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1.
Biologicals ; 71: 20-30, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33994086

RESUMO

The rabbit pyrogen test (RPT) is a safety test conducted as a part of mandatory requirements of regulatory agencies. RPT is currently performed for routine quality control (QC) by manufacturers and for national lot release of biological products, such as plasma-derived products. However, RPT involves the use of many rabbits, counter to the international efforts to minimize the use of animals in research. Furthermore, pyrogen amount cannot be discerned from the test results and the results may be considerably affected by various factors. Therefore, a need exists for substituting RPT with in vitro assays. As a viable alternative to RPT, we here established a rabbit monocyte activation test (RMAT) based on the human MAT in the European Pharmacopoeia. RMAT uses rabbit peripheral blood mononuclear cells as the source of monocytes instead of live animals. The test detected endotoxin, lipoteichoic acid, peptidoglycan, and zymosan with high sensitivity, showing high correlation with the in vivo RPT results. The results of RMAT and RPT testing of non-pyrogenic plasma-derived products were also consistent. Furthermore, RMAT showed satisfactory recovery rates in an interference test with product samples and spiked-in pyrogens. We conclude that RMAT could replace the existing RPT for routine QC.

2.
Cell Rep ; 33(13): 108564, 2020 12 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33378666

RESUMO

The mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2) controls cell metabolism and survival in response to environmental inputs. Dysregulation of mTORC2 signaling has been linked to diverse human diseases, including cancer and metabolic disorders, highlighting the importance of a tightly controlled mTORC2. While mTORC2 assembly is a critical determinant of its activity, the factors regulating this event are not well understood, and it is unclear whether this process is regulated by growth factors. Here, we present data, from human cell lines and mice, describing a mechanism by which growth factors regulate ubiquitin-specific protease 9X (USP9X) deubiquitinase to stimulate mTORC2 assembly and activity. USP9X removes Lys63-linked ubiquitin from RICTOR to promote its interaction with mTOR, thereby facilitating mTORC2 signaling. As mTORC2 is central for cellular homeostasis, understanding the mechanisms regulating mTORC2 activation toward its downstream targets is vital for our understanding of physiological processes and for developing new therapeutic strategies in pathology.

3.
Transl Psychiatry ; 10(1): 377, 2020 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33149110

RESUMO

Perseveration and apathy are two of the most common behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSDs) in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-frontotemporal dementia (ALS-FTD). Availability of a validated and behaviourally characterised animal model is crucial for translational research into BPSD in the FTD context. We behaviourally evaluated the male TDP-43Q331K mouse, an ALS-FTD model with a human-equivalent mutation (TDP-43Q331K) knocked into the endogenous Tardbp gene. We utilised a panel of behavioural tasks delivered using the rodent touchscreen apparatus, including progressive ratio (PR), extinction and visual discrimination/reversal learning (VDR) assays to examine motivation, response inhibition and cognitive flexibility, respectively. Relative to WT littermates, TDP-43Q331K mice exhibited increased responding under a PR schedule. While elevated PR responding is typically an indication of increased motivation for reward, a trial-by-trial response rate analysis revealed that TDP-43Q331K mice exhibited decreased maximal response rate and slower response decay rate, suggestive of reduced motivation and a perseverative behavioural phenotype, respectively. In the extinction assay, TDP-43Q331K mice displayed increased omissions during the early phase of each session, consistent with a deficit in activational motivation. Finally, the VDR task revealed cognitive inflexibility, manifesting as stimulus-bound perseveration. Together, our data indicate that male TDP-43Q331K mice exhibit a perseverative phenotype with some evidence of apathy-like behaviour, similar to BPSDs observed in human ALS-FTD patients. The TDP-43Q331K knock-in mouse therefore has features that recommend it as a useful platform to facilitate translational research into behavioural symptoms in the context of ALS-FTD.

