneous 3D morphogenesis of the human intestinal epithelium without any external stimuli. In consequence, the printed cells form multicellular aggregates and cysts and then differentiate into several types of enterocytes, building junctional networks. This system can serve as a platform to evaluate the effects of potential drug-induced toxicity on the human intestinal tissue and create a coculture model with commensal microbes and immune cells for future therapeutics.

9.
J Hepatol ; 2021 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34785324

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Donor death is the most serious complication of living liver donation, but is reported rarely. We investigated the actual mortality of living liver donors (LLDs) compared with matched control groups based on analysis of the Korean National Health Insurance Services (NHIS) database. METHODS: This cohort study included 12,372 LLDs who donated a liver graft between 2002 and 2018, and were registered in the Korean Network for Organ Sharing. They were compared to three matched control groups selected from the Korean NHIS and comprising a total of 123,710 subjects: healthy population (Group I); general population without comorbidities (Group II); and general population with comorbidities (Group III). RESULTS: In this population, 78.5% of living liver donors were 20-39 years old, and 64.7% of all donors were male. Eighty-nine donors (0.7%) in the LLD group died (68 males and 21 females), a mortality rate (1000 person/year) of 0.91 (0.74-1.12). Mortality rate ratio and the adjusted hazard ratio of the LLD group was 2.03 (1.61-2.55) and 1.71 (1.31-2.25) compared to Control Group I, 0.75 (0.60-0.93) and 0.63 (0.49-0.82) compared to Control Group II, and 0.58 (0.46-0.71) and 0.49 (0.39-0.60) compared to Control Group III. LLD group, depression, and lower income were risk factors for adjusted mortality. The incidence of liver failure, depression, cancer, diabetes, hypertension, brain infarction, brain hemorrhage, and end-stage renal disease in the LLD group was significantly higher than in Control Group I. CONCLUSIONS: Outcomes of the LLD group were worse than those of the matched healthy control group despite the small number of death and medical morbidities in this group. LLDs should receive careful medical attention for an extended period after donation. LAY SUMMARY: The incidence of mortality, liver failure, depression, cancer, diabetes, hypertension, brain infarction, brain hemorrhage, and end-stage renal disease in the LLD group was significantly higher than in the matched healthy group even though few cases. Careful donor evaluation and selection processes can improve donor safety and enable safe living donor liver transplantation.

10.
Respirol Case Rep ; 9(12): e0875, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34795901

RESUMO

Pulmonary pleomorphic carcinoma (PPC) is a rare type of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with a more aggressive clinical course and a worse outcome than other types of NSCLC. Pembrolizumab, a monoclonal antibody targeting programmed cell death-1 (PD-1), has been approved as the first-line treatment for advanced NSCLC with robust PD-L1 expression in at least 50% of tumour cells, without epidermal growth factor receptor gene (EGFR) mutations or anaplastic lymphoma kinase gene (ALK) rearrangement. Here, we report the case of an 81-year-old man with multiple comorbidities who was diagnosed with PPC and showed a robust response to pembrolizumab followed by radiation therapy without adverse effects. In the absence of randomized clinical trials for PPCs, our case report demonstrates the potential application of pembrolizumab and radiation therapy for the treatment of PPCs.

11.
Chonnam Med J ; 57(3): 185-190, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34621638

RESUMO

Acer mono is known to contain bioactive substances that exhibit beneficial effects in osteoporosis, gastric ulcers, hepatic damage, and pathologic angiogenesis. The current study aimed to investigate the effects of Acer mono extract on the invasive activities and cell-cycle progression of human fibrosarcoma cells. Cytotoxicity of Acer mono extract was assessed by MTT assay, in-vitro invasiveness of HT1080 fibrosarcoma cells was measured using matrigel assay, expression of invasion- and cell-cycle-related proteins was analyzed by western blot analysis, and that of E2F target genes was quantified using qRT-PCR. Acer mono extract did not show distinct cytotoxicity in the experimental concentrations used. Invasiveness of HT1080 fibrosarcoma cells and expression of cyclin D1 and CDK4 in them were significantly reduced in a dose-dependent manner after treatment with Acer mono extract. Acer mono extract showed inhibitory effects on the G1/S transition during cell-cycle progression; the active phosphorylated Rb protein level was decreased, and expression of E2F target genes was downregulated by the Acer mono extract. Our data collectively demonstrated that Acer mono extract exerts inhibitory effects on the invasiveness and cell-cycle progression of HT1080 human fibrosarcoma cells.

