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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(3): e18861, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32011507

RESUMO

Serum amylase levels in patients with acute pancreatitis often remain or fluctuate above the upper normal limit for over a week. This study investigated the clinical characteristics of patients with prolonged hyperamylasemia and their prognoses, including recurrence.We retrospectively analyzed patients with first attacks of acute pancreatitis in a single center between March 2010 and December 2016. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to normalization of the serum amylase levels within a week.A total of 313 patients were enrolled after exclusion. The serum amylase levels were normalized within a week in 205 patients (65.5%, group 1) and elevated over a week in 108 patients (34.5%, group 2). Group 2 was more related to alcohol, higher computed tomography (CT) severity index, local pancreatic complication, and moderately severe pancreatitis than group 1 (P < .05). Recurrent pancreatitis developed significantly more in group 2 (39.8%) than in group 1 (19.5%) (P < .001). The factors related to recurrent pancreatitis were amylase group, sex, alcohol, CT severity index, necrosis, and severity of pancreatitis (P < .05). Multivariate analysis showed that recurrent pancreatitis was independently associated with amylase group (odds ratio [OR] 2.123, 95% confidence interval [CI]= 1.227-3.673, P = .007) and alcohol (OR 2.023, 95% CI 1.134-3.611, P = .017).In conclusion, prolonged hyperamylasemia over a week is associated with recurrence of acute pancreatitis.


Assuntos
Hiperamilassemia/complicações , Pancreatite/etiologia , Doença Aguda , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pancreatite/diagnóstico por imagem , Recidiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
2.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 135: 111044, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31830547

RESUMO

Hemistepsin A (HsA), isolated from Hemistepta lyrata (Bunge) Bunge, has the ability to ameliorate hepatitis in mice. However, the effects of H. lyrata and HsA on other types of liver disease have not been explored. In this report, we investigated the effects of H. lyrata and HsA on liver fibrosis and the underlying molecular mechanisms in activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). Based on cell viability-guided isolation, we found HsA was the major natural product responsible for H. lyrata-mediated cytotoxicity in LX-2 cells. HsA significantly decreased the viability of LX-2 cells and primary activated HSCs, increased the binding of Annexin V, and altered the expression of apoptosis-related proteins, suggesting that HsA induces apoptosis in activated HSCs. HsA reduced the phosphorylation of IKKε and the transactivation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). Moreover, HsA decreased the phosphorylation of Akt and its downstream signaling molecules. Transfection experiments suggested that inhibition of NF-κB or Akt is essential for HsA-induced apoptosis of HSCs. In a CCl4-induced liver fibrosis model, HsA administration significantly decreased ALT and AST activities. Furthermore, HsA attenuated CCl4-mediated collagen deposits and profibrogenic genes expression in hepatic tissue. Thus, HsA may serve as a natural product for managing liver fibrosis through inhibition of NF-κB/Akt-dependent signaling.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Estreladas do Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Lactonas/farmacologia , Cirrose Hepática/prevenção & controle , Sesquiterpenos/farmacologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular Transformada , Clorofórmio/farmacologia , Células Estreladas do Fígado/metabolismo , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/metabolismo , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Camundongos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
3.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 9(11)2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31703446

RESUMO

Separators are a vital component to ensure the safety of lithium-ion batteries. However, the commercial separators employed in lithium ion batteries are inefficient due to their low porosity. In the present study, a simple electrospinning technique is adopted to prepare highly porous polyacrylonitrile (PAN)-based membranes with a higher concentration of lithium aluminum titanium phosphate (LATP) ceramic particles, as a viable alternative to the commercialized separators used in lithium ion batteries. The effect of the LATP particles on the morphology of the porous membranes is demonstrated through Field emission scattering electron microscopy. X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectra studies suitably demonstrate the mixing of PAN and LATP particles in the polymer matrix. PAN with 30 wt% LATP (P-L30) exhibits an enhanced porosity of 90% and is more thermally stable, with the highest electrolyte uptake among all the prepared membranes. Due to better electrolyte uptake, the P-L30 membrane demonstrates an improved ionic conductivity of 1.7 mS/cm. A coin cell prepared with a P-L30 membrane and a LiFePO4 cathode demonstrates the highest discharge capacity of 158 mAh/g at 0.5 C-rate. The coin cell with the P-L30 membrane also displays good cycling stability by retaining 97.5% of the initial discharge capacity after 200 cycles of charging and discharging at a 1C rate.

