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1.
J Behav Addict ; 2021 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33625381

RESUMO

Background and aims: Impulsiveness is an important factor in the pathophysiology of Internet gaming disorder (IGD), and regional brain functions can be different depending on the level of impulsiveness. This study aimed to demonstrate that different brain mechanisms are involved depending on the level of impulsiveness among patients with IGD. Methods: Resting-state functional MRI data were obtained from 23 IGD patients with high impulsivity, 27 IGD patients with low impulsivity, and 22 healthy controls, and seed-based functional connectivity was compared among the three groups. The seed regions were the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, nucleus accumbens (NAcc), and amygdala. Results: Connectivity of the vmPFC with the left temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) and NAcc-left insula connectivity were significantly decreased in the patients with high impulsivity, compared with the patients with low impulsivity and healthy controls. On the other hand, amygdala-based connectivity with the left inferior frontal gyrus showed decreases in both patient groups, compared with the healthy controls. Conclusion: These findings may suggest a potential relationship between impulsivity and deficits in reward-related social cognition processes in patients with IGD. In particular, certain interventions targeted at vmPFC-TPJ connectivity, found to be impulsivity-specific brain connectivity, are likely to help with addiction recovery among impulsive patients with IGD.

2.
J Atten Disord ; : 1087054720986229, 2021 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33430697

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study examined whether distractors in virtual reality (VR) environment affected the attention and hyperactivity in children and adolescents with ADHD. METHOD: A total of 40 students (21 ADHD, 19 controls) aged between 9 and 17 years participated in this study. A rapid visual information processing task utilizing VR (VR-RVP) was performed under two conditions (no-distractor and distractor condition). Task performance and head movement during each condition were compared, and additional analyses were conducted after grouping participants into two developmental stages. RESULTS: Children with ADHD performed comparably to the controls under the distractor condition, but had poorer performance under the no-distractor condition. They displayed more head movement under the distractor condition than in the no-distractor condition. CONCLUSION: VR is possibly a useful tool for investigating the effect of distractors on individuals with ADHD, and children with ADHD are more vulnerable to a low-level stimulation situation than normal children in VR.

3.
JMIR Serious Games ; 9(1): e22494, 2021 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33459603

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Individuals with internet gaming disorder (IGD) report facing family conflicts repeatedly because of their excessive internet gaming. With recent advancements in virtual reality (VR) technology, VR therapy has emerged as a promising method for the management of various psychiatric disorders, including IGD. Given that several risk and protective factors for young people with addiction can be influenced by their interpersonal context, the potential utility of VR-based apps for managing family conflicts needs to be examined with reference to IGD management. However, few studies have evaluated potential treatment modules related to interpersonal conflict management, such as emotion regulation and taking the perspective of others. OBJECTIVE: This preliminary study aims to examine the potential use of a VR-based app in the management of game-related conflicts with parents of young adults with IGD and matched controls. METHODS: In total, 50 young male adults (24 with IGD and 26 controls) were recruited to participate in the study. We developed a virtual room where game-related family conflicts arise. Using this room, participants completed 2 VR tasks that required them to express anger and then implement coping skills (ie, risk/benefit assessment of stopping a game and taking parents' perspective) to deal with negative emotions in interpersonal conflict situations and to decrease one's gaming behavior. RESULTS: The results showed that immersion in our VR app tended to provoke negative emotions in individuals with IGD. In addition, after a risk/benefit assessment of stopping a game, the response of stopping a game immediately increased significantly in the IGD group, suggesting that patients' gaming behavior could be changed using our VR program. Furthermore, in individuals with IGD, longer gaming hours were associated with a lower level of perceived usefulness of the coping skills training. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study indicate that our VR app may be useful for implementing more desirable behaviors and managing gaming-related family conflicts in individuals with IGD. Our VR app may offer an alternative for individuals with IGD to learn how a vicious cycle of conflicts is developed and to easily and safely assess their dysfunctional thoughts behind the conflicts (ie, perceived unreasonable risks of stopping a game and thoughts acting as a barrier to taking the perspective of others).

4.
Brief Funct Genomics ; 2020 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33279952

RESUMO

Post-translational modifications of proteins are well-established participants in DNA damage response (DDR) pathways, which function in the maintenance of genome integrity. Emerging evidence is starting to reveal the involvement of modifications on RNA in the DDR. RNA modifications are known regulators of gene expression but how and if they participate in DNA repair and genome maintenance has been poorly understood. Here, we review several studies that have now established RNA modifications as key components of DNA damage responses. RNA modifying enzymes and the binding proteins that recognize these modifications localize to and participate in the repair of UV-induced and DNA double-strand break lesions. RNA modifications have a profound effect on DNA-RNA hybrids (R-loops) at DNA damage sites, a structure known to be involved in DNA repair and genome stability. Given the importance of the DDR in suppressing mutations and human diseases such as neurodegeneration, immunodeficiencies, cancer and aging, RNA modification pathways may be involved in human diseases not solely through their roles in gene expression but also by their ability to impact DNA repair and genome stability.

5.
Psychiatry Investig ; 2020 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33301665

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Enhancing subjective well-being is an effective way to improve mental health. This study aimed to validate a virtual realitybased interactive feedback program as an intervention tool for promoting subjective well-being. METHODS: Thirty-six males participated in this program, consisting of three tasks constructed based on the theories of positive psychology: 'Experience-based problem recognition task', 'Future self-based success story expression task', and 'Strength expression task'. Participants rated visual analog scores associated with each of the tasks' contents. The concurrent validity of task scores was evaluated by correlations with the psychological scale scores. RESULTS: The total task score was positively correlated with scores of Mental Health Continuum-Short Form (MHC-SF) emotional wellbeing and psychological well-being, Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale, Dispositional Hope Scale agency dimension and pathways dimension, and Life Orientation Test Revised, but not with MHC-SF social well-being scores. After controlling for the effects of the other task scores, the task scores had linear relationships with certain psychological assessments. CONCLUSION: Since the task scores are closely related to indicators of well-being, self-esteem, hope, and optimism, the program contents are well associated with certain aspects of subjective well-being and thus may be available for training that improves subjective well-being through interactive feedback.

6.
JMIR Serious Games ; 8(4): e18473, 2020 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33306033

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Excessive internet game use frequently leads to various physical, psychological, and social problems, and internet gaming disorder (IGD) has become a serious public health issue worldwide. Recently, virtual reality (VR) therapy has emerged as a promising method to increase psychological treatment motivation and accessibility. However, few studies have examined the potential of VR technology for the management of IGD, and VR content tailored to IGD characteristics remains scarce. OBJECTIVE: This preliminary study aimed to examine the potential of a VR-based program that was designed to help users identify their leisure time use patterns, especially those related to gaming, and to modify their gaming overuse by alternative activities provided in the VR content. Moreover, to investigate whether users' VR activities reflect various clinical variables of IGD in youth, we examined the relationships among the leisure time activity selection pattern, built-in response, and speech data obtained from the VR program, as well as symptom severity of internet gaming, psychiatric comorbidities, and motivation of participants reported through relevant questionnaire data. METHODS: Three types of VR content (understanding my daily activities at home, finding an alternative activity to internet gaming at home, expressing contradictory opinions toward a friend's gaming beliefs) were developed by simulating the daily situations in which patients with IGD can select alternative free-time leisure activities. We examined internet addiction, mental health problems, and motivation for 23 IGD and 29 control participants. Behavioral and self-rated responses from VR, such as alternative activity selection data and speech patterns (speech time, speech satisfaction, and speech accordance), and results from various questionnaires were compared between groups. The correlations between IGD behaviors in VR and real-life behaviors assessed by questionnaire measures were analyzed. RESULTS: Significant correlations were found between internet gaming behavior and user activity data, such as speech and activity selection pattern, in our VR program. Our results showed that the IGD group had fewer leisure activities and preferred game or digital activities to other types of activities compared to controls, even in VR. There was a positive relationship between the viability of alternative leisure activities the participants selected in VR and the amount of perceived satisfaction from that activity (r=.748, P<.001). Speech accordance in the IGD group was lower than in the control group and was correlated negatively with Internet Addiction Test and Internet Addiction Test-gaming scores (r=.300, P=.03) but positively with users' motivation (r=.312, P=.02). CONCLUSIONS: The results from our VR program can provide information about daily activity patterns of youths with IGD and the relationship between user VR activities and IGD symptoms, which can be useful in applying VR technology to IGD management.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33079031