4.
Inorg Chem ; 59(19): 14263-14274, 2020 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32924455

RESUMO

Nanosizing is known to affect the hydrogenation properties of magnesium. For this reason, the long period stacking ordered (LPSO) structures, made of the stacking of nanolayers of magnesium and nanolayers of Mg-A-B (with A = rare earth and B = transition metal), were herein considered. A Mg83.3Cu7.2Y9.5 LPSO compound with 18R structure was successfully synthesized. Its hydrogenation properties were investigated at temperatures between 150 and 400 °C. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis indicates that the LPSO structure decomposes into magnesium hydride, yttrium hydride, and an intermetallic compound (Mg2Cu or MgCu2). The pressure composition (PC) isotherm for Mg83.3Cu7.2Y9.5 at 400 °C combined with XRD analysis allows one to understand the three-step hydrogenation pathway, detailed in this paper. At this hydrogenation temperature, the fully hydrogenated compound contains magnesium hydride exclusively crystallized in the most stable tetragonal structure (100% of α-MgH2 was formed). When the pristine LPSO was hydrogenated at lower temperature, the amount of α-MgH2 decreased, while its polymorphic structure, γ-MgH2, appeared. Finally, hydrogenation of Mg83.3Cu7.2Y9.5 at 150 °C led to the formation of γ-MgH2 with a high phase fraction (82% of γ-MgH2/MgH2). These results suggest that the crystallographic structure of the magnesium hydride can be controlled by the hydrogenation temperature of LPSO compounds.

5.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 105(9)2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32561922

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Plasma clusterin, a promising biomarker of Alzheimer disease (AD), has been associated with diabetes mellitus (DM). However, clusterin has not been investigated considering a relationship with both DM and AD. In this study, we aimed to investigate the individual and interactive relationships of plasma clusterin levels with both diseases. DESIGN: Cross-sectional observation study. METHODS: We classified participants by the severity of cognitive (normal cognition, mild cognitive impairment [MCI], and AD) and metabolic (healthy control, prediabetes, and DM) impairments. We evaluated the cognitive and metabolic functions of the participants with neuropsychological assessments, brain magnetic resonance imaging, and various blood tests, to explore potential relationships with clusterin. RESULTS: Plasma clusterin levels were higher in participants with AD and metabolic impairment (prediabetes and DM). A two-way ANCOVA revealed no synergistic, but an additive effect of AD and DM on clusterin. Clusterin was negatively correlated with cognitive scores. It was also associated with metabolic status indicated by glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), the Homeostatic Model Assessment for Insulin Resistance index, and fasting C-peptide. It showed correlations between medial temporal atrophy and periventricular white matter lesions, indicating neurodegeneration and microvascular insufficiency, respectively. Further mediation analysis to understand the triadic relationship between clusterin, AD, and DM revealed that the association between DM and AD was significant when clusterin is considered as a mediator of their relationship. CONCLUSIONS: Clusterin is a promising biomarker of DM as well as of AD. Additionally, our data suggest that clusterin may have a role in linking DM with AD as a potential mediator.

6.
Inorg Chem ; 59(10): 6800-6807, 2020 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32379436

RESUMO

Thin films often exhibit fascinating properties, but the understanding of the underlying mechanism behind such properties is not simple. This is partially because of the limited structural information available. The hurdle in obtaining such information is especially high for textured thin films such as Mg-rich MgxTi1-x, a promising switchable smart coating material. Although these metastable thin films are seen as solid solution alloys by conventional crystallographic methods, their hydrogen-induced optical transition is hardly understood by a solid solution model. In this study, we collect atomic pair distribution function (PDF) data for a Mg0.7Ti0.3Hy thin film in situ on hydrogenation and successfully resolve TiH2 clusters of an average size of 30 Å embedded in the Mg matrix. This supports the chemically segregated model previously proposed for this system. We also observe the emergence of a previously unknown intermediate face-centered tetragonal phase during hydrogenation of the Mg matrix. This phase appears between Mg and MgH2 to reduce lattice mismatch, thereby preventing pulverization and facilitating rapid hydrogen uptake. This work may shed new light on the hydrogen-induced properties of Mg-rich MgxTi1-x thin films.

