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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(19)2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34638983

RESUMO

Bone remodeling is a continuous process of bone synthesis and destruction that is regulated by osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Here, we investigated the anti-osteoporotic effects of morroniside in mouse preosteoblast MC3T3-E1 cells and mouse primary cultured osteoblasts and osteoclasts in vitro and ovariectomy (OVX)-induced mouse osteoporosis in vivo. Morroniside treatment enhanced alkaline phosphatase activity and positively stained cells via upregulation of osteoblastogenesis-associated genes in MC3T3-E1 cell lines and primary cultured osteoblasts. However, morroniside inhibited tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase activity and TRAP-stained multinucleated positive cells via downregulation of osteoclast-mediated genes in primary cultured monocytes. In the osteoporotic animal model, ovariectomized (OVX) mice were administered morroniside (2 or 10 mg/kg/day) for 12 weeks. Morroniside prevented OVX-induced bone mineral density (BMD) loss and reduced bone structural compartment loss in the micro-CT images. Taken together, morroniside promoted increased osteoblast differentiation and decreased osteoclast differentiation in cells, and consequently inhibited OVX-induced osteoporotic pathogenesis in mice. This study suggests that morroniside may be a potent therapeutic single compound for the prevention of osteoporosis.

2.
J Biosci Bioeng ; 2021 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34556421

RESUMO

Osteocytes play an important role to modulate the bone remodeling and are also known as terminally differentiated cells originated from the osteoblast precursor cells, but its differentiation mechanism remains unclear. Since an efficient in vitro method to evoke the osteocyte differentiation from the osteoblast precursor cells has not been established, we conducted the comparative gene expression analysis for mouse pre-osteoblast MC3T3-E1 cells in order to elucidate the key factors to induce the osteocyte differentiation from the pre-osteoblast cells. In this study, we prepared four different culture environments by modulating their cell-substrate interaction and cell-cell interaction; (i) low and (ii) high cell density on the adhesive culture models, and (iii) low and (iv) high cell density on the non-adhesive floating culture models. By comparing these conditions in terms of cell-substrate and cell-cell interaction, we showed that the elimination of cell-substrate interaction under non-adhesive floating culture greatly up-regulated the gene expression of osteocyte markers in the pre-osteoblast cells. Moreover, the presence of moderate cell-cell interaction in the non-adhesive spheroid culture further enhanced the up-regulation of osteocyte markers for the pre-osteoblast cells. The results altogether suggest the most appropriate culture environment to induce the in vitro osteocyte differentiation of pre-osteoblast cells.

3.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5008, 2021 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34429436

RESUMO

Capabilities for continuous monitoring of pressures and temperatures at critical skin interfaces can help to guide care strategies that minimize the potential for pressure injuries in hospitalized patients or in individuals confined to the bed. This paper introduces a soft, skin-mountable class of sensor system for this purpose. The design includes a pressure-responsive element based on membrane deflection and a battery-free, wireless mode of operation capable of multi-site measurements at strategic locations across the body. Such devices yield continuous, simultaneous readings of pressure and temperature in a sequential readout scheme from a pair of primary antennas mounted under the bedding and connected to a wireless reader and a multiplexer located at the bedside. Experimental evaluation of the sensor and the complete system includes benchtop measurements and numerical simulations of the key features. Clinical trials involving two hemiplegic patients and a tetraplegic patient demonstrate the feasibility, functionality and long-term stability of this technology in operating hospital settings.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Fontes de Energia Elétrica , Pressão , Temperatura , Tecnologia sem Fio , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Técnicas Biossensoriais/instrumentação , Desenho de Equipamento , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monitorização Fisiológica , Pele , Termografia/instrumentação , Termografia/métodos
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34300160

RESUMO

PURPOSE: COVID-19 guidelines for persons with disabilities published globally during the early phase of the pandemic by non-governmental organizations and federal agencies were reviewed and analyzed by trends of information provided under various settings. METHOD: The Google search engine was used by applying the following search terms: COVID-19, Coronavirus 2019, Disability, and Guidelines. Search efforts yielded 514 records from 1 December 2019 to 16 May 2020. The selected 26 guidelines were classified for analysis by organizations (NGOs, non-profit, and governmental institutions), information provided (risks, prevention, and countermeasures), target group (people with disability, service and support providers, and family members), and environmental setting (hospital, community, and home). RESULTS: Government agencies from eight countries published results. Eight of the 26 guidelines were presented by non-governmental organizations, and 18 were not. There were 15 guidelines for individuals with disabilities; seven for service providers, staff, and families providing care; and four addressing both the individuals with a disability and care providers. In terms of appropriate environment and scope, there were 19 guidelines produced for community, government, home, and hospital. The information predominantly presented regarded the prevention of COVID-19 with 22 sources, followed by general information containing risks and response strategies. CONCLUSION: The majority of the published guidelines focused primarily on the risks and prevention of COVID-19 for people with disabilities. Future procedures should include specific methods in guiding COVID-19 response strategies for the disabled and caregivers who provide essential health services with access to online resources in multiple languages and dialects.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pessoas com Deficiência , Governo , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34331649

RESUMO

In Jeju Island, multiple land-based aquafarms were fully operational along most coastal region. However, the effect of effluent on distribution and behaviours of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the coastal water are still unknown. To decipher characteristics of organic pollution, we compared physicochemical parameters with spectral optical properties near the coastal aquafarms in Jeju Island. Absorption spectra were measured to calculate the absorption coefficient, spectral slope coefficient, and specific UV absorbance. Fluorescent DOM was analysed using fluorescence spectroscopy coupled with parallel factor analysis. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) were measured using high-temperature catalytic oxidation. The DOC concentration near the discharge outlet was twice higher than that in natural groundwater, and the TDN concentration exponentially increased close to the outlet. These distribution patterns indicate that aquafarms are a significant source of DOM. Herein, principal component analysis was applied to categorise the DOM origins. There were two distinct groups, namely, aquaculture activity for TDN with humic-like and high molecular weights DOM (PC1: 48.1%) and natural biological activity in the coastal water for DOC enrichment and protein-like DOM (PC2: 18.8%). We conclude that the aquafarms significantly discharge organic nitrogen pollutants and provoke in situ production of organic carbon. Furthermore, these findings indicate the potential of optical techniques for the efficient monitoring of anthropogenic organic pollutants from aquafarms worldwide.

6.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 13204, 2021 06 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34168224

RESUMO

Osteocytes are mechanosensory commander cells to regulate bone remodeling throughout the lifespan. While the osteocytes are known as terminally differentiated cells derived from mesenchymal stem cells, the detailed mechanisms of osteocyte differentiation remain unclear. In this study, we fabricated 3D self-organized spheroids using human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Under the osteogenesis induction medium, the spheroid culture model exerted the osteocyte-likeness within 2 days compared to a conventional 2D monolayer model. Moreover, we showed that an inhibition of actin polymerization in the spheroid further up-regulated the osteocyte gene expressions. Notably, we represented that the cell condensed condition acquired in the 3D spheroid culture model determined a differentiation fate of MSCs to osteocytes. Taken together, we suggest that our self-organized spheroid model can be utilized as a new in vitro model to represent the osteocyte and to recapitulate an in vitro ossification process.

7.
J Affect Disord ; 292: 189-196, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34126310

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is shown to be linked to a higher risk of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Firefighters are at high risk for PTSD given the increased exposure to trauma.  However, the relationship between PTSD and OSA remains unclear in firefighters. Moreover, alcohol use disorders (AUDs) and depression - also common in firefighters - show a high comorbidity rate with both PTSD and OSA. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of PTSD, depression, and AUDs with OSA in a national sample of Korean firefighters. METHODS: A total of 51,149 Korean firefighters completed self-reported questionnaires, assessing the severity of PTSD, OSA, depression, and alcohol misuse. Multivariable logistic regression and mediation analyses were performed. RESULTS: PTSD, depression, and AUDs were significantly associated with OSA. In the mediation analyses, PTSD had both direct and indirect effects mediated by depression and AUDs on OSA. Depression had both direct and indirect effects on OSA, with the latter mediated by AUDs. LIMITATIONS: First, high-risk of OSA was measured using the Berlin Questionnaire. Second, other medical comorbidities or mediation use were not considered. Third, self-report questionnaires were used for assessment, which are prone to subjectivity and recollection bias. Finally, the majority of the study population were male and all Korean, limiting generalizability. CONCLUSIONS: PTSD had both direct and indirect effects on OSA, mediated by depression and AUDs. In patients with both PTSD and OSA, depression and AUD symptoms should be screened routinely.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo , Bombeiros , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia
8.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 9009, 2021 04 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33907271