4.
Foods ; 8(11)2019 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31752320

RESUMO

This study aimed to comprehensively examine the interface between primary and secondary metabolites in oval- and rectangular-shaped Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis) using gas chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOFMS) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In addition to differences in shape, there was significant morphological variation between the two cultivars. The rectangular variety had greater height and deeper green color, whereas the oval variety had more leaves and greater width. A total of 42 primary metabolites identified by GC-TOFMS were subjected to partial least-squares discriminant, which indicated significant differences in the primary and secondary metabolisms of the two cultivars. Furthermore, total glucosinolate and phenolic contents were higher in the oval cultivar, whereas the rectangular cultivar contained a higher level of total carotenoids. This metabolome study comprehensively describes the relationship between primary and secondary metabolites in the oval and rectangular cultivars of Chinese cabbage and provides information useful for developing strategies to enhance the biosynthesis of glucosinolates, phenolics, and carotenoids in Chinese cabbage. Additionally, this work highlights that HPLC and GC-TOFMS-based metabolite profiling is suitable techniques to determine metabolic differences in Chinese cabbage.

5.
Metabolites ; 9(10)2019 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31614965

RESUMO

Tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum (L.) Gaertn.) is a nutritional crop, which has high flavonoid content. However, buckwheat is a salt sensitive glycophyte cereal crop and the growth and grain yield of buckwheat are significantly affected by soil salinity. In this study, we performed a comprehensive analysis of the transcriptome and metabolome of salt treated-buckwheat to understand the effects of salinity on buckwheat. A total of 50,681,938 clean reads were acquired from all samples. We acquired 94,950 unigenes with a mean length of 1133 bp and N50 length of 1900 bp assembly. Of these, 63,305 unigenes (66.7%) were matched in public databases. Comparison of the transcriptome expression patterns between control and salt treated groups showed that 4098 unigenes were up-regulated and 3292 unigenes were down-regulated significantly. Further, we found that genes involved with amino acid, lipid and nucleotide metabolism were most responsive to salt stress. Additionally, many genes involved in secondary metabolite biosynthesis changed significantly following treatment. Those affected included phenylpropanoid biosynthesis and flavonoid biosynthesis. Chromatographic analysis was used to examine the differences in concentration of flavonoids, carotenoids, amino acids and organic acids in the samples following treatment. There was a significant increase in rutin (12.115 mg/g dry weight), following salt stress; whereas, six carotenoids (lutein, zeaxanthin, 13Z-ß-carotene, α-carotene, E-ß-carotene and 9Z-ß-carotene) did not significantly respond to salt stress. Ultimately, our data acts as a valuable resource for future research on buckwheat and can be used as the basis for future analysis focused on gene-to-metabolite networks in buckwheat.

6.
Plants (Basel) ; 8(10)2019 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31547524

RESUMO

Nitrogen (N) is a macronutrient important for the survival of plants. To investigate the effects of N deficiency, a time-course metabolic profiling of radish sprouts was performed. A total of 81 metabolites-including organic acids, inorganic acid, amino acids, sugars, sugar alcohols, amines, amide, sugar phosphates, policosanols, tocopherols, phytosterols, carotenoids, chlorophylls, and glucosinolates-were characterized. Principal component analysis and heat map showed distinction between samples grown under different N conditions, as well as with time. Using PathVisio, metabolic shift in biosynthetic pathways was visualized using the metabolite data obtained for 7 days. The amino acids associated with glucosinolates accumulated as an immediate response against -N condition. The synthesis of pigments and glucosinolates was decreased, but monosaccharides and γ-tocopherol were increased as antioxidants in radish sprouts grown in -N condition. These results indicate that in radish sprouts, response to N deficiency occurred quickly and dynamically. Thus, this metabolic phenotype reveals that radish responds quickly to N deficiency by increasing the content of soluble sugars and γ-tocopherol, which acts as a defense mechanism after the germination of radish seeds.