7.
Korean J Fam Med ; 41(2): 98-104, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32208401

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Smartphone usage is indispensably beneficial to people's everyday lives. However, excessive smartphone usage has been associated with physical and mental health problems. This study aimed to evaluate the association of smartphone usage with depressive symptoms, suicidal thoughts, and suicide attempts in Korean adolescents. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 54,603 Korean adolescent participants (26,930 male and 27,673 female) in the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Survey in 2017 who reported their smartphone use. We performed multiple logistic regression analysis to evaluate the association of smartphone use with mental health after adjusting for relevant covariates. RESULTS: Among the participants, 25.6% of male students and 38.4% of female students reported using their smartphone for at least 30 hours per week. As time duration of smartphone usage increased, the risk of experiencing depressive symptoms, suicidal thoughts, and suicide attempt tended to increase, with odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of 1.18 (1.10-1.26), 1.18 (1.08-1.29), and 1.34 (1.11-1.60), respectively, for high smartphone usage compared with low smartphone usage. These associations remained significant with only slight change in odds ratios after consideration of problems that may be caused by smartphone usage, such as conflicts with family members or peers, or disturbance in school work. CONCLUSION: Smartphone overuse was independently associated with an increased risk of mental health problems, which did not seem to be mediated by the problems caused by smartphone usage.

8.
Sci Total Environ ; 718: 137267, 2020 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32088476

RESUMO

Particulate matter (PM) exposure is related to an increased risk of sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD), the pathogenesis of which is explained by chronic neurometabolic disturbance. Therefore, PM-induced alterations in neurometabolism might herald AD. We aimed to identify brain region-specific changes in metabolic pathways associated with ultrafine particle (UFP) exposure and to determine whether such metabolic alterations are linked to susceptibility to AD. We constructed UFP exposure chambers and generated UFP by the pyrolysis method, which produces no toxic oxidized by-products of combustion, such as NOx and CO. Twenty male C57BL6 mice (11-12 months old) were exposed either to UFP or room air in the chambers for 3 weeks. One week following completion of UFP exposure, regional brain tissues, including the olfactory bulb, cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum, were obtained and analyzed by metabolomics based on GC-MS and LC-MS, western blot analysis, and immunohistochemistry. Our results demonstrated that the metabolomic phenotype was distinct within the 4 different anatomical regions following UFP exposure. The highest level of metabolic change was identified in the hippocampus, a vulnerable region involved in AD pathogenesis. In this region, one of the key changes was perturbed redox homeostasis via alterations in the methionine-glutathione pathway. UFP exposure also induced oxidative stress and neuroinflammation, and importantly, increased Alzheimer's beta-amyloid levels in the hippocampus. These results suggest that inhaled UFP-induced perturbation in hippocampal redox homeostasis has a role in the pathogenesis of AD. Therefore, chronic exposure to UFP should be regarded as a cumulative environmental risk factor for sporadic AD.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Doença de Alzheimer , Animais , Glutationa , Hipocampo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Oxirredução , Tamanho da Partícula , Material Particulado
9.
Inorg Chem ; 59(5): 2758-2764, 2020 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32058704

RESUMO

Magnesium-based transition-metal hydrides are attractive hydrogen energy materials because of their relatively high gravimetric and volumetric hydrogen storage capacities combined with low material costs. However, most of them are too stable to release the hydrogen under moderate conditions. Here we synthesize the hydride of Mg2FexSi1-x, which consists of Mg2FeH6 and Mg2Si with the same cubic structure. For silicon-rich hydrides (x < 0.5), mostly the Mg2Si phase is observed by X-ray diffraction, and Mössbauer spectroscopy indicates the formation of an octahedral FeH6 unit. Transmission electron microscopy measurements indicate that Mg2FeH6 domains are nanometer-sized and embedded in a Mg2Si matrix. This synthesized metallographic structure leads to distortion of the Mg2FeH6 lattice, resulting in thermal destabilization. Our results indicate that nanometer-sized magnesium-based transition-metal hydrides can be formed into a matrix-forced organization induced by the hydrogenation of nonequilibrium Mg-Fe-Si composites. In this way, the thermodynamics of hydrogen absorption and desorption can be tuned, which allows for the development of lightweight and inexpensive hydrogen storage materials.