12.
J Nanobiotechnology ; 19(1): 338, 2021 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34689768

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Photoactivation targeting macrophages has emerged as a therapeutic strategy for atherosclerosis, but limited targetable ability of photosensitizers to the lesions hinders its applications. Moreover, the molecular mechanistic insight to its phototherapeutic effects on atheroma is still lacking. Herein, we developed a macrophage targetable near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) emitting phototheranostic agent by conjugating dextran sulfate (DS) to chlorin e6 (Ce6) and estimated its phototherapeutic feasibility in murine atheroma. Also, the phototherapeutic mechanisms of DS-Ce6 on atherosclerosis were investigated. RESULTS: The phototheranostic agent DS-Ce6 efficiently internalized into the activated macrophages and foam cells via scavenger receptor-A (SR-A) mediated endocytosis. Customized serial optical imaging-guided photoactivation of DS-Ce6 by light illumination reduced both atheroma burden and inflammation in murine models. Immuno-fluorescence and -histochemical analyses revealed that the photoactivation of DS-Ce6 produced a prominent increase in macrophage-associated apoptotic bodies 1 week after laser irradiation and induced autophagy with Mer tyrosine-protein kinase expression as early as day 1, indicative of an enhanced efferocytosis in atheroma. CONCLUSION: Imaging-guided DS-Ce6 photoactivation was able to in vivo detect inflammatory activity in atheroma as well as to simultaneously reduce both plaque burden and inflammation by harmonic contribution of apoptosis, autophagy, and lesional efferocytosis. These results suggest that macrophage targetable phototheranostic nanoagents will be a promising theranostic strategy for high-risk atheroma.

13.
Orthop J Sports Med ; 9(10): 23259671211042599, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34676271

RESUMO

Background: The association between dyslipidemia and Achilles tendinopathy (AT) or Achilles tendon rupture (ATR) remains controversial, although some studies have examined this topic. Purpose: To evaluate the correlation of dyslipidemia and the risk of AT or ATR, and its association with body mass index (BMI), by assessing data from a nationwide population-based cohort. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: We used the National Health Insurance database, which includes the entire population of the Republic of Korea, to evaluate participants in the National Health Screening Program between January 2009 and December 2010. Participants diagnosed with AT or ATR before December 31, 2017, were selected. The variables assessed were age, sex, frequency of high-intensity exercise per week, BMI, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, and levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and fasting blood glucose. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression was used for data analysis. Results: A total of 16,830,532 participants were included. Of these, 125,814 and 31,424 participants developed AT and ATR, respectively. A higher level of LDL-C was associated with an increased risk of AT (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.16) and ATR (adjusted HR, 1.18). A slightly increased risk of AT was observed in participants with higher TG levels (adjusted HR, 1.03), whereas higher HDL-C level was associated with a slight risk reduction for AT (adjusted HR, 0.95). However, no significant association was observed between higher TG or HDL-C levels and ATR. In the underweight group (BMI <18.5 kg/m2), a higher LDL-C level was associated with an increased risk of AT and ATR by 37% and 116%, respectively, compared with lower LDL-C. Higher LDL-C level was associated with an increased risk of AT and ATR by 10% and 16%, respectively, in the obese group (BMI ≥25 kg/m2). Conclusion: Dyslipidemia was related to the development of AT and ATR. The association of higher LDL-C levels with AT and ATR risk was more pronounced in underweight than in overweight and obese individuals.