7.
Biology (Basel) ; 8(3)2019 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31470601

RESUMO

Lycoris radiata belongs to the Amaryllidaceae family and is a bulbous plant native to South Korea, China, and Japan. Galantamine, a representative alkaloid of Amaryllidaceae plants, including L. radiata, exhibits selective and dominant acetylcholinesterase inhibition. In spite of the economic and officinal importance of L. radiata, the molecular biological and biochemical information on L. radiata is relatively deficient. Therefore, this study provides functional information of L. radiata, describe galantamine biosynthesis in the various organs, and provide transcriptomic and metabolic datasets to support elucidation of galantamine biosynthesis pathway in future studies. The results of studies conducted in duplicate revealed the presence of a total of 325,609 and 404,019 unigenes, acquired from 9,913,869,968 and 10,162,653,038 raw reads, respectively, after trimming the raw reads using CutAdapt, assembly using Trinity package, and clustering using CD-Hit-EST. All of the assembled unigenes were aligned to the public databases, including National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) non-redundant protein (NR) and nucleotide (Nt) database, SWISS-PROT (UniProt) protein sequence data bank, The Arabidopsis Information Resource (TAIR), the Swiss-Prot protein database, Gene Ontology (GO), and Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG) database to predict potential genes and provide their functional information. Based on our transcriptome data and published literatures, eight full-length cDNA clones encoding LrPAL2, LrPAL3, LrC4H2, LrC3H, LrTYDC2, LrNNR, LrN4OMT, and LrCYP96T genes, involved in galantamine biosynthesis, were identified in L. radiata. In order to investigate galantamine biosynthesis in different plant parts of L. radiata grown in a growth chamber, gene expression levels were measured through quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis using these identified genes and galantamine levels were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. The qRT-PCR data revealed high expression levels of LrNNR, LrN4OMT, and LrCYP96T in the bulbs, and, as expected, we observed higher amounts of galantamine in the bulbs than in the root and leaves. Additionally, a total of 40 hydrophilic metabolites were detected in the different organs using gas-chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry. In particular, a strong positive correlation between galantamine and sucrose, which provides energy for the secondary metabolite biosynthesis, was observed.

8.
ChemSusChem ; 12(19): 4487-4492, 2019 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31373413

RESUMO

Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries with good electrochemical properties require nanostructured electrode materials, which are usually prepared through complex synthesis processes. Herein, a new facile method is reported for the synthesis of high-performance electrode materials with a crater-like morphology through repulsion between positive charges. The produced electrode material does not possess a nanostructure. However, it is capable of rapidly transferring lithium ions and electrons owing to the large contact area with electrolyte and the high concentration sp2 -hybridized carbon coating. LiFePO4 and LiNi1/3 Co1/3 Mn1/3 O2 electrodes prepared by this process achieved high discharge capacities of 165.7 and 199.9 mAh g-1 at 0.1 C, with excellent rate capability of 127.5 and 162.6 mAh g-1 at 10 C, respectively. Although the crater-type materials might decrease the electrode tap density, they facilitate better electrochemical properties such as high capacity, high power, and fast charging. Furthermore, this new method can be applied trough a sol-gel process for the synthesis of electrode materials to improve their electrochemical characteristics.

9.
Pancreatology ; 19(6): 795-800, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31421975

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Hypertriglyceridemia (HTG) is a rare but well-recognized cause for acute pancreatitis (AP). This study aimed to determine subsets related to development of AP in patients with severe HTG and the severity of HTG-induced AP (HTG-AP). METHODS: Patients who had severe HTG (serum triglyceride level >1,000 mg/dL) more than once between Jan. 2010 and Dec. 2017 in a single institute were evaluated retrospectively. Patients were divided into two groups, with AP or without AP, and were compared. HTG-APs in patients with severe HTG were compared to APs due to other causes during the same period. RESULTS: Sixty-three patients (19.3%) presented with AP of a total 326 patients with severe HTG. The AP group displayed younger age, more alcohol consumption and diabetes mellitus, and higher initial/maximum serum levels of triglyceride, glucose, HbA1c, total cholesterol, and calculated non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (p < 0.05). HTG-APs were clinically more severe compared with 277 APs due to other causes in terms of CRP (p < 0.001), CT severity index (p = 0.002), revised Atlanta classification (p < 0.001), and hospital stay (p = 0.011). In logistic regression analysis, maximum serum triglyceride level (OR 2.706, p = 0.015), alcohol consumption amount (OR 5.292, p < 0.001), and age (OR 0.358, p = 0.017) were independently associated with development of AP in patients with severe HTG. CONCLUSIONS: Development of AP in patient with severe HTG was independently associated with younger age, higher serum TG level, and more alcohol consumption. HTG-APs are clinically more severe than APs due to other causes.


