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1.
Nutrients ; 13(2)2021 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33530330

RESUMO

We investigated associations of habitual dietary intake with the taxonomic composition and diversity of the human gut microbiota in 222 Koreans aged 18-58 years in a cross-sectional study. Gut microbiota data were obtained by 16S rRNA gene sequencing on DNA extracted from fecal samples. The habitual diet for the previous year was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire. After multivariable adjustment, intake of several food groups including vegetables, fermented legumes, legumes, dairy products, processed meat, and non-alcoholic beverages were associated with major phyla of the gut microbiota. A dietary pattern related to higher α-diversity (HiαDP) derived by reduced rank regression was characterized by higher intakes of fermented legumes, vegetables, seaweeds, and nuts/seeds and lower intakes of non-alcoholic beverages. The HiαDP was positively associated with several genera of Firmicutes such as Lactobacillus, Ruminococcus, and Eubacterium (all p < 0.05). Among enterotypes identified by principal coordinate analysis based on the ß-diversity, the Ruminococcus enterotype had higher HiαDP scores and was strongly positively associated with intakes of vegetables, seaweeds, and nuts/seeds, compared to the two other enterotypes. We conclude that a plant- and fermented food-based diet was positively associated with some genera of Firmicutes (e.g., Lactobacillus, Ruminococcus, and Eubacterium) reflecting better gut microbial health.

2.
Cancer Res Treat ; 2020 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33285050

RESUMO

Purpose: Obesity has been determined to be associated with fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene and thyroid cancer risk. However, the effect of combined interactions between obesity and the FTO gene on thyroid cancer needs further investigation. This study aimed to examine whether interactions between body mass index (BMI) and the FTO gene are associated with an increased risk of thyroid cancer. Materials and Methods: A total of 705 thyroid cancer cases and 705 sex- and age-matched normal controls were selected from the Cancer Screenee Cohort in National Cancer Center, Korea. A conditional logistic regression model was used to calculate the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the measure of associations and the combined effect of BMI and FTO gene on thyroid cancer. Results: BMI was associated with an increased risk of thyroid cancer in subclasses of overweight (23-24.9 kg/m2) (adjusted OR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.12-2.00) and obese (≥25 kg/m2) (adjusted OR, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.23-2.14). There were positive associations between the FTO genetic variants rs8047395 and rs8044769 and an increased risk of thyroid cancer. Additionally, the combination of BMI subclasses and FTO gene variants was significantly associated with thyroid cancer risk in the codominant (rs17817288), dominant (rs9937053 and rs12149832), and recessive (rs17817288 and rs8044769) models. Conclusion: Findings from this study identified the effects of BMI on thyroid cancer risk among individuals carrying rs17817288, rs9937053, rs12149832, and rs8044769, whereas the effects of BMI may be modified according to individual characteristics of other FTO variants.

3.
J Acad Nutr Diet ; 2020 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33288494

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The synergistic effect of food groups on health outcomes is better captured by examining dietary patterns (DPs) than single food groups. Regarding this issue, a Gaussian graphical model (GGM) can identify pairwise correlations between food groups and adjust for the remaining items. However, the application of GGMs in the nutritional field has not been widely investigated, especially in Korean adults. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify the major DPs of Korean adults by using a GGM and to examine the associations between the DP scores and prevalence of self-reported cancer. DESIGN: This cross-sectional study used baseline data from the 2007-2019 Cancer Screenee Cohort of the National Cancer Center, Korea. PