Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 192
Filtrar
1.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 5123, 2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31719532

RESUMO

Lignin is a major component of lignocellulosic biomass. Although it is highly recalcitrant to break down, it is a very abundant natural source of valuable aromatic carbons. Thus, the effective valorisation of lignin is crucial for realising a sustainable biorefinery chain. Here, we report a compartmented photo-electro-biochemical system for unassisted, selective, and stable lignin valorisation, in which a TiO2 photocatalyst, an atomically dispersed Co-based electrocatalyst, and a biocatalyst (lignin peroxidase isozyme H8, horseradish peroxidase) are integrated, such that each system is separated using Nafion and cellulose membranes. This cell design enables lignin valorisation upon irradiation with sunlight without the need for any additional bias or sacrificial agent and allows the protection of the biocatalyst from enzyme-damaging elements, such as reactive radicals, gas bubbles, and light. The photo-electro-biochemical system is able to catalyse lignin depolymerisation with a 98.7% selectivity and polymerisation with a 73.3% yield using coniferyl alcohol, a lignin monomer.

2.
Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol ; 257(12): 2631-2638, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31654187

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the changes in the near reading speed after panretinal photocoagulation (PRP) in diabetic retinopathy patients. METHODS: This non-randomized, prospective, clinical study enrolled diabetic retinopathy patients who underwent PRP from January 2016 to June 2017. The near reading speed was measured before and 1 week, 1 month, and 4 months after PRP by using an iPad application for the assessment of reading speed; near best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFCT) were also analyzed. The reading speed of age-matched healthy individuals was compared with that of diabetic retinopathy patients. RESULTS: Forty-seven patients were enrolled in this study. The baseline near reading speed of diabetic retinopathy patients was significantly slower than that of age-matched healthy controls. The near reading speed was reduced at 1 week after PRP, but recovered at 1 and 4 months after PRP. Near BCVA showed a similar pattern after PRP. SFCT increased at 1 week after PRP and significantly decreased at both 1 and 4 months after PRP. CONCLUSION: The near reading speed of diabetic patients was significantly slower than that of age-matched healthy controls. The speed was temporarily reduced at 1 week after PRP, potentially due to short-term impairment of parasympathetic nerve innervation.

3.
Uisahak ; 28(2): 469-508, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31495820

RESUMO

The purpose of this research is to describe how Hansen's disease patients experienced the modern system of control of Hansen's disease introduced by Japan, and the inimical attitude of society against them in colonial Korea. The study also seeks to reveal the development of the system to eliminate Hansen's disease patients from their home and community to larger society and leprosarium in this era. Sorokdo Charity hospital (SCH), a hospital for Hansen's disease patients, was built in 1916, and vagrant Hansen's disease patients began to be isolated in this hospital beginning in 1917 by the Japanese Government-General of Korea (JGGK). Once the police detained and sent vagrant Hansen's disease patients to SCH, stigma and discrimination against them strengthened in Korean society. Because of strong stigma and discrimination in Korean society, Hansen's disease patients suffered from daily threats of death. First, their family members were not only afraid of the contagiousness of Hansen's disease but also the stigma and discrimination against themselves by community members. If a family had a Hansen's disease patient, the rest of community members would discriminate against the entire family. Furthermore, because Hansen's disease patients were excluded from any economic livelihood such as getting a job, the existence of the patients was a big burden for their families. Therefore, many patients left their homes and began their vagrancy. The patients who could not leave their homes committed suicide or were killed by their family members. The victims of such deaths were usually women, who were at the lower position in the family hierarchy. In the strong Confucian society in Korea, more female patients were killed by themselves than male patients. Moreover, all of patients victims in the murder were women. This shows that the stigma and discrimination against Hansen's disease patients within their families were stronger against women than men. Strong stigma and discrimination made the patients rely on superstition such as cannibalism. Patients believed that there were not any effective medicine. There were a few reports of patients who were cured, and many were treated with chaulmoogra oil in the modern Hansen's disease hospitals. Eating human flesh was known as a folk remedy for Hansen's disease. As such, patients began to kill healthy people, usually children, to eat their flesh. Increased stigma led to increased victims. Hansen's disease patients who left their homes faced many threats during their vagrancy. For survival, they established their own organizations in the late 1920's. The patients who were rejected to be hospitalized in the Western Hansen's disease hospital at Busan, Daegu, and Yeosu organized self-help organizations. The purpose of these organizations was first to secure the medicine supply of chaulmoogra oil. However, as stigma and discrimination strengthened, these organizations formed by Hansen's disease patients demanded the Japanese Government-General of Korea to send and segregate them on Sorok island. They did not know the situation of the inside of this island because news media described it as a haven for patients, and very few patients were discharged from this island to tell the truth. On this island, several hundreds of patients were killed by compulsory heavy labor, starvation, and violence. They were not treated as patients, but as something to be eliminated. Under strong suppression on this island, the patients resisted first by escaping this island. However, in 1937, some patients tried to kill a Korean staff but failed. Attempted murderers were all put in the jail, also located on this island. In 1941, a patient murdered another patient who had harassed other patients, and in 1942, Chunsang Lee, a patient, killed the director of Sorok island. These instances show that there was a system to eliminate Hansen's disease patients in colonial Korea.