Assuntos
Hipertrigliceridemia/complicações , Pancreatite/etiologia , Doença Aguda , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Complicações do Diabetes/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertrigliceridemia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pancreatite/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
10.
11.
Food Chem ; 295: 505-513, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31174788

RESUMO

The Lentinus edodes species, known as shiitake, has a history of extensive use in many cuisines in several East Asian countries owing to its unique and pleasant flavor and texture. As international food trade increases, reliable discrimination of geographical origin is becoming increasingly crucial in Korea to identify cheaper imported Chinese shiitake. Herein, stable isotope ratios (i.e., δ13C, δ15N, δ18O, and δ34S) were measured with a stable isotope ratio mass spectrometer, and a geographical discrimination method using orthogonal projection to latent structure-discriminant analysis was developed. The externally validated discrimination method showed excellent predictability (Q2cum = 0.881) and illustrated that δ18O and δ15N were important isotope markers for the geographical discrimination of dried shiitake slices. This study extends the knowledge of geographical differences between China and Korea evidenced by the shiitake isotope signatures, thereby contributing to potential geographical authentication with broader applications for international shiitake markets.


Assuntos
Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Cogumelos Shiitake/química , Isótopos de Carbono/análise , China , Análise Discriminante , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas/estatística & dados numéricos , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/análise , República da Coreia , Isótopos de Enxofre/análise
12.
J Tissue Eng Regen Med ; 13(7): 1241-1252, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31050871

RESUMO

Little consensus exists regarding which decellularization technique best removes the cellular components while maintaining structural integrity. We aimed to identify the most efficient and safest decellularization method by combining previously established chemical (detergent based) and biological (nuclease based) methods in a systematic manner. Sixty sciatic nerves were harvested from Sprague-Dawley rats and prepared in 120 nerve fragments with 1-cm length. Nerve fragments were randomly divided into six groups and decellularized with six different methods: A, nonionic detergent + amphoteric detergent; B, nonionic detergent + anionic detergent; C, anionic detergent + amphoteric detergent; D, nonionic detergent + nuclease; E, amphoteric detergent + nuclease; and F, anionic detergent + nuclease. The remaining cellular components were evaluated with H&E, DAPI, and S-100 immunohistochemical staining, and DNA content was measured in each sample. The remaining extracellular matrix (ECM) integrity was evaluated with H&E, Masson's trichrome, periodic acid-Schiff, Luxol fast blue, and laminin immunohistochemical staining, and collagen content was measured in each sample. The amphoteric detergent + nuclease method was the best protocol for both cell removal and ECM preservation. In the in vivo study, the nerve allograft that was decellularized with amphoteric detergent + nuclease showed an inferior recovery rate based on the tibialis anterior muscle weight to autograft, but considerable recovery was observed. In conclusion, among the possible systematic combinations of detergent- and nuclease-based methods, the combination of amphoteric detergent and nuclease is currently the most suitable for nerve decellularization in terms of adequate cell removal and sufficient preservation of the ECM.

14.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 120, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30935415

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Polyunsaturated fatty acids such as linoleic acid (LA) and α-linolenic acid (ALA) are abundant in vegetable oils and are important for human health. In the body, LA and ALA are respectively converted to the omega-6 fatty acid γ-linolenic acid (GLA) and the omega-3 fatty acid stearidonic acid (SDA) by Δ6 desaturase (D6DES). Currently, dietary GLA and SDA are mainly obtained from marine organisms, but given their benefits to human health, many studies have aimed to enhance their accumulation in transgenic crops. Perilla frutescens (perilla) accumulates more ALA in its seed oil compared to other oilseed crops, making it a good candidate for the production of fatty acids via the fatty acid desaturase D6DES. RESULTS: In this study, we cloned the D6DES gene from Phytophthora citrophthora and confirmed its function in budding yeast. We then transformed the functional D6DES gene under the control of the seed-specific vicilin promoter into the perilla cultivar Yeobsil. The resulting transgenic perilla seeds accumulated significant levels of GLA and SDA, as well as putative C18:2Δ6,9 at minor levels. Developing seeds and leaves also accumulated GLA and SDA, although PcD6DES expression and GLA and SDA levels were much lower in leaves compared to developing seeds. GLA and SDA accumulated in both polar lipids and neutral lipids in mature perilla seeds expressing PcD6DES, especially in neutral lipids. Although the seed weight in PcD6DES perilla was 87-96% that of wild type, the total oil content per seed weight was similar between lines. The PcD6DES perilla plants contained very high content (over 45%) of both GLA and SDA in seed oil. CONCLUSIONS: Thus, PcD6DES perilla plants may represent a feasible alternative to traditional marine sources for the production of omega-3 oil capsules and to evening primrose seed oil for GLA as health food. In addition, these plants can be used to create other transgenic lines harboring additional genes to produce other desirable fish-oil like oils.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/metabolismo , Perilla frutescens/metabolismo , Sementes/metabolismo , Ácido gama-Linolênico/metabolismo , Óleos Vegetais/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas
15.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(17): 4860-4867, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30973222