RESUMO

Osteocytes differentiated from osteoblasts play significant roles as mechanosensors in modulating the bone remodeling process. While the well-aligned osteocyte network along the trabeculae with slender cell processes perpendicular to the trabeculae surface is known to facilitate the sensing of mechanical stimuli by cells and the intracellular communication in the bone matrix, the mechanisms underlying osteocyte network formation remains unclear. Here, we developed a novel in vitro collagen matrix system exerting a uniaxially-fixed mechanical boundary condition on which mouse osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 cells were subcultured, evoking cellular alignment along the uniaxial boundary condition. Using a myosin II inhibitor, blebbistatin, we showed that the intracellular tension via contraction of actin fibers contributed to the cellular alignment under the influence of isometric matrix condition along the uniaxially-fixed mechanical boundary condition. Furthermore, the cells actively migrated inside the collagen matrix and promoted the expression of osteoblast and osteocyte genes with their orientations aligned along the uniaxially-fixed boundary condition. Collectively, our results suggest that the intracellular tension of osteoblasts under a uniaxially-fixed mechanical boundary condition is one of the factors that determines the osteocyte alignment inside the bone matrix.

9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(6)2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33804203

RESUMO

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common degenerative disease that results in joint inflammation as well as pain and stiffness. A previous study has reported that Cornus officinalis (CO) extract inhibits oxidant activities and oxidative stress in RAW 264.7 cells. In the present study, we isolated bioactive compound(s) by fractionating the CO extract to elucidate its antiosteoarthritic effects. A single bioactive component, morroniside, was identified as a potential candidate. The CO extract and morroniside exhibited antiosteoarthritic effects by downregulating factors associated with cartilage degradation, including cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2), matrix metalloproteinase 3 (Mmp-3), and matrix metalloproteinase 13 (Mmp-13), in interleukin-1 beta (IL-1ß)-induced chondrocytes. Furthermore, morroniside prevented prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and collagenase secretion in IL-1ß-induced chondrocytes. In the destabilization of the medial meniscus (DMM)-induced mouse osteoarthritic model, morroniside administration attenuated cartilage destruction by decreasing expression of inflammatory mediators, such as Cox-2, Mmp3, and Mmp13, in the articular cartilage. Transverse microcomputed tomography analysis revealed that morroniside reduced DMM-induced sclerosis in the subchondral bone plate. These findings suggest that morroniside may be a potential protective bioactive compound against OA pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Cornus/química , Glicosídeos/farmacologia , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Meniscos Tibiais/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteoartrite/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Cartilagem Articular/efeitos dos fármacos , Condrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/genética , Dinoprostona/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicosídeos/química , Humanos , Interleucina-1beta/genética , Metaloproteinase 13 da Matriz/genética , Metaloproteinase 3 da Matriz/genética , Meniscos Tibiais/patologia , Meniscos Tibiais/cirurgia , Camundongos , Osteoartrite/genética , Osteoartrite/patologia , Osteoartrite/cirurgia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Cultura Primária de Células , Células RAW 264.7 , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
Phys Rev Lett ; 126(3): 033901, 2021 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33543948

RESUMO

We demonstrate phase-matched second-harmonic generation (SHG) from three-dimensional metamaterials consisting of stacked metasurfaces. To achieve phase matching, we utilize a novel mechanism based on phase engineering of the metasurfaces at the interacting wavelengths, facilitating phase-matched SHG in the unconventional backward direction. Stacking up to five metasurfaces,we obtain a phase-matched SHG signal, which scales superlinearly with the number of layers. Our results motivate further investigations to achieve higher conversion efficiencies also with more complex wave fronts.

11.
J Clin Nurs ; 30(7-8): 1111-1119, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33434333

RESUMO

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to examine differences in personal characteristics, core practice competency and role stress according to levels of teaching efficacy among clinical nurse educators working in general hospitals. BACKGROUND: In the clinical setting, successful adaptation to instruction among practicing clinical nurse educators is challenging. DESIGN: Secondary analysis of data through a cross-sectional study design was adopted. METHODS: Originally, 565 nurses were recruited from general hospitals; 364 were included in this study. Participants were nurses with more than 1 year of experience in various settings from 16 general hospitals wherein nursing students trained for clinical practicum in five cities in South Korea. Self-reported data were collected via the Teaching Efficacy, Core Practice Competency and Perceived Stress Scales assessing clinical education-related teaching efficacy, core practice competency and role stress. In the analyses, comparison between nurses with high and low teaching efficacy was conducted. We have followed through the EQUATOR (e.g. STROBE) research checklist for the preparation of this manuscript. RESULTS: According to univariate analysis, levels of teaching efficacy were shown to be higher with age, longer clinical careers, in those undergoing a doctoral course or with a doctorate, previous experience in providing clinical education and enrolment in continuing education for clinical education. In the multivariate analysis, enrolment in continuing education for clinical education, assessment and intervention skills, critical thinking skills, teaching skills and role ambiguity were associated with level of teaching efficacy among nurse educators. CONCLUSION: Based on the results of this study, we recommend that nursing administrators should foster the recognition of personal characteristics in potential clinical nurse educators or preceptors with high teaching efficacy. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: Nurses should be supported by providing them with opportunities for professional development to enhance teaching efficacy.