RESUMO

A Gram-staining-negative, aerobic, cream-coloured, marine bacterium, with rod-shaped cells, designated strain YJ-S3-2T, was isolated from salt flat sediment of Yongyu-do, Republic of Korea. YJ-S3-2T grew at pH 5.0-9.0 (optimum pH 7.0), 4-45 °C (optimum 30 °C) and with 1-18 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum 6 %). The results of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that YJ-S3-2T was closely related to Marinobacter segnicrescens SS011B1-4T (97.0 %) followed by, 'Marinobacter nanhaiticus' D15-8W (96.7 %), Marinobacter bryozoorum 50-11T (96.7 %), Marinobacter koreensis DSMZ 179240T T (96.5 %) and Marinobacter bohaiensis T17T (96.5 %). The average nucleotide identity (ANI) and the genome to genome distance calculator (GGDC) estimate values between YJ-S3-2T and related type strains were 73.7-79.8 and 19.9-22.5 %, and also 73.5 and 20.7 % with Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus. YJ-S3-2T was characterized as having Q-9 as the predominant respiratory quinone and the principal fatty acids (>10 %) were C16 : 0 (22.3 %), summed feature 9 (C17 : 1iso ω9c/C16 : 0 10-methyl, 13.8 %) and 3 (C16 : 1ω7c/C16 : 1ω6c, 11.9 %). The polar lipids consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, two unidentified aminolipids and two unidentified phospholipids. The DNA G+C content of YJ-S3-2T is 60.9 mol%. On the basis of the polyphasic taxonomic evidence presented in this study, YJ-S3-2T should be classified as representing a novel species within the genus Marinobacter, for which name Marinobacter halodurans sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain YJ-S3-2T (=KACC 19883T=KCTC 62937T=JCM 33109T).

8.
Sci Total Environ ; : 142726, 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33082038

RESUMO

Intertidal flats, as transition zones where terrestrial and marine ecosystems meet, provide unique environments and play an important role in marine ecosystems. In particular, the environmental characteristics of tidal marshes show are different than those of bare flats, especially in the rhizosphere. However, unlike the rhizosphere in terrestrial ecosystems, the rhizosphere of plants in tidal marsh areas and the associated microbial community have been the focus of very little research. Thus, this study investigated the diversity and variation in bacterial communities in the rhizosphere of a Phragmites australis and Suaeda japonica and along the sediment depths. High-throughput sequencing was performed by amplifying the 16S rRNA gene of environmental DNA extracted from sediment cores, and indicator species were identified with respect to the vegetation type and sediment depth. The most abundant phylum was Proteobacteria, followed by Chloroflexi, Bacteroidetes, Acidobacteria, and Firmicutes. In general, the results indicated that not only vegetation type and sediment depth themselves but also their interaction resulted in significant differences among the bacterial communities. The envfit results revealed that the environmental variables of sediment, such as mud content, organic matter, total organic carbon, and total nitrogen, had significant effects on the bacterial community structure. The indicator species varied depending on the vegetation type and sediment depth, showing significant correlations with certain selected environmental variables, but were fundamentally related to the rhizosphere. Overall, this study revealed the key factors that determine the bacterial community structure in tidal marshes and the indicator species according to vegetation type in the little studied rhizosphere of the intertidal ecosystem.

9.
Psychol Med ; : 1-10, 2020 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880252

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is characterized by anxiety regarding social situations, avoidance of external social stimuli, and negative self-beliefs. Virtual reality self-training (VRS) at home may be a good interim modality for reducing social fears before formal treatment. This study aimed to find neurobiological evidence for the therapeutic effect of VRS. METHODS: Fifty-two patients with SAD were randomly assigned to a VRS or waiting list (WL) group. The VRS group received an eight-session VRS program for 2 weeks, whereas the WL group received no intervention. Clinical assessments and functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning with the distress and speech evaluation tasks were repeatedly performed at baseline and after 3 weeks. RESULTS: The post-VRS assessment showed significantly decreased anxiety and avoidance scores, distress index, and negative evaluation index for 'self', but no change in the negative evaluation index for 'other'. Patients showed significant responses to the distress task in various regions, including both sides of the prefrontal regions, occipital regions, insula, and thalamus, and to the speech evaluation task in the bilateral anterior cingulate cortex. Among these, significant neuronal changes after VRS were observed only in the right lingual gyrus and left thalamus. CONCLUSIONS: VRS-induced improvements in the ability to pay attention to social stimuli without avoidance and even positively modulate emotional cues are based on functional changes in the visual cortices and thalamus. Based on these short-term neuronal changes, VRS can be a first intervention option for individuals with SAD who avoid society or are reluctant to receive formal treatment.