10.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 67(2): 473-475, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31955520

RESUMO

African swine fever, a fatal haemorrhagic disease of swine, was confirmed in domestic pigs for the first time in South Korea in September 2019. The causative virus belonged to the p72 genotype II and had an additional tandem repeat sequence in the intergenic region (IGR) between the I73R and I329L.


Assuntos
Vírus da Febre Suína Africana/genética , Febre Suína Africana/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Febre Suína Africana/virologia , Animais , Feminino , Genótipo , Masculino , Filogenia , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Sus scrofa , Suínos , Sequências de Repetição em Tandem/genética
11.
J Cerebrovasc Endovasc Neurosurg ; 21(1): 33-39, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31832385

RESUMO

Background: Achondroplasia is one of the most common types of dwarfism and is inherited as an autosomal dominant disease. The patients with achondroplasia suffer from various complications such as craniofacial, central nervous system, spinal, respiratory and cardiac anomalies. Case Description: We report a case of a 35-year-old man with achondroplasia who visited the emergency room with right hemiplegia and aphasia within 6 hours after onset. An Initial CT angiography showed the total occlusion of a left internal cerebral artery due to the thrombus. We treated the patient with endovascular thrombectomy using "Solumbra technique" with balloon guiding catheter. The procedure was successful and result was completely recanalized with Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction (TICI) scale 3 and the weakness also improved from grade II to grade IV. Conclusion: Acute ischemic stroke patients with achondroplasia could be treated with mechanical thrombectomy.

12.
Inorg Chem ; 58(21): 14600-14607, 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31647662

RESUMO

Hydrogen storage is a key technology for the advancement of hydrogen and fuel cell power technologies in stationary and portable applications. MgH2, an example of a high-capacity hydrogen storage material, has two major material challenges for practical applications: slow hydrogen desorption kinetics and high hydrogen desorption temperature. Numerous studies have reported enhancements in kinetics but only a few in thermodynamics. Here, we present a simple but effective way to improve upon both the kinetic and thermodynamic aspects of desorption by utilizing the immiscibility of Mn, a non-hydrogen absorbing metal, with Mg. Mg0.25Mn0.75, prepared through ball milling MgH2 and Mn powders, is a nanocomposite where the nanometer-sized MgH2 domains are randomly embedded in a Mn matrix. This sample readily and reversibly absorbs and desorbs deuterium even at a temperature of 200 °C without the addition of any catalysts. This is nearly 180 °C lower than the typical operating temperature of conventional bulk Mg. Furthermore, at a given temperature, its deuterium desorption pressure is clearly elevated compared to that of pure Mg, indicating the destabilization of MgD2. The average crystallite size of MgD2 in deuterated Mg0.25Mn0.75 determined from X-ray diffraction data is around 9 nm. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy studies show that MgD2 domains are heavily strained and some of the D atoms are coordinated by a few Mn atoms, suggesting that a large number of lattice defects, including the partial substitution of Mg with Mn, are introduced during ball milling. Furthermore, the Mn matrix firmly locks nanosized MgD2, preventing the agglomeration of MgD2 below 250 °C. Our study suggests that a synergistic effect created by nanosizing, large lattice distortions, and robust interfaces between MgD2 and the Mn matrix can effectively and concurrently improve the kinetics and thermodynamics of MgD2 in Mg0.25Mn0.75. Our work demonstrates the possibility of utilizing the immiscibility of metals with Mg to synthesize a robust nanostructure that can alter the kinetics and stability of MgH2.