Assuntos
Docentes de Enfermagem , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Estudos Transversais , Hospitais , Humanos , República da Coreia , Ensino
12.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(3)2021 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33498589

RESUMO

Near-field communication (NFC) is a low-power wireless communication technology used in contemporary daily life. This technology contributes not only to user identification and payment methods, but also to various biomedical fields such as healthcare and disease monitoring. This paper focuses on biomedical applications among the diverse applications of NFC. It addresses the benefits of combining traditional and new sensors (temperature, pressure, electrophysiology, blood flow, sweat, etc.) with NFC technology. Specifically, this report describes how NFC technology, which is simply applied in everyday life, can be combined with sensors to present vision and opportunities to modern people.


Assuntos
Comunicação , Tecnologia sem Fio , Humanos , Suor
13.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 586: 647-654, 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33208248

RESUMO

HYPOTHESIS: Even though lubricant-infused surfaces (LISs) are known to affect the mobility of working fluid depending on the infused lubricant, previous studies have not yet quantified their slippery property. This study proposes the slippery nature of the LIS can be assessed by dynamic contact angles of the working fluid on the LIS and its scaling model. EXPERIMENTS: We measured the apparent dynamic advancing and receding contact angles on a LIS using a modified Wilhelmy plate technique for the first time. Lubricant having different viscosities was infused into the sanded polytetrafluoroethylene surface to fabricate the LIS. The surface was immersed into or withdrawn from an aqueous glycerol-water solution by varying the capillary number and the lubricant viscosity. FINDINGS: The dynamic contact angles on LIS was found to be sensitive to changes in both the lubricant viscosity and the capillary number. The cube of the dynamic contact angles on the LIS was proportional to θD3~Ca1, which follows a conventional hydrodynamic theory. In addition, the decreasing lubricant viscosity shifted the cube of the dynamic contact angles to high capillary numbers. Our dynamic contact angle data coincided with the prediction from a scaling law derived in this study.

14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(1)2020 Dec 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33379387

RESUMO

Osteoporosis is a common disease caused by an imbalance of processes between bone resorption by osteoclasts and bone formation by osteoblasts in postmenopausal women. The roots of Gentiana lutea L. (GL) are reported to have beneficial effects on various human diseases related to liver functions and gastrointestinal motility, as well as on arthritis. Here, we fractionated and isolated bioactive constituent(s) responsible for anti-osteoporotic effects of GL root extract. A single phytochemical compound, loganic acid, was identified as a candidate osteoprotective agent. Its anti-osteoporotic effects were examined in vitro and in vivo. Treatment with loganic acid significantly increased osteoblastic differentiation in preosteoblast MC3T3-E1 cells by promoting alkaline phosphatase activity and increasing mRNA expression levels of bone metabolic markers such as Alpl, Bglap, and Sp7. However, loganic acid inhibited osteoclast differentiation of primary-cultured monocytes derived from mouse bone marrow. For in vivo experiments, the effect of loganic acid on ovariectomized (OVX) mice was examined for 12 weeks. Loganic acid prevented OVX-induced bone mineral density loss and improved bone structural properties in osteoporotic model mice. These results suggest that loganic acid may be a potential therapeutic candidate for treatment of osteoporosis.