4.
Gastroenterology ; 157(3): 682-691, ago., 30 2019. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1015771

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are effective at treating acid-related disorders. These drugs are well tolerated in the short term, but long-term treatment was associated with adverse events in observational studies. We aimed to confirm these findings in an adequately powered randomized trial. METHODS: We performed a 3 x 2 partial factorial double-blind trial of 17,598 participants with stable cardiovascular disease and peripheral artery disease randomly assigned to groups given pantoprazole (40 mg daily, n = 8791) or placebo (n = 8807). Participants were also randomly assigned to groups that received rivaroxaban (2.5 mg twice daily) with aspirin (100 mg once daily), rivaroxaban (5mg twice daily), or aspirin (100 mg) alone. We collected data on development of pneumonia, Clostridium difficile infection, other enteric infections, fractures, gastric atrophy, chronic kidney disease, diabetes, chronic obstructive lung disease, dementia, cardiovascular disease, cancer, hospitalizations, and all-cause mortality every 6 months. Patients were followed up for a median of 3.01 years, with 53,152 patient-years of follow-up. RESULTS: There was no statistically significant difference between the pantoprazole and placebo groups in safety events except for enteric infections (1.4% vs 1.0% in the placebo group; odds ratio, 1.33; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.75). For all other safety outcomes, proportions were similar between groups except for C difficile infection, which was approximately twice as common in the pantoprazole vs the placebo group, although there were only 13 events, so this difference was not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: In a large placebo-controlled randomized trial, we found that pantoprazole is not associated with any adverse event when used for 3 years, with the possible exception of an increased risk of enteric infections. (AU)


Assuntos
Bactérias , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Aspirina
5.
Gastroenterology ; 157(2): 403-412, Aug., 2019. tabela, grafico
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1022748

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Antiplatelets and anticoagulants are associated with increased upper gastrointestinal bleeding. We evaluated whether proton pump inhibitor therapy could reduce this risk. METHODS: We performed a 3 × 2 partial factorial double-blind trial of 17,598 participants with stable cardiovascular disease and peripheral artery disease. Participants were randomly assigned to groups given pantoprazole 40 mg daily or placebo, as well as rivaroxaban 2.5 mg twice daily with aspirin 100 mg once daily, rivaroxaban 5 mg twice daily, or aspirin 100 mg alone. The primary outcome was time to first upper gastrointestinal event, defined as a composite of overt bleeding, upper gastrointestinal bleeding from a gastroduodenal lesion or of unknown origin, occult bleeding, symptomatic gastroduodenal ulcer or ≥5 erosions, upper gastrointestinal obstruction, or perforation. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in upper gastrointestinal events between the pantoprazole group (102 of 8791 events) and the placebo group (116 of 8807 events) (hazard ratio, 0.88; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.67-1.15). Pantoprazole significantly reduced bleeding of gastroduodenal lesions (hazard ratio, 0.52; 95% confidence interval, 0.28-0.94; P = .03); this reduction was greater when we used a post-hoc definition of bleeding gastroduodenal lesion (hazard ratio, 0.45; 95% confidence interval, 0.27-0.74), although the number needed to treat still was high (n = 982; 95% confidence interval, 609-2528).CONCLUSIONS: In a randomized placebo-controlled trial, we found that routine use of proton pump inhibitors in patients receiving low-dose anticoagulation and/or aspirin for stable cardiovascular disease does not reduce upper gastrointestinal events, but may reduce bleeding from gastroduodenal lesions. ClinicalTrials. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Método Duplo-Cego , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/prevenção & controle , Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem
6.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(34): 30936-30942, 2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31380614