14.
Thorac Cancer ; 2021 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34693646

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A heterogeneous radiological response is frequently observed in cancer patients and could reflect tumor heterogeneity. We investigated the prognostic impact of heterogeneous radiological responses in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who received platinum-based chemotherapy. METHODS: The treatment response according to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) 1.1 criteria was evaluated in 212 patients with advanced NSCLC who received platinum-based chemotherapy. Patients with partial response (PR) or stable disease (SD) were classified into "PR homo," "PR hetero," "SD homo," and "SD hetero" by the presence of a heterogeneous radiological response, and survival was compared between groups. We also compared survival based on the presence of metabolic responses in lesions with heterogeneous radiological responses. RESULTS: Fifty-two patients (24.5%) were classified as PR, 112 patients (52.8%) as SD, and 48 patients (22.7%) as progressive disease (PD). There was no significant difference in progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) between the PR homo and PR hetero groups. The SD homo group had a longer PFS and OS than the SD hetero group. In the SD hetero group, patients with increased maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) in lesions with heterogeneous radiological responses had a shorter PFS than those with a stable SUVmax. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of lesions with radiological heterogeneity was associated with disease progression and poor prognosis in the SD group. Patients with heterogeneous radiological responses require careful monitoring.

15.
Korean J Physiol Pharmacol ; 25(6): 575-583, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34697268

RESUMO

Composition of the gut microbiota changes with aging and plays an important role in age-associated disease such as metabolic syndrome, cancer, and neurodegeneration. The gut microbiota composition oscillates through the day, and the disruption of their diurnal rhythm results in gut dysbiosis leading to metabolic and immune dysfunctions. It is well documented that circadian rhythm changes with age in several biological functions such as sleep, body temperature, and hormone secretion. However, it is not defined whether the diurnal pattern of gut microbial composition is affected by aging. To evaluate aging effects on the diurnal pattern of the gut microbiome, we evaluated the taxa profiles of cecal contents obtained from young and aged mice of both sexes at daytime and nighttime points by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. At the phylum level, the ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes and the relative abundances of Verrucomicrobia and Cyanobacteria were increased in aged male mice at night compared with that of young male mice. Meanwhile, the relative abundances of Sutterellaceae, Alloprevotella, Lachnospiraceae UCG-001, and Parasutterella increased in aged female mice at night compared with that of young female mice. The Lachnospiraceae NK4A136 group relative abundance increased in aged mice of both sexes but at opposite time points. These results showed the changes in diurnal patterns of gut microbial composition with aging, which varied depending on the sex of the host. We suggest that disturbed diurnal patterns of the gut microbiome can be a factor for the underlying mechanism of age-associated gut dysbiosis.

16.
J Clin Anesth ; 75: 110461, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34521067

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine whether high perioperative inspired oxygen fraction (FiO2) compared with low FiO2 has more deleterious postoperative clinical outcomes in patients undergoing non-thoracic surgery under general anesthesia. DESIGN: Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. SETTING: Operating room, postoperative recovery room and surgical ward. PATIENTS: Surgical patients under general anesthesia. INTERVENTION: High perioperative FiO2 (≥0.8) vs. low FiO2 (≤0.5). MEASUREMENTS: The primary outcome was mortality within 30 days. Secondary outcomes were pulmonary outcomes (atelectasis, pneumonia, respiratory failure, postoperative pulmonary complications [PPCs], and postoperative oxygen parameters), intensive care unit (ICU) admissions, and length of hospital stay. A subgroup analysis was performed to explore the treatment effect by body mass index (BMI). MAIN RESULTS: Twenty-six trials with a total 4991 patients were studied. The mortality in the high FiO2 group did not differ from that in the low FiO2 group (risk ratio [RR] 0.91, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.42-1.97, P = 0.810). Nor were there any significant differences between the groups in such outcomes as pneumonia (RR 1.19, 95% CI 0.74-1.92, P = 0.470), respiratory failure (RR 1.29, 95% CI 0.82-2.04, P = 0.270), PPCs (RR 1.05, 95% CI 0.69-1.59, P = 0.830), ICU admission (RR 0.94, 95% CI 0.55-1.60, P = 0.810), and length of hospital stay (mean difference [MD] 0.27 d, 95% CI -0.28-0.81, P = 0.340). The high FiO2 was associated with postoperative atelectasis more often (risk ratio 1.27, 95% CI 1.00-1.62, P = 0.050), and lower postoperative arterial partial oxygen pressure (MD -5.03 mmHg, 95% CI -7.90- -2.16, P < 0.001). In subgroup analysis of BMI >30 kg/m2, these parameters were similarly affected between the groups. CONCLUSIONS: The use of high FiO2 compared to low FiO2 did not affect the short-term mortality, although it may increase the incidence of atelectasis in adult, non-thoracic patients undergoing surgical procedures. Nor were there any significant differences in other secondary outcomes.