13.
Pediatr Cardiol ; 40(8): 1584-1590, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31473799

RESUMO

Because Fontan circulation does not have a subpulmonary ventricle, the preload is limited. In Fontan circulation with extracardiac conduit, the size of conduit could be an important factor in determining the preload. We compared exercise capacity with each conduit size and tried to search for optimal conduit size in Fontan circulation. We reviewed the medical record of 677 patients with Fontan circulation. Patients who had other type Fontan circulation (Kawashima, atriopulmonary, lateral tunnel), SpO2 < 85%, protein losing enteropathy, results of inappropriate exercise test were excluded. As a result, 150 patients were enrolled and classified according to conduit size. We compared with their exercise capacity and analyzed correlation between exercise capacity and conduit size per body surface area (BSA). 97 Males were included and mean age was 17.5 ± 5.1 years old. In cardiac catheterization, central venous pressure (CVP) was 12.4 ± 2.5 mmHg and pulmonary vascular resistance was 1.2 ± 0.5 wu m2. In cardiopulmonary exercise test, predictive peak VO2 was 59.1 ± 9.7% and VE/VCO2 was 36.2 ± 6.9. In analysis using quadratic model, impacts of gender, age at Fontan operation, ventricular morphology, isomerism, and fenestration on exercise capacity were excluded and conduit size per BSA had a significant curved correlation with predictive peak VO2 and VE/VCO2. Our results showed that patients with about 12.5 mm/m2 conduit per BSA have the best exercise capacity. Patients with larger than smaller-sized conduit were found to be more attenuated in their ability to exercise.


Assuntos
Tolerância ao Exercício , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Técnica de Fontan/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Cateterismo Cardíaco , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
14.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 13854, 2019 09 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31554894

RESUMO

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative condition of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) characterised by chronic inflammation and damage to joint structures. Because of the complexity of TMJ-OA, only symptomatic treatments are currently available. Recent reports have shown that many of stem cells can exert anti-inflammatory and tissue-regenerating effects. In this study, we investigated the potential cartilage-regenerating and anti-inflammatory effects of human umbilical cord matrix-mesenchymal stem cells (hUCM-MSCs) for the treatment of TMJ-OA. hUCM-MSC lines, isolated from different donors, which showed different activities in vitro. Using a selected cell line, we used different concentrations of hUCM-MSCs to assess therapeutic effects in a rabbit model of monosodium iodoacetate-induced TMJ-OA. Compared with the untreated control group, the potential regenerative result and anti-inflammatory effects of hUCM-MSCs were evident at all the tested concentrations in rabbits with induced TMJ-OA. The median dose of hUCM-MSCs showed the prominent cartilage protective effect and further cartilage regeneration potential. This effect occurred via upregulated expression of growth factors, extracellular matrix markers, and anti-inflammatory cytokines, and reduced expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. The anti-inflammatory effect of hUCM-MSCs was comparable to that of dexamethasone (DEX). However, only hUCM-MSCs showed potential chondrogenesis effects in this study. In conclusion, our results indicate that hUCM-MSCs may be an effective treatment option for the treatment of TMJ-OA.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Osteoartrite/terapia , Transtornos da Articulação Temporomandibular/terapia , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/transplante , Humanos , Masculino , Transplante de Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/métodos , Coelhos
15.
J Neurol Sci ; 401: 81-86, 2019 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31035190