RESUMO

A series of Ni-rich Li[NixCo(1-x)/2Mn(1-x)/2]O2 (x = 0.9, 0.92, 0.94, 0.96, 0.98, and 1.0) (NCM) cathodes are prepared to study their capacity fading behaviors. The intrinsic trade-off between the capacity gain and compromised cycling stability is observed for layered cathodes with x ≥ 0.9. The initial specific capacities of LiNiO2 and Li[Ni0.9Co0.05Mn0.05]O2 are 245 mAh g-1 (91% of the theoretical capacity) and 230 mAh g-1, and their corresponding capacity retentions are 72.5% and 88.4%. However, the capacity retention characteristic deteriorates at an increasingly faster rate for x > 0.95, in contrast with the nearly linear increase of specific capacity. The fast capacity fading stems from the chemical attack of the cathode by the electrolyte infiltrated through the microcracks, resulting from the mechanical instability inflicted by the anisotropic internal strain caused by the H2 ⇆ H3 phase transition. Thus, the capacity fading of the NCM cathodes for x > 0.9 critically depends on the extent of the H2 → H3 phase transition. Retardation or protraction of the H2 ⇆ H3 phase transition by engineering the microstructure should improve the cycle life of these highly Ni-enriched NCM cathodes.

7.
Clin Exp Allergy ; 49(10): 1306-1320, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31183918

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) participate in innate immunity by trapping microorganisms. Their pathophysiological implications have not been defined in chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). OBJECTIVE: We investigated the presence of NETs in nasal secretion of patients with stable or exacerbated CRS and evaluated whether NETs participate in the secretion of chemokines in sinonasal epithelial cells, the epithelial permeability, and transendothelial leucocyte migration, and elucidate whether NETs are released by macrolides and dexamethasone. METHODS: The presence of NETs in nasal secretion and the release of NETs from neutrophils stimulated with macrolides or dexamethasone were evaluated by dsDNA Assay kit and fluorescence microscope. The chemokine secretion, epithelial permeability, and transendothelial leucocyte migration were measured in cultured cells incubated with NETs, the supernatant of unstimulated neutrophils (unstim), NETs inhibitor (DPI), or H3Cit, where the expression of junctional complex proteins and ICAM-1 was evaluated by real-time PCR, Western blots, and confocal microscope. RESULTS: The amount of NETs and NETs-forming neutrophils in nasal secretion increased in exacerbated CRS. Epithelial cells treated with NETs or H3Cit secreted chemokines and showed decreased permeability associated with up-regulated junctional complex proteins. Increased transendothelial leucocyte migration associated with up-regulated ICAM-1 was noted in endothelial cells treated with NETs or H3Cit. These findings were not found in cells treated with unstim, or DPI. NETs were released by macrolides, but not by dexamethasone. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: NETs formation increased in exacerbated CRS, inducing chemokine secretion, strengthening the epithelial barrier, and promoting the neutrophils infiltration. Therefore, the release of NETs in CRS might be beneficial or detrimental to CRS patients.