Assuntos
Iridoides/farmacologia , Osteoblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteoclastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteoporose/patologia , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Administração Oral , Animais , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética Nuclear de Carbono-13 , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Células Cultivadas , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Gentiana/química , Iridoides/administração & dosagem , Iridoides/química , Iridoides/isolamento & purificação , Camundongos , Osteoblastos/patologia , Osteoclastos/patologia , Ovariectomia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Raízes de Plantas/química , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética
15.
Nutrients ; 12(11)2020 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33233714

RESUMO

Bone remodeling is a renewal process regulated by bone synthesis (osteoblasts) and bone destruction (osteoclasts). A previous study demonstrated that Lycii radicis cortex (LRC) extract inhibited ovariectomized (OVX)-induced bone loss in mice. This study investigated the anti-osteoporotic effects of bioactive constituent(s) from the LRC extract. The effective compound(s) were screened, and a single compound, scopolin, which acts as a phytoalexin, was chosen as a candidate component. Scopolin treatment enhanced alkaline phosphatase activity and increased mineralized nodule formation in MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblastic cells. However, osteoclast differentiation in primary-cultured monocytes was reduced by treatment with scopolin. Consistently, scopolin treatment increased osteoblast differentiation in the co-culture of monocytes (osteoclasts) and MC3T3-E1 (osteoblast) cells. Scopolin treatment prevented bone mineral density loss in OVX-induced osteoporotic mice. These results suggest that scopolin could be a therapeutic bioactive constituent for the treatment and prevention of osteoporosis.


Assuntos
Cumarínicos/uso terapêutico , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Glucosídeos/uso terapêutico , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteoporose/tratamento farmacológico , Osteoporose/prevenção & controle , Células 3T3 , Animais , Densidade Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Diferenciação Celular , Cumarínicos/farmacologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Feminino , Glucosídeos/farmacologia , Camundongos , Osteoblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteoclastos/efeitos dos fármacos
16.
J Clin Med ; 9(11)2020 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33187261

RESUMO

Obesity is a medical condition that presents excessive fat accumulation with high risk of serious chronic diseases. The aim of this clinical trial is to investigate the anti-obesity effects of Cornus officinalis (CO) and Ribes fasciculatum (RF) on body fat reduction in Korean overweight women. A total of 147 overweight female participants enrolled in double-blinded clinical trial for 12 weeks and 76 participants completed the clinical study. Participants were treated with four CO and RF mixture (COEC; 400 mg per tablet) or four placebo tablets once a day. Obesity associated parameters (body weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, body fat percentage and body fat mass) and safety assessment were analyzed. After 12 weeks of COEC treatment, primary outcomes such as body fat percentage (0.76% vs. 0.01%; p = 0.022) and mass (1.1 kg vs. 0.5 kg; p = 0.049) were significantly decreased. In addition, the results were statistically significant between the COEC and placebo groups, strongly indicated that COEC had anti-obesity effects on overweight women. Secondary outcomes-including body weight, waist and hip circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, body mass index and computed tomography measurement of visceral fat area, subcutaneous fat area, total abdominal fat area and visceral-to-subcutaneous fat ratio-were reduced in COEC-treated group, but no statistical differences were found between the COEC and placebo groups. The safety assessment did not differ between the two groups. These results suggest that treatment of COEC extract reduces body fat percentage and mass in Korean overweight women, indicating it as a protective functional agent for obesity.

17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(22)2020 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33218042

RESUMO

Obesity is prevalent in modern human societies. We examined the anti-obesity effects of scopolin on adipocyte differentiation in preadipocyte 3T3-L1 cells and weight loss in an ovariectomy (OVX)-induced obese mouse model. Scopolin inhibited adipocyte differentiation and lipid accumulation in the preadipocyte cells by suppressing the transcription of adipogenic-related factors, including adiponectin (Adipoq), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (Pparg), lipoprotein lipase (Lpl), perilipin1 (Plin1), fatty acid-binding protein 4 (Fabp4), glucose transporter type 4 (Slc2a4), and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (Cebpa). In OVX-induced obese mice, administration of scopolin promoted the reduction of body weight, total fat percentage, liver steatosis, and adipose cell size. In addition, the scopolin-treated OVX mice showed decreased serum levels of leptin and insulin. Taken together, these findings suggest that the use of scopolin prevented adipocyte differentiation and weight gain in vitro and in vivo, indicating that scopolin may be a potential bioactive compound for the treatment and prevention of obesity in humans.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cumarínicos/farmacologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Glucosídeos/farmacologia , Obesidade , Ovariectomia , Transcrição Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Células 3T3-L1 , Adipócitos/patologia , Animais , Feminino , Camundongos , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/patologia , Obesidade/prevenção & controle
18.
Tissue Eng Part A ; 2020 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33040693