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clonazepam is considered to be a first-line treatment for rapid eye movement sleep-related behavior disorder (RBD) in Parkinson's disease (PD). The purpose of this study was to determine the short-term efficacy and safety of clonazepam for the treatment of probable RBD (pRBD) in patients with PD. METHODS: We conducted a four-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of clonazepam (0.5 mg/day at bedtime) compared to a placebo for RBD symptoms in patients with PD. Patients aged 30 years or older who had a caregiver that could observe RBD symptoms were recruited between April 2015 and February 2016. The primary outcome was the Clinical Global Impressions-Improvement (CGII) score at week four, and we compared scores between the clonazepam and placebo groups. RESULTS: A total of 40 patients were enrolled, with 20 assigned to receive clonazepam and 20 to receive the placebo. The CGI-I score at four weeks indicated an improvement in RBD symptoms in both the clonazepam (median score [minimum, maximum] = 2 [1,5]) and placebo (3 [1,6]) groups, with no significant difference between the groups (p = .253). The secondary outcomes were not significantly different between the clonazepam and placebo groups. CONCLUSIONS: Both clonazepam and placebo tended toward improvement on pRBD symptoms in patients with PD. No firm conclusion on efficacy of clonazepam was drawn due to limitations in the study design. This study emphasized the importance of conducting future large-scale, randomized trials with better assessment tools and polysomnography to provide evidence for the benefit of clonazepam.


Assuntos
Clonazepam/uso terapêutico , Doença de Parkinson/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Parkinson/epidemiologia , Transtorno do Comportamento do Sono REM/tratamento farmacológico , Transtorno do Comportamento do Sono REM/epidemiologia , Idoso , Anticonvulsivantes/farmacologia , Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Clonazepam/farmacologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença de Parkinson/fisiopatologia , Polissonografia/efeitos dos fármacos , Polissonografia/métodos , Transtorno do Comportamento do Sono REM/fisiopatologia , República da Coreia/epidemiologia
16.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(15): e15159, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30985694

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite recent advances in gastric cancer surgery, open gastrectomy is often needed to treat gastric cancer. Due to the large incision in the abdomen, the amount of opioid required during surgery increases and postoperative pain becomes worse. It is well known that postoperative pain has a negative impact on the patient's immune system. Herein, we performed an ultrasound-guided bilateral rectus sheath block (RSB) in patients undergoing open gastrectomy under general anesthesia and analyzed the analgesic effectiveness of RSB in open gastrectomy. METHODS: A total of 46 patients scheduled for open gastrectomy were randomly divided into 2 groups: Group A (n = 21) consisted of patients who received an RSB using 40 mL of 0.375% ropivacaine under ultrasound guidance and Group B (n = 20) consisted of patients who received an RSB using 40 mL of normal saline. An electronic injection pump was connected to each patient for patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) immediately after the skin closure. The amount of remifentanil required during the surgery was analyzed. After using PCA, data on the use of PCA bolus dose were extracted and analyzed using Excel. RESULTS: Group A used significantly less remifentanil (1021.4 ±â€Š172.0 µg) than group B (1415.0 ±â€Š330.6 µg; P = .03). The number of PCA bolus dose provided to the patients after surgery was significantly lower in group A (1 h: 1.14 ±â€Š0.9, 2 h: 0.85 ±â€Š0.7) than in group B (1 h: 1.85 ±â€Š0.7, 2 h: 1.45 ±â€Š1.0) until 2 hours after the surgery (1 h, P = .008; 2 h, P = .03), but after 3 hours, there were no significant differences between the 2 groups. CONCLUSIONS: If ultrasound-guided bilateral RSB with 40 mL of 0.35% ropivacaine is performed precisely in patients undergoing open gastrectomy, the requirement for remifentanil during surgery can be reduced. In addition, it significantly reduces the use of PCA bolus dose for acute postoperative pain within 2 hours after surgery.


Assuntos
Anestésicos Locais/administração & dosagem , Gastrectomia , Bloqueio Nervoso , Dor Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Dor Processual/tratamento farmacológico , Ropivacaina/administração & dosagem , Analgesia Controlada pelo Paciente , Anestesia Geral , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção
17.
Chemphyschem ; 20(5): 745-751, 2019 03 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30614177

RESUMO

Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are very promising host materials for nanoscale guest materials. However, some MOFs such as MIL-53 are known to undergo phase transitions which can complicate the guest particle size control. In this study, Pd nanoparticles embedded in Al-MIL-53 were synthesised via (a) electrodeposition and (b) gas-phase reduction. A thorough structural investigation revealed that each synthesis method most likely favoured a different phase of Al-MIL-53, presenting the possibility of MOF phase selection as a technique for size control of embedded nanoparticles. For the first time, we hereby report the use of pair distribution function analysis to successfully investigate the structure and morphology of guest particles embedded in a MOF host.