8.
Gastroenterology ; 157(3): 682-691.e2, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31152740

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are effective at treating acid-related disorders. These drugs are well tolerated in the short term, but long-term treatment was associated with adverse events in observational studies. We aimed to confirm these findings in an adequately powered randomized trial. METHODS: We performed a 3 × 2 partial factorial double-blind trial of 17,598 participants with stable cardiovascular disease and peripheral artery disease randomly assigned to groups given pantoprazole (40 mg daily, n = 8791) or placebo (n = 8807). Participants were also randomly assigned to groups that received rivaroxaban (2.5 mg twice daily) with aspirin (100 mg once daily), rivaroxaban (5 mg twice daily), or aspirin (100 mg) alone. We collected data on development of pneumonia, Clostridium difficile infection, other enteric infections, fractures, gastric atrophy, chronic kidney disease, diabetes, chronic obstructive lung disease, dementia, cardiovascular disease, cancer, hospitalizations, and all-cause mortality every 6 months. Patients were followed up for a median of 3.01 years, with 53,152 patient-years of follow-up. RESULTS: There was no statistically significant difference between the pantoprazole and placebo groups in safety events except for enteric infections (1.4% vs 1.0% in the placebo group; odds ratio, 1.33; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.75). For all other safety outcomes, proportions were similar between groups except for C difficile infection, which was approximately twice as common in the pantoprazole vs the placebo group, although there were only 13 events, so this difference was not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: In a large placebo-controlled randomized trial, we found that pantoprazole is not associated with any adverse event when used for 3 years, with the possible exception of an increased risk of enteric infections. ClinicalTrials.gov Number: NCT01776424.


Assuntos
Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores do Fator Xa/administração & dosagem , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/prevenção & controle , Pantoprazol/administração & dosagem , Doença Arterial Periférica/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/administração & dosagem , Rivaroxabana/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Método Duplo-Cego , Esquema de Medicação , Enterocolite Pseudomembranosa/induzido quimicamente , Enterocolite Pseudomembranosa/microbiologia , Inibidores do Fator Xa/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pantoprazol/efeitos adversos , Doença Arterial Periférica/diagnóstico , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos , Estudos Prospectivos , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/efeitos adversos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Rivaroxabana/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Gastroenterology ; 157(2): 403-412.e5, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31054846

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Antiplatelets and anticoagulants are associated with increased upper gastrointestinal bleeding. We evaluated whether proton pump inhibitor therapy could reduce this risk. METHODS: We performed a 3 × 2 partial factorial double-blind trial of 17,598 participants with stable cardiovascular disease and peripheral artery disease. Participants were randomly assigned to groups given pantoprazole 40 mg daily or placebo, as well as rivaroxaban 2.5 mg twice daily with aspirin 100 mg once daily, rivaroxaban 5 mg twice daily, or aspirin 100 mg alone. The primary outcome was time to first upper gastrointestinal event, defined as a composite of overt bleeding, upper gastrointestinal bleeding from a gastroduodenal lesion or of unknown origin, occult bleeding, symptomatic gastroduodenal ulcer or ≥5 erosions, upper gastrointestinal obstruction, or perforation. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in upper gastrointestinal events between the pantoprazole group (102 of 8791 events) and the placebo group (116 of 8807 events) (hazard ratio, 0.88; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.67-1.15). Pantoprazole significantly reduced bleeding of gastroduodenal lesions (hazard ratio, 0.52; 95% confidence interval, 0.28-0.94; P = .03); this reduction was greater when we used a post-hoc definition of bleeding gastroduodenal lesion (hazard ratio, 0.45; 95% confidence interval, 0.27-0.74), although the number needed to treat still was high (n = 982; 95% confidence interval, 609-2528). CONCLUSIONS: In a randomized placebo-controlled trial, we found that routine use of proton pump inhibitors in patients receiving low-dose anticoagulation and/or aspirin for stable cardiovascular disease does not reduce upper gastrointestinal events, but may reduce bleeding from gastroduodenal lesions. ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT01776424.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/prevenção & controle , Pantoprazol/administração & dosagem , Úlcera Péptica/prevenção & controle , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Idoso , Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Método Duplo-Cego , Esquema de Medicação , Quimioterapia Combinada/efeitos adversos , Quimioterapia Combinada/métodos , Feminino , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Úlcera Péptica/induzido quimicamente , Úlcera Péptica/epidemiologia , Rivaroxabana/administração & dosagem , Rivaroxabana/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Pharmacol Res ; 146: 104281, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31125601