17.
Foods ; 10(9)2021 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34574273

RESUMO

Various food products distributed throughout the cold chain can present a health risk for consumers due to the presence of psychrotolerant B. cereus group species that possess enterotoxin genes and antibiotic resistance. As these bacteria can grow at the low temperatures used in the food industry, this study evaluated the antimicrobial efficacy of acetic acid, sodium hypochlorite, and thermal treatments for inhibition of psychrotolerant strains and the effect that differences in activation temperature (30 °C and 10 °C) have on their efficacy. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC), and bacterial growth assay of acetic acid and thermal treatment showed an equal or higher antimicrobial efficacy in isolates activated at 10 °C than in those activated at 30 °C. In particular, psychrotolerant strains from the B. cereus group were completely eliminated with 0.25% acetic acid, regardless of the activation temperature. The possibility of tolerance was determined by observing responses in cells activated at 10 and 30 °C when exposed to different concentrations of sodium hypochlorite. Five isolates activated at 10 °C exhibited enhanced survivability in sodium hypochlorite compared to isolates activated at 30 °C, and these isolates were able to grow in sodium hypochlorite at concentrations of 250 ppm or higher. Although a significant difference in antimicrobial efficacy was observed for psychrotolerant B. cereus group strains depending on the activation temperature, acetic acid may be the most effective antimicrobial agent against psychrotolerant B. cereus species isolated from food products distributed in a cold chain.

18.
Materials (Basel) ; 14(18)2021 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34576647

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the effect of a novel bioactive glass (BAG)-containing dentin adhesive on the permeability of demineralized dentin. Bioactive glass (85% SiO2, 15% CaO) was fabricated using the sol-gel process, and two experimental dentin adhesives were prepared with 3 wt% silica (silica-containing dentin adhesive; SCA) or BAG (BAG-containing dentin adhesive; BCA). Micro-tensile bond strength (µTBS) test, fracture mode analysis, field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) analysis of adhesive and demineralized dentin, real-time dentinal fluid flow (DFF) rate measurement, and Raman confocal microscopy were performed to compare SCA and BCA. There was no difference in µTBS between the SCA and BCA (p > 0.05). Multiple precipitates were evident on the surface of the BCA, and partial occlusion of dentinal tubules was observed in FE-SEM of BCA-approximated dentin. The DFF rate was reduced by 50.10% after BCA approximation and increased by 6.54% after SCA approximation. Raman confocal spectroscopy revealed an increased intensity of the hydroxyapatite (HA) peak on the dentin surface after BCA application. The novel BAG-containing dentin adhesive showed the potential of both reducing dentin permeability and dentin remineralization.