RESUMO

Bone-related studies have been widely carried out by culturing cells on two-dimensional (2D) culture system because of its easiness of handling, but these 2D in vitro achievements may imply a distinct outcome compared with the in vivo situation. On the contrary, three-dimensional (3D) culture system has been suggested as a better biomimetic in vitro model by providing an appropriate cell-cell or cell-matrix interaction. In this study, we successfully reconstructed a 3D disk type of scaffold-free tissue (SFT) using mouse osteoblast-like cells, which evoked an osteocyte differentiation within 2 days. Particularly, the SFT was also utilized as an in vitro osteocytic model to elucidate the effect of hypoxia on cellular differentiation capability. As a result, the hypoxia upregulated a matured osteocyte marker, Sost, in the SFT, whereas both osteoblast and osteocyte markers were significantly downregulated by hypoxia in the 2D conventional monolayer model. The results imply that the hypoxia may enhance the initiation of osteocyte differentiation and retain the osteocyte differentiation in the 3D culture system. Of note, we reported the significance of 3D culture system that might represent the in vivo situation regarding cellular response to stimuli. Hence, our study suggests wide applications of SFT using osteoblast cells as a novel in vitro osteocyte model for the osteocyte-related studies.

19.
Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol ; 125(6): 665-673.e1, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32971247

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effects of prenatal particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ranging from 0.1 µm to 2.5 µm (PM2.5) and vitamin D on atopic dermatitis (AD) phenotypes have not been evaluated. DNA methylation and cord blood (CB) vitamin D could represent a plausible link between prenatal PM2.5 exposure and AD in an offspring. OBJECTIVE: To determine the critical windows of prenatal PM2.5 exposure on the AD phenotypes, if vitamin D modulated these effects, and if placental DNA methylation mediated these effects on AD in offspring. METHODS: Mother-child pairs were enrolled from the birth cohort of the Cohort for Childhood Origin of Asthma and allergic diseases (COCOA) study. PM2.5 was estimated by land-use regression models, and CB vitamin D was measured by chemiluminescence immunoassay. AD was identified by the parental report of a physician's diagnosis. We defined the following 4 AD phenotypes according to onset age (by the age of 2 years) and persistence (by the age of 3 years): early-onset transient and persistent, late onset, and never. Logistic regression analysis and Bayesian distributed lag interaction model were used. DNA methylation microarray was analyzed using an Infinium Human Methylation EPIC BeadChip (Illumina, San Diego, California) in placenta. RESULTS: PM2.5 exposure during the first trimester of pregnancy, especially during 6 to 7 weeks of gestation, was associated with early-onset persistent AD. This effect increased in children with low CB vitamin D, especially in those with PM2.5 exposure during 3 to 7 weeks of gestation. AHRR (cg16371648), DPP10 (cg19211931), and HLADRB1 (cg10632894) were hypomethylated in children with AD with high PM2.5 and low CB vitamin D. CONCLUSION: Higher PM2.5 during the first trimester of pregnancy and low CB vitamin D affected early-onset persistent AD, and the most sensitive window was 6 to 7 weeks of gestation. Placental DNA methylation mediated this effect.


Assuntos
Dermatite Atópica/epidemiologia , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Placenta/fisiologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Vitamina D/sangue , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Metilação de DNA , Dermatite Atópica/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Coreia (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Masculino , Fenótipo , Gravidez , Primeiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/diagnóstico
20.
Plants (Basel) ; 9(9)2020 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32872183

RESUMO

Osteoporosis is a porous bone disease caused by bone density loss, which increases the risk of fractures. Cornus officinalis (CO) and Achyranthes japonica (AJ) have been used as traditional herbal medicine for various disorders in East Asia. Although the anti-osteoporotic effects of single extract of CO and AJ have already been reported, the synergistic effect of a combined mixture has not been studied. In this study, we investigated the effects of a CO and AJ herbal mixture on osteoporosis in in vitro and in vivo models. The results demonstrate that treatment with the CO and AJ mixture significantly promoted osteoblast differentiation of MC3T3-E1 mouse preosteoblasts through the upregulation of osteoblastic differentiation-associated genes such as alkaline phosphatase (Alpl), runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), and bone gamma-carboxyglutamic acid-containing protein (Bglap), while the mixture significantly inhibited differentiation of osteoclasts isolated from primary-cultured mouse monocytes. In addition, oral administration of CO and AJ mixture significantly prevented bone mineral density loss and trabecular bone structures in an ovariectomy-induced osteoporotic mouse model. These results suggest that the combination treatment of CO and AJ mixture might be a beneficial therapy for osteoporosis.

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