RESUMO

Cystathionine γ-lyase (CSEγ) is a hydrogen sulfide (H2S)-producing enzyme. Endothelial H2S production can mediate vasodilatory effects, contributing to the alleviation of hypertension (high blood pressure). Recent studies have suggested a role of histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) in hypertension, although its underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we addressed the potential regulation of CSEγ by HDAC6 in angiotensin II (AngII)-induced hypertension and its molecular details focusing on CSEγ posttranslational modification. Treatment of mice with a selective HDAC6 inhibitor tubastatin A (TubA) alleviated high blood pressure and vasoconstriction induced by AngII. Cotreatment of the aorta and human aortic endothelial cells with TubA recovered AngII-mediated decreased H2S levels. AngII treatment upregulated HDAC6 mRNA and protein expression, but conversely downregulated CSEγ protein. Notably, potent HDAC6 inhibitors and HDAC6 siRNA as well as a proteasomal inhibitor increased CSEγ protein levels and blocked the downregulatory effect of AngII on CSEγ. In contrast, other HDAC isoforms-specific inhibitors and siRNAs did not show such blocking effects. Transfected CSEγ protein levels were also reciprocally regulated by AngII and TubA, and were reduced by wild-type, but not by deacetylase-deficient, HDAC6. Moreover, TubA significantly increased both protein stability and K73 acetylation level of CSEγ. Consistent with these results, AngII induced CSEγ ubiquitination and degradation, which was inhibited by TubA. Our results indicate that AngII promoted HDAC6-dependent deacetylation of CSEγ at K73 residue, leading to its ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis, which underlies AngII-induced hypertension. Overall, this study suggests that upregulation of CSEγ and H2S through HDAC6 inhibition may be considered as a valid strategy for preventing the progression of hypertension.

11.
Eur J Cancer Care (Engl) ; 28(4): e13050, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30993802

RESUMO

To investigate the relation of physical functions to health-related quality of life (HRQOL), physical activity and fatness of patients during breast cancer treatment within 1 year after surgery. We retrospectively reviewed the patients with breast cancer at the cancer rehabilitation clinic within 1 year after surgery. Physical function assessment included aerobic capacity, muscle strength, flexibility and oedema. Physical activity was assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short Form, and HRQOL was assessed using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire Core 30. Stepwise multivariate linear regression analysis was used to find the association factors. Of the physical functions in subjects, aerobic capacity was 88.64% compared to predictive value. The mean overall QOL was 60.82 ± 20.98. The mean physical activity was 2,245.49 ± 3,687.66 MET/week and 39 patients (41.5%) were inactive. As the results of stepwise multivariate linear regression analysis, aerobic capacity was a significant factor of HRQOL and physical activity. The impairment of physical functions affects the HRQOL of patients within 1 year after breast cancer surgery. Among the physical functions, the decrease in aerobic capacity was significantly associated with the decrease in the overall QOL of the patients.

12.
PLoS One ; 14(3): e0213585, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30897178

RESUMO

This study was aimed to evaluate the changes of impedance parameters of patients who were admitted to a long-term care hospital by measuring bioelectrical impedance. The subjects were 18 patients who had infusion therapy through peripheral intravenous (IV) catheters and had at least an infiltration. The impedance parameters were measured with a multi-channel impedance measuring instrument (Vector Impedance Meter) twice; at starting IV infusion after catheter insertion and infiltration detected. As results, the resistance (R) after infiltration significantly decreased compared to the initial resistance. At 50 kHz, the resistances were 498.2±79.3 [Ω] before infiltration and 369.4±85.6 [Ω] after infiltration. The magnitude of the reactance (XC) decreased after infiltration. At 50 kHz, the measured reactance was -31.1±8.3 [Ω] before infiltration and -24.5±5.9 [Ω] after infiltration. The data points plotted in the R-XC graph shifted from the first quadrant before infiltration to third quadrant after infiltration. Our findings suggest that bioelectrical impedance is an effective method for detection of infiltration in a noninvasive and quantitative manner.