RESUMO

Glucosinolates are secondary metabolites that play important roles in plant defense and human health, as their production in plants is enhanced by overexpressing transcription factors. Here, four cabbage transcription factors (IQD1-1, IQD1-2, MYB29-1, and MYB29-2) affecting genes in both aliphatic and indolic glucosinolates biosynthetic pathways and increasing glucosinolates accumulation were overexpressed in watercress. Five IQD1-1, six IQD1-2, five MYB29-1, six MYB29-2, and one GUS hairy root lines were created. The expression of all genes involved in glucosinolates biosynthesis was higher in transgenic lines than in the GUS hairy root line, in agreement with total glucosinolates contents, determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. In transgenic IQD1-1 (1), IQD1-2 (4), MYB29-1 (2), and MYB29-2 (1) hairy root lines, total glucosinolates were 3.39-, 3.04-, 2.58-, and 4.69-fold higher than those in the GUS hairy root lines, respectively. These results suggest a central regulatory function for IQD1-1, IQD1-2, MYB29-1, and MYB29-2 transcription factors in glucosinolates biosynthesis in watercress hairy roots.


Assuntos
Brassica/genética , Glucosinolatos/biossíntese , Nasturtium/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Engenharia Metabólica , Nasturtium/genética , Nasturtium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
16.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 513(1): 201-206, 2019 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30952426

RESUMO

Elevated saturated free fatty acid levels during over-nutrition lead to hypothalamic inflammation, which perturbs energy homeostasis. Whether brain-derived metabolites are coupled to the development of obesity pathogenesis during the early over-nutrition period has not been thoroughly investigated. In this study, we found increased linoleic acid, an unsaturated fatty acid, in both the whole brain and hypothalamus of mice fed a high-fat diet for 4 weeks. Furthermore, we observed that linoleic acid effectively reversed the inflammatory responses induced by palmitic acid treatment in microglial cells. Collectively, this study suggests the reversible function of linoleic acid on brain inflammation in association with microglial activation during short-term exposure to a high-fat diet.

17.
Metabolomics ; 15(2): 21, 2019 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30830428

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Dodamssal rice (Oryza sativa L.) includes high levels of resistant starch (RS), which is a source of dietary fiber. Recently, there has been an increase in the prevalence of obesity in canines; however, the information regarding diet treatments for such a condition is inadequate. OBJECTIVES: Targeted metabolic profiles in canine feces were performed to identify potential biomarkers of RS and demonstrate the effect and potential use of Dodamssal rice as an anti-obesity treatment. METHODS: Study canines were divided into three groups and fed either a regular diet, high-fat diet (HFD), or high-fat diet with Dodamssal rice (DoHFD). Fecal metabolites were analyzed using gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry and a gas chromatography-flame ionization detector. Multivariate analyses were used to analyze and visualize the obtained data. RESULTS: A total of 52 metabolites were detected in the canine feces. In addition, HFD group feces contained a significantly low level of C12:0. The DoHFD group feces had higher levels of 4-aminobutyric acid, glucose, and 3-hydroxybutyric acid compared to the other groups (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: For the first time, targeted metabolic profiling in the canine feces in response to three diets was performed. This metabolic profiling approach should be a useful tool to detect discriminating markers as well as assess the effect of diet compositions for anti-obesity treatment of canines. Furthermore, Dodamssal rice may possibly be used not only for canines, but also to treat obesity in other animals and humans.