10.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 160: 111592, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32927183

RESUMO

The environmental DNA (eDNA) metabarcoding was applied to assess benthic ecological health in the west coast of South Korea by investigating a long-term microbial community change (2015-17). The ecological interaction among microorganisms, from phylum to family level, and their associations to environmental variables across the five regions were highlighted. As part of the study, the available chemistry and toxicological data in the regions during the monitoring periods were incorporated into an integrated sediment triad assessment. The bacterial communities were dominated by Proteobacteria (34.2%), Bacteroidetes (13.8%), and Firmicutes (10.8%). Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes dominated consistently across regions and years, while Firmicutes and Cyanobacteria significantly varied by region and years (p < 0.05). The abundance of this phylum declined over time with the increasing abundance of Cyanobacteria, indicating their independent interactions to certain environmental changes. Planctomycetes and Gemmatimonadetes linked to some contaminants (ΣPAHs and Cu), implying indicator taxa. Overall, eDNA-based microbial community analysis combined with exposures of contaminants and responses of microorganisms is a promising strategy for the assessment of benthic ecological health in contaminated sediments from coastal waters.


Assuntos
Sedimentos Geológicos , Microbiota , Bactérias/genética , Monitoramento Ambiental , Proteobactérias , República da Coreia
11.
Mol Cell ; 80(2): 327-344.e8, 2020 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32966758

RESUMO

Stabilization of stalled replication forks is a prominent mechanism of PARP (Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerase) inhibitor (PARPi) resistance in BRCA-deficient tumors. Epigenetic mechanisms of replication fork stability are emerging but remain poorly understood. Here, we report the histone acetyltransferase PCAF (p300/CBP-associated) as a fork-associated protein that promotes fork degradation in BRCA-deficient cells by acetylating H4K8 at stalled replication forks, which recruits MRE11 and EXO1. A H4K8ac binding domain within MRE11/EXO1 is required for their recruitment to stalled forks. Low PCAF levels, which we identify in a subset of BRCA2-deficient tumors, stabilize stalled forks, resulting in PARPi resistance in BRCA-deficient cells. Furthermore, PCAF activity is tightly regulated by ATR (ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related), which phosphorylates PCAF on serine 264 (S264) to limit its association and activity at stalled forks. Our results reveal PCAF and histone acetylation as critical regulators of fork stability and PARPi responses in BRCA-deficient cells, which provides key insights into targeting BRCA-deficient tumors and identifying epigenetic modulators of chemotherapeutic responses.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/deficiência , Proteína BRCA2/deficiência , Enzimas Reparadoras do DNA/metabolismo , Replicação do DNA , Exodesoxirribonucleases/metabolismo , Histonas/metabolismo , Proteína Homóloga a MRE11/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição de p300-CBP/metabolismo , Acetilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Proteínas Mutadas de Ataxia Telangiectasia/metabolismo , Proteína BRCA1/metabolismo , Proteína BRCA2/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Replicação do DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Lisina/metabolismo , Modelos Biológicos , Mutação/genética , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Fosfosserina/metabolismo , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/farmacologia , Ligação Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Transcrição de p300-CBP/química , Fatores de Transcrição de p300-CBP/genética
12.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(8): 4555-4561, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32721276

RESUMO

A yellowish-brown-coloured bacterium, designated strain JGD-17T, was isolated from a tidal flat of Janggu-do, Garorim bay, Taean-gun, Chungcheongbuk-do, Republic of Korea. Cells were Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, non-flagellated and long-rod-shaped. Growth was observed at 20-45 °C (optimum, 25-30 °C), at pH 6.0-10.0 (9.0) and with 1-5 % (w/v) NaCl (1-3 %). Results of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that strain JGD-17T was closely related to Muricauda nanhaiensis SM1704T (96.1 %), Muricauda olearia CL-SS4T (95.0 %), Muricauda beolgyonensis BB-My12T (94.9 %), Muricauda marina H19-56T (94.7 %) and Muricauda indica 3PC125-7T (94.5 %). The ranges of values for the average nucleotide identity and digital DNA-DNA hybridization analyses with related strains were 71.3-74.1 % and 16.9-18.2 %. The genomic DNA G+C content was 41.1 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis using the neighbour-joining method showed that strain JGD-17T formed a clade with Muricauda nanhaiensis SM1704T, Muricauda lutaonensis CC-HSB-11T, Muricauda lutea CSW06T and Muricauda pacifica SM027T. The major fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0 (26.9 %), iso-C15 : 1 G (19.5 %) and iso-C17 : 0 3-OH (12.7 %). The predominant respiratory quinone was menaquinone-6. The polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, an unidentified aminolipid, an unidentified phospholipid and two unidentified lipids. On the basis of phylogenetic, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics, strain JGD-17T represents a novel species within the genus Muricauda, for which the name Muricauda ochracea sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JGD-17T (=KCTC 72732T=KACC 21486T=JCM 33817T).


Assuntos
Flavobacteriaceae/classificação , Sedimentos Geológicos/microbiologia , Filogenia , Água do Mar/microbiologia , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Flavobacteriaceae/isolamento & purificação , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , República da Coreia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Vitamina K 2/análogos & derivados , Vitamina K 2/química
13.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(31): 18439-18447, 2020 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32675241

RESUMO

In mammals, repressive histone modifications such as trimethylation of histone H3 Lys9 (H3K9me3), frequently coexist with DNA methylation, producing a more stable and silenced chromatin state. However, it remains elusive how these epigenetic modifications crosstalk. Here, through structural and biochemical characterizations, we identified the replication foci targeting sequence (RFTS) domain of maintenance DNA methyltransferase DNMT1, a module known to bind the ubiquitylated H3 (H3Ub), as a specific reader for H3K9me3/H3Ub, with the recognition mode distinct from the typical trimethyl-lysine reader. Disruption of the interaction between RFTS and the H3K9me3Ub affects the localization of DNMT1 in stem cells and profoundly impairs the global DNA methylation and genomic stability. Together, this study reveals a previously unappreciated pathway through which H3K9me3 directly reinforces DNMT1-mediated maintenance DNA methylation.


Assuntos
DNA (Citosina-5-)-Metiltransferase 1/metabolismo , Metilação de DNA , Heterocromatina/metabolismo , Histonas/metabolismo , DNA (Citosina-5-)-Metiltransferase 1/genética , Heterocromatina/genética , Histonas/química , Histonas/genética , Humanos , Lisina/genética , Lisina/metabolismo , Metilação , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional
14.
Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw ; 23(10): 715-720, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32678684

RESUMO

Test anxiety has been a growing problem in school-aged children, especially for students in East-Asian countries where the pressure for academic achievement is high. These students are more vulnerable to academic stress, which could further lead to anxiety disorders. For this reason, this study examined the feasibility of virtual reality (VR) test anxiety program in managing anxiety in students. A total of 22 typically developing children with varying levels of test anxiety and no history of psychiatric illnesses participated in the study (mean age = 11.6 and standard deviation [SD] = 1.84). A self-reported questionnaire measuring test anxiety, state-trait anxiety, and depression was administered. Heart rate (HR) variability and subjective anxiety were also measured to examine the changes during each of the anxiety-inducing (Exam 1 and Exam 2) and meditation (Med 1 and Med 2) sessions in the program. There was a significant difference in self-perceived anxiety during the program (p < 0.001), as well as a significant main effect of time on the standard deviation of R-R interval (p = 0.002). In addition, a significant relationship between changes in HR and perceived anxiety during Exam 1 (p = 0.003), Med 1 (p < 0.001), and Med 2 (p = 0.011) was found. In conclusion, this work demonstrates the feasibility of the virtual environment to induce different levels of anxiety and explores the potential use of VR program as a viable method to manage the negative emotion in students. This work shows the potential of technology-enhanced tools in addressing psychological problems in school-aged children. Further study is needed to validate the use of the program in clinical practice.

15.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 12(26): 29162-29172, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32412737

RESUMO

Single-ion conducting (SIC) polymer electrolytes with a high Li transference number (tLi+) have shown the capability to enable enhanced battery performance and safety by avoiding liquid-electrolyte leakage and suppressing Li dendrite formation. However, issues of insufficient ionic conductivity, low electrochemical stability, and poor polymer/electrode interfacial contact have greatly hindered their commercial use. Here, a Li-containing boron-centered fluorinated SIC polymer gel electrolyte (LiBFSIE) was rationally designed to achieve a high tLi+ and high electrochemical stability. Owing to the low dissociation energy of the boron-centered anion and Li+, the as-prepared LiBFSIE exhibited an ionic conductivity of 2 × 10-4 S/cm at 35 °C, which is exclusively contributed by Li ions owing to a high tLi+ of 0.93. Both simulation and experimental approaches were applied to investigate the ion diffusion and concentration gradient in the LiBFSIE and non-cross-linked dual-ion systems. Typical rectangular Li stripping/plating voltage profiles demonstrated the uniform Li deposition assisted by LiBFSIE. The interfacial contact and electrolyte infiltration were further optimized with an in situ UV-vis-initiated polymerization method together with the electrode materials. By virtue of the high electrochemical stability of LiBFSIE, the cells achieved a promising average Coulombic efficiency of 99.95% over 200 cycles, which is higher than that of liquid-electrolyte-based cells. No obvious capacity fading was observed, indicating the long-term stability of LiBFSIE for lithium metal batteries.

16.
Neuroimage ; 217: 116929, 2020 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32413461

RESUMO

Self-respect is a practical way to promote life satisfaction through gratifying basic psychological needs, whereas self-criticism is associated with life dissatisfaction. The goal of the present study was to investigate the effect of two positive and negative self-talks on the functional connectome with respect to life satisfaction and its relationships with basic psychological needs. Forty-eight individuals with low life satisfaction (LLS, n â€‹= â€‹24) and with high life satisfaction (HLS, n â€‹= â€‹24) were scanned using functional magnetic resonance imaging at a baseline state and during and after self-respect or self-criticism tasks. Functional connectivity analysis was conducted to identify the modulatory effects of the tasks on the self-referential, default mode, and reward-motivation networks. We found that self-respect changed only the connection between the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and frontoparietal network, whereas self-criticism changed almost all of the connections examined. The group x condition interaction effect of self-respect was identified only in connection between the PCC and left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, while that of self-criticism was observed in various connections based on the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens. In respect to basic psychological needs, functional connectivity after self-criticism was significant in predicting the needs of autonomy and relatedness only in the LLS group, whereas functional connectivity after self-respect could predict the needs of autonomy and competence only in the HLS group. Overall, self-criticism produces more noticeable negative changes in the brain than the positive changes of self-respect. Individuals with low life satisfaction may be more vulnerable to be negatively affected not only by self-criticism but also self-respect than individuals with high life satisfaction. The satisfaction of basic psychological needs can play a mediating role in the effects of self-talk tasks differently concerning life satisfaction.

17.
Psychiatry Investig ; 17(5): 452-459, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32403212

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Little has been explored about a reflection towards self-image in schizophrenia, though it can be related to heterogeneous symptoms of the illness. We identified the neural basis of ambivalence towards ideal self-image in patients with schizophrenia. METHODS: 20 patients with schizophrenia and 20 healthy controls underwent functional MRI while the self-image reflection tasks of determining whether to agree with sentences describing their actual or ideal self-image that contained one of the adjective pairs with opposite valence. The interaction between the group and ideal ambivalence score was examined, and group differences in functional connectivity related to ambivalence towards ideal self-image were further studied. RESULTS: The interaction of group-by-ideal ambivalence score was shown in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, where activities were positively correlated with the level of ideal self-image ambivalence in patients, but not in controls. Task-related decrease in functional connectivity was shown between the orbitofrontal cortex and cerebellum in patients. CONCLUSION: The process of reflecting on ambivalent ideal self-image in schizophrenia may be related to aberrant prefrontal activity and connectivity. Abnormality in the prefrontal regions that take part in cognitive conflict monitoring and value judgment may underlie the pathophysiology of increased ambivalence towards ideal self-image.

18.
BMC Psychol ; 8(1): 50, 2020 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32410661

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Functional communication is vital in many areas of daily life, and modifying dysfunctional communication has been emphasized in various social areas, including family and school. The present preliminary study addressed the feasibility of a virtual reality (VR)-based interactive feedback program for the modification of dysfunctional communication. METHODS: Thirty-seven healthy young males completed psychological assessments associated with functional communication and participated in the VR-based program, consisting of the three tasks of 'exploring the communication style,' 'practicing functional communication,' and 'expressing empathy.' Behavioral parameters were recorded based on the participants' choices among available options and the visual analog scale scores that resulted in responses to questions in the tasks. RESULTS: Participants completed the program without dropping-out and reported 10.76 (SD, 9.66) in the Simulator Sickness Questionnaire and 106.97 (SD, 16.66) in the Presence Questionnaire. In exploring the communication style, there was no difference between the dysfunction level-with family and dysfunction level-with a friend, but only the dysfunction level-with family showed significant correlations with the level of communication with parents. In practicing functional communication, the communication scores with the placating, blaming, and computing styles significantly increased according to the repetition of trials. In expressing empathy, the empathetic feeling score was negatively correlated with the perspective-taking score, whereas the emotional intensity score was positively correlated with the level of differentiation of the self. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that the program may have a tolerable level of cybersickness, an adequate level of presence, an improvement in the behavioral parameters that may reflect the important aspects of communication, and a proper reflection of psychological states or interpersonal characteristics. The use of this program can be an important starting point for the development of a more convenient method for delivering VR programs designed to modify dysfunctional communication, which can further increase computerized dissemination.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Comunicação/terapia , Realidade Virtual , Adulto , Transtornos da Comunicação/psicologia , Emoções , Empatia , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pais , Projetos Piloto , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
Addict Biol ; : e12916, 2020 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32365424

RESUMO

Impulsivity and emotion dysregulation have been known to be risk factors for Internet gaming disorder (IGD), but their underlying neural mechanisms are not yet fully understood. Given that the prefrontal cortex has a key role in higher order cognition and addiction, the present study aimed to investigate emotional influences on response inhibition in situations with different cognitive demands. A total of 41 young male adults (20 with and 21 without IGD) were scanned while performing two versions of an emotional go/no-go task with demands on low and high working memory load. Patients with IGD showed a failure in response inhibition and increased activation of widespread brain regions, including prefrontal, motor-sensory, parietal, occipital, insula, and striatal regions across tasks. Among these regions, involvement of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and ventral striatum was observed only during the task with high demands on working memory. Moreover, it was also only during the high-load task that interaction between response inhibition and emotional states was observed in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, with observations revealing that its alteration in patients with IGD was associated with number of hours spent on Internet gaming. Our findings highlight a failure of response inhibition and dysfunction within the inhibitory control network. The special significance of our study is that dysfunctional dorsomedial prefrontal cortex may mediate abnormal emotional influences on response inhibition in patients with IGD.

20.
Int J Med Inform ; 140: 104171, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32446158

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is a well-established treatment for panic disorder, but many fewer patients receive this treatment compared to medication-based therapy. Mobile app-based interactive CBT using a chatbot can increase patient access to CBT. We performed a preliminary study to determine whether short-term use of a newly developed chatbot is feasible and effective for relieving panic symptoms. METHOD: Forty-one patients were randomly assigned to either a chatbot group (n = 21) or control group (n = 20) for a period of 4 weeks. The chatbot group was guided in the use of the chatbot application, while the control group was provided with a book on panic disorder. MAIN RESULTS: The severity of panic disorder was significantly decreased in the chatbot group, but not in the control group. The social phobia score was significantly decreased and the control helplessness score was significantly increased in the chatbot group compared to the control group. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: We found that mobile app-based interactive CBT using the chatbot was feasible and effective for reducing the severity of panic symptoms. Using this novel approach to provide CBT would allow clinicians to effect positive therapeutic outcomes with easy accessibility, interactivity, and self-management for patients with panic symptoms.

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