13.
ChemSusChem ; 12(2): 409-415, 2019 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30654413

RESUMO

The use of multifunctional and sustainable Fe catalysts for the formation of cyclic carbonates from epoxides and carbon dioxide at 80 °C and 3 bar pressure is presented. The optimal catalyst possesses a halide counteranion and a hydrogen bond donor to activate the epoxide for ring opening, affording a single-component, cocatalyst-free catalytic system.

14.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 58(4): 1100-1105, 2019 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30548090

RESUMO

A highly efficient, metal-free carbon nanocatalyst is presented that possesses abundant active, oxygenated graphitic edge sites. The edge site-rich nanocarbon catalyst exhibits about 28 times higher activity for H2 O2 production than a basal plane-rich carbon nanotube with a H2 O2 selectivity over 90 %. The oxidative treatment further promotes the H2 O2 generation activity to reach close to the thermodynamic limit. The optimized nanocarbon catalyst shows a very high H2 O2 production activity, surpassing previously reported catalysts in alkaline media. Moreover, it can stably produce H2 O2 for 16 h with Faradaic efficiency reaching 99 % and accumulated H2 O2 concentration of 24±2 mm. Importantly, we find that the heterogeneous electron transfer kinetics of the carbon-based catalyst is closely related to the electrocatalytic activity, suggesting that first outer-sphere electron transfer to O2 is an important step governing the H2 O2 production rate.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30503179

RESUMO

HYPOTHESIS: We hypothesized that a new method considering the humeral head would distinguish rotator cuff tears (RCTs) and osteoarthritis (OA) better than the critical shoulder angle (CSA). METHODS: A total of 1011 patients were tested in this study and divided into 4 groups: those with RCTs (n = 493), those with OA (n = 73), those with anterior instability (n = 361), and those with adhesive capsulitis (n = 84). The CSA and new radiologic parameters including the humeral head were measured in the true anterior-to-posterior view: the Y angle connecting the lower end of the glenoid (LG), the center of the humeral head (CH), and the upper end of the glenoid (UG); the G angle connecting UG, CH, and the lateral tip of the acromion; the YG angle connecting LG, CH, and the lateral tip of the acromion; and the R angle connecting UG, LG, and CH. RESULTS: The CSA and G angle were the largest in the RCT group (34.2° and 70.4°, respectively; P < .001) and the smallest in the OA group (29.8° and 61.7°, respectively; P < .001). The Y angle was the largest in the OA group (82.8°, P < .001). The R angle in the RCT group (52.9°) was significantly larger than that in the OA group, which was the smallest among the groups (48.0°; P < .001). The CSA was correlated with the G and YG angles in the RCT group, whereas the CSA was correlated with the Y, G, and R angles in the OA group (P < .05). The CSA showed the highest correlation with the size of RCTs (correlation coefficient = 0.138). CONCLUSION: The Y, G, and R angles reflected the lesions of RCTs or OA. The CSA showed good correlations with the new radiologic parameters, and it had the highest correlation coefficient with the size of RCTs.