18.
Saudi J Biol Sci ; 26(3): 469-472, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30899160

RESUMO

We have aimed to investigate the expression of genes related to rosmarinic acid (RA) synthesis and rosmarinic acid content in 2 Ocimum basilicum cultivars, green (cinnamon) and purple (red rubin) basil. Specifically, genes related to rosmarinic acid biosynthesis were cloned and characterized for O. basilicum. We obtained partial cDNAs of tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) and 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate reductase (HPPR), which were of 323 bp and 616 bp in size, respectively. The transcription levels of most genes related to rosmarinic acid synthesis were higher in green basil compared to purple basil, except for ObPAL and Ob4CL in the root. The highest expression was obtained in the leaves of green basil for all genes and the roots of purple basil for all genes, except for TAT. The highest rosmarinic acid content was obtained in the leaves of both cultivars, with higher RA accumulating in green basil compared to purple basil. The leaves had the highest RA content out of all plant organs, with the RA accumulation in the leaves of green basil being 1.64 times higher compared to purple basil. Further study is required to investigate whether a similar trend is observed across O. basilicum cultivars of different color types.

19.
Antioxid Redox Signal ; 31(3): 243-259, 2019 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30909713

RESUMO

Aims: Hepatic fibrosis results from chronic liver injury and inflammatory responses. Sestrin 2 (Sesn2), an evolutionarily conserved antioxidant enzyme, reduces the severities of acute hepatitis and metabolic liver diseases. However, the role of Sesn2 in the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis remains obscure. Here, we used cultured hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and chronic carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) and bile duct ligation (BDL) murine models to investigate the effects of Sesn2 on fibrogenesis. Results: Sesn2 protein and mRNA levels were upregulated in activated primary HSCs, and by increasing transcription, transforming growth factor-ß (TGF-ß) also increased Sesn2 expression in HSCs. Furthermore, Smad activation was primarily initiated by TGF-ß signaling, and Smad3 activation increased Sesn2 luciferase activity. In silico analysis of the 5' upstream region of the Sesn2 gene revealed a putative Smad-binding element (SBE), and its deletion demonstrated that the SBE between -964 and -956 bp within human Sesn2 promoter was critically required for TGF-ß-mediated response. Moreover, ectopic expression of Sesn2 reduced gene expressions associated with HSC activation, and this was accompanied by marked decreases in SBE luciferase activity and Smad phosphorylation. Infection of recombinant adenovirus Sesn2 reduced hepatic injury severity, as evidenced by reductions in CCl4- or BDL-induced alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase, and inhibited collagen accumulation. Furthermore, HSC-specific lentiviral delivery of Sesn2 prevented CCl4-induced liver fibrosis. Finally, Sesn2 expression was downregulated in the livers of patients with liver cirrhosis and in mouse models of hepatic fibrosis. Innovation and Conclusion: Our findings suggest that Sesn2 has the potential to inhibit HSC activation and hepatic fibrosis.

20.
Metabolites ; 9(3)2019 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30917595

RESUMO

Liriope platyphylla (Liliaceae), a medical plant distributed mainly in China, Taiwan, and Korea, has been used traditionally for the treatment of cough, sputum, asthma, and neurodegenerative diseases. The present study involved the metabolic profiling of this plant and reports spicatoside A accumulation in four different varieties of L. platyphylla (Cheongyangjaerae, Seongsoo, Cheongsim, and Liriope Tuber No. 1) using HPLC and gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC⁻TOFMS). A total of 47 metabolites were detected in the different cultivars using GC⁻TOFMS-based metabolic profiling. The resulting data were subjected to principal component analysis (PCA) for determining the whole experimental variation, and the different cultivars were separated by score plots. Furthermore, hierarchical clustering, Pearson's correlation, and partial least-squares discriminant analyses (PLS-DA) were subsequently performed to determine significant differences in the various metabolites of the cultivars. The HPLC data revealed that the presence of spicatoside A was detected in all four cultivars, with the amount of spicatoside A varying among them. Among the cultivars, Liriope Tuber No. 1 contained the highest amount of spicatoside A (1.83 ± 0.13 mg/g dry weight), followed by Cheongyangjaerae (1.25 ± 0.01 mg/g dry weight), Cheongsim (1.09 ± 0.04 mg/g dry weight), and Seongsoo (1.01 ± 0.02 mg/g dry weight). The identification of spicatoside A was confirmed by comparing the retention time of the sample with the retention time of the standard. Moreover, the Cheongsim cultivar contained higher levels of phenolic compounds-including vanillic acid, quinic acid, gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, and benzoic acid-than those of the other two cultivars. On the other hand, the levels of amino acids were higher in the Seongsoo cultivar. Therefore, this study may help breeders produce new varieties with improved nutraceutical and nutritional qualities.

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