18.
Exp Neurobiol ; 28(6): 643-657, 2019 Dec 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31902153

RESUMO

Macroautophagy/autophagy is a conserved degradation system that engulfs intracytoplasmic contents, including aggregated proteins and organelles, which is crucial for cellular homeostasis. During aging, cellular factors suggested as the cause of aging have been reported to be associated with progressively compromised autophagy. Dysfunctional autophagy may contribute to age-related diseases, such as neurodegenerative disease, cancer, and metabolic syndrome, in the elderly. Therefore, restoration of impaired autophagy to normal may help to prevent age-related disease and extend lifespan and longevity. Therefore, this review aims to provide an overview of the mechanisms of autophagy underlying cellular aging and the consequent disease. Understanding the mechanisms of autophagy may provide potential information to aid therapeutic interventions in age-related diseases.

19.
Micromachines (Basel) ; 10(1)2018 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30577464

RESUMO

(1) Background: Quantification of platelet division is challenging because automated Coulter cell counters produce equivocal platelet counts. (2) Methods: We applied the flow cytometric cell tracking dye dilution assay as a popular immunological method to evaluate lymphocyte proliferation to prove and quantitate platelet division. We also devised a method relying on platelet culture in a semisolid medium which enabled dividing platelets to be identified by limiting the diffusive movement of platelets. Mixing platelets of different labeling colors in semisolid medium and counting the platelet doublets of each color combination enabled us to prove and quantitate platelet division. (3) Results: The tracking dye dilution assay revealed that 75.5 to 85.6% of platelets were dividing after 20 hours in culture. Platelets labeled with two different tracking dyes were mixed and cultured in semisolid medium for differential doublet counting. We counted platelet singlets and doublets of each color and color combination using confocal microscopy after six hours of culture and compared the relative number of two-colored doublets with binomial prediction to prove platelet division (P < 0.01). Division was suppressed by taxol, nocodazole, or cytochalasin D treatment. We derived a formula for determining the fraction of dividing platelets using the numbers of singlets and doublets of each color and color combination. The platelet division fraction ranged from 8.8 to 17.5%. (4) Conclusion: We successfully measured platelet division using a simple biometric image analysis method with possible future application to microfluidic devices.

20.
Psychiatry Investig ; 15(10): 935-944, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30301309

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: A radial arm maze (RAM) is an essential tool for assessing spatial learning and memory. Although this tool is widely used to study deficits in spatial memory in animal models, it has several restrictions that prevent its adaptation to human research and training. Therefore, we developed a head-mounted-display RAM (HMD-RAM) program for humans and verified its validity by comparing it to the results obtained by previous RAM studies. We also compared the HMD and a flat monitor as experimental devices. METHODS: Forty participants were recruited for the current study (Study 1: 20 participants with the HMD device; Study 2: 20 participants with the flat monitor). They navigated a virtual room as a first-person viewer and used environmental landmarks to remember their spatial position and orientation. The main dependent measures were working memory error, reference memory error, detection time, travel distance, and participant's head movements. To validate the program, participants also conducted neuropsychological assessments and self-reported measures. RESULTS: The results for HMD-RAM tasks were consistent with the results of previous research conducted on animals, and the HMD elicited a higher sense of presence, immersion, and simulator sickness than the flat monitor. According to post-experiment questions on navigation strategy, creating landmarks was important when people were discovering locations in their environment, and an HMD was beneficial for better navigation strategy. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that the HMD-RAM is valuable for estimating spatial learning and memory in humans and may be a useful tool for early diagnosis of deficits in spatial learning and memory, including amnestic mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.

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