16.
Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 50(12): 2536-2543, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29975299

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Athletes in weight-bearing sports may benefit from higher bone mineral density (BMD). However, some athletes are at risk for impaired BMD with female athlete triad (Triad). The purpose of this study is to understand the influence of sports participation and Triad on BMD. We hypothesize that athletes in high-impact and multidirectional loading sports will have highest BMD, whereas nonimpact and low-impact sports will have lowest BMD. Triad risk factors are expected to reduce BMD values independent of sports participation. METHODS: Two hundred thirty-nine female athletes participating in 16 collegiate sports completed dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans to measure BMD z-scores of the lumbar spine (LS) and total body (TB). Height and weight were measured to calculate body mass index (BMI). Triad risk assessment variables were obtained from preparticipation examination. Mean BMD z-scores were compared between sports and by sport category (high-impact, multidirectional, low-impact, and nonimpact). Multivariable regression analyses were performed to identify differences of BMD z-scores accounting for Triad and body size/composition. RESULTS: Athlete populations with lowest average BMD z-scores included synchronized swimming (LS, -0.34; TB, 0.21) swimming/diving (LS, 0.34; TB, -0.06), crew/rowing (LS, 0.27; TB, 0.62), and cross-country (LS, 0.29; TB, 0.91). Highest values were in gymnastics (LS, 1.96; TB, 1.37), volleyball (LS, 1.90; TB, 1.74), basketball (LS, 1.73; TB, 1.99), and softball (LS, 1.68; TB, 1.78). All Triad risk factors were associated with lower BMD z-scores in univariable analyses; only low BMI and oligomenorrhea/amenorrhea were associated in multivariable analyses (all P < 0.05). Accounting for Triad risk factors and body size/composition, high-impact sports were associated with higher LS and TB BMD z-scores and nonimpact sports with lower LS and TB BMD z-scores compared to low-impact sport (all P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Both sport type and Triad risk factors influence BMD. Athletes in low-impact and nonimpact sports and athletes with low BMI and oligomenorrhea/amenorrhea are at highest risk for reduced BMD.

17.
Clin Nurs Res ; : 1054773818791078, 2018 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30041540

RESUMO

Whether early postoperative feeding (EPF) after total hip arthroplasty (THA) interferes with recovery of gastrointestinal motility is unclear. This randomized controlled trial compared the feasibility and patient tolerance to either EPF (at 4 hr postoperatively) or late postoperative feeding (LPF; ⩾8 hr postoperatively). One hundred forty patients were randomized to EPF (70 hips) or LPF (70 hips). Patient characteristics, surgical technique, intraoperative characteristics, and postoperative managements were similar between two groups. No significant differences were evident between the groups for vomiting ( p = .231), nausea ( p = .711), regain of appetite ( p = .711), amount of diet ( p = .630), type of food ( p = .429), abdominal pain ( p = 1.000), time to passage of flatus ( p = .231), time to defecations ( p = .619), development of postoperative ileus ( p = 1.000), and length of hospital stay ( p = .643). EPF and LPF show no difference in nausea, return of bowel function, and length of hospital stay without increasing postoperative morbidity. EPF can begin about 4 hr later after elective THA.

18.
Int J Stroke ; : 1747493018784478, 2018 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30058959

RESUMO

Background Covert vascular disease of the brain manifests as infarcts, white matter hyperintensities, and microbleeds on MRI. Their cumulative effect is often a decline in cognition, motor impairment, and psychiatric disorders. Preventive therapies for covert brain ischemia have not been established but represent a huge unmet clinical need. Aims The MRI substudy examines the effects of the antithrombotic regimens in COMPASS on incident covert brain infarcts (the primary outcome), white matter hyperintensities, and cognitive and functional status in a sample of consenting COMPASS participants without contraindications to MRI. Methods COMPASS is a randomized superiority trial testing rivaroxaban 2.5 mg bid plus acetylsalicylic acid 100 mg and rivaroxaban 5 mg bid against acetylsalicylic acid 100 mg per day for the combined endpoint of MI, stroke, and cardiovascular death in individuals with stable coronary artery disease or peripheral artery disease. T1-weighted, T2-weighted, T2*-weighted, and FLAIR images were obtained close to randomization and near the termination of assigned antithrombotic therapy; biomarker and genetic samples at randomization and one month, and cognitive and functional assessment at randomization, after two years and at the end of study. Results Between March 2013 and May 2016, 1905 participants were recruited from 86 centers in 16 countries. Of these participants, 1760 underwent baseline MRI scans that were deemed technically adequate for interpretation. The mean age at entry of participants with interpretable MRI was 71 years and 23.5% were women. Coronary artery disease was present in 90.4% and 28.1% had peripheral artery disease. Brain infarcts were present in 34.8%, 29.3% had cerebral microbleeds, and 93.0% had white matter hyperintensities. The median Montreal Cognitive Assessment score was 26 (interquartile range 23-28). Conclusions The COMPASS MRI substudy will examine the effect of the antithrombotic interventions on MRI-determined covert brain infarcts and cognition. Demonstration of a therapeutic effect of the antithrombotic regimens on brain infarcts would have implications for prevention of cognitive decline and provide insight into the pathogenesis of vascular cognitive decline.