19.
Am J Sports Med ; 49(12): 3312-3321, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34491137

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genetic and behavioral risk factors have been suggested to play a role in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. However, population-based familial risk estimates are unavailable. PURPOSE: To quantify familial risk of ACL injury among first-degree relatives (FDRs) after controlling for certain behavioral risk factors. To estimate the combined effect of family history and body mass index (BMI) or physical activity on the risk of ACL injury. STUDY DESIGN: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. METHODS: Using nationwide data from the Korean National Health Insurance and National Health Screening Program databases on kinship, lifestyle habits, and anthropometrics, 5,184,603 individuals with blood-related FDRs were identified from 2002 to 2018. Familial risk of ACL injury, as represented as incidence risk ratios (IRRs) with 95% CIs, was analyzed using Cox proportional hazards models among individuals with versus without affected FDRs. Analyses were adjusted for age, sex, and behavioral risk factors. Interaction testing between familial history and BMI or physical activity was performed on an additive scale. RESULTS: The risk of ACL injury was 1.79-fold higher (IRR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.73-1.85) among individuals with versus without affected FDRs, and the incidence was 12.61 per 10,000 person-years. The IRR (95% CI) was highest with affected twins at 4.49 (3.01-6.69), followed by siblings at 2.31 (2.19-2.44), the father at 1.58 (1.49-1.68), and the mother at 1.52 (1.44-1.61). High BMI and high level of physical activity were significantly associated with the risk of ACL injury. Individuals with positive family history and either high BMI or physical activity had a 2.59- and 2.45-fold increased risk of injury as compared with the general population, respectively, and the combined risks exceeded the sum of their independent risks. CONCLUSION: Familial factors are risk factors for ACL injury with an additional contribution of 2 behavioral factors: BMI and physical activity level. A significant interaction was observed between family history of ACL injury and high BMI/level of physical activity.


Assuntos
Lesões do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior , Reconstrução do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior , Lesões do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/epidemiologia , Lesões do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/cirurgia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Coortes , Exercício Físico , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
20.
BMC Urol ; 21(1): 131, 2021 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34530786

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aimed to evaluate the usefulness of the Beckman Coulter prostate health index (PHI) and to compare it with total prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels and related derivatives in predicting the presence and aggressiveness of prostate cancer (PCa) in the Korean population. METHODS: A total of 140 men who underwent their first prostate biopsy for suspected PCa were included in this prospective observational study. The diagnostic performance of total PSA, free PSA, %free PSA, [-2] proPSA (p2PSA), %p2PSA, and PHI in detecting and predicting the aggressiveness of PCa was estimated using the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) and logistic multivariate regression analyses. RESULTS: Of 140 patients, PCa was detected in 63 (45%) of participants, and 48 (76.2%) of them had significant cancer with a Gleason score (GS) ≥ 7. In the whole group, the area under the curve (AUC) for ROC analysis of tPSA, free PSA, %fPSA, p2PSA, %p2PSA, and PHI were 0.63, 0.57, 0.69, 0.69, 0.72, and 0.76, respectively, and the AUC was significantly greater in the PHI group than in the tPSA group (p = 0.005). For PCa with GS ≥ 7, the AUCs for tPSA, free PSA, %fPSA, p2PSA, %p2PSA, and PHI were 0.62, 0.58, 0.41, 0.79, 0.86, and 0.87, respectively, and the AUC was significantly greater in the PHI group than in the tPSA group (p < 0.001). In the subgroup with tPSA 4-10 ng/mL, both %p2PSA and PHI were strong independent predictors for PCa (p = 0.007, p = 0.006) and significantly improved the predictive accuracy of a base multivariable model, including age, tPSA, fPSA and %fPSA, using multivariate logistic regression analysis. (p = 0.054, p = 0.048). Additionally, at a cutoff PHI value > 33.4, 22.9% (32/140) of biopsies could be avoided without missing any cases of aggressive cancer. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that %p2PSA and PHI are superior to total PSA and %fPSA in predicting the presence and aggressiveness (GS ≥ 7) of PCa among Korean men. Using PHI, a significant proportion of unnecessary biopsies can be avoided.

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