19.
Int J Rehabil Res ; 41(3): 197-203, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29912022

RESUMO

Mental practice (MP) is usually provided in combination with other therapies, and new developments for neurofeedback to support MP have been made recently. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effectiveness of MP and to investigate the intervention characteristics including neurofeedback that may affect treatment outcome. The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, PubMed, Embase, KoreaMed, Scopus, Web of Science, PEDro, and CIRRIE were searched from inception to March 2017 for randomized controlled trials to assess the effect of MP for upper limb rehabilitation after stroke. Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA) was used as the outcome measure for meta-analysis. Twenty-five trials met the inclusion criteria, and 15 trials were eligible for meta-analysis. Among the trials selected for meta-analysis, MP was added to conventional therapy in eight trials or to modified constraint-induced movement therapy in one trial. The other trials provided neurofeedback to support MP: MP-guided neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) in four trials and MP-guided robot-assisted therapy (RAT) in two trials. MP added to conventional therapy resulted in significantly higher FMA gain than conventional therapy alone. MP-guided NMES showed superior result than conventional NMES as well. However, the FMA gain of MP-guided RAT was not significantly higher than RAT alone. We suggest that MP is an effective complementary therapy either given with neurofeedback or not. Neurofeedback applied to MP showed different results depending on the therapy provided. This study has limitations because of heterogeneity and inadequate quality of trials. Further research is requested.


Assuntos
Neurorretroalimentação , Paresia/reabilitação , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral/métodos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Extremidade Superior/fisiopatologia , Terapia por Estimulação Elétrica , Humanos , Paresia/fisiopatologia , Robótica
20.
Arthroscopy ; 34(7): 2096-2101, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29685837

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical outcomes, including the visual analog pain score, University of California Los Angeles activity, modified Harris hip score, and radiologic outcomes after hip arthroscopy in male patients whose symptoms developed during military services with those in a matched-pair control group of active young, nonmilitary patients at a minimum postoperative follow-up of 2 years. METHODS: From September 2009 to December 2014, 28 male patients with mechanical symptoms that developed during military service underwent hip arthroscopic surgery. The control group included 28 professional male athletes who were matched with gender, Tönnis grade 0 or 1, crossover percentage, and labral procedure. At the minimum 2-year follow-up, radiographic and clinical outcomes were assessed using serial radiography. Statistical analysis was performed to confirm the differences between the preoperative and postoperative outcome measures. RESULTS: Most common arthroscopic procedures in the study and control groups were femoroplasty (64.4% vs 53.6%) and labral repair (64.3% vs 53.6%). All improvements in both groups were statistically significant at the last postoperative follow-up (P < .001). In the study group, 89.3% of soldiers were able to return to their preoperative military branch. Although radiologic and clinical outcomes in both groups were not significantly different, hospitalization time in soldiers was significantly longer than that in the control group (79.4 ± 27.0 vs 4.0 ± 1.3 days, P < .001). Time of return to their preoperative military branch in the study group was similar to sports activity in the control group (5.9 ± 4.3 vs 6.3 ± 3.7 months, P = .258). CONCLUSIONS: Male patients with symptoms that developed during military services achieved similar levels of benefit from hip arthroscopy as those in the control group of active young patients. Although hospitalization time in the military population was significantly longer than that in the control group, time to return to activity was similar in both groups. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level III, comparative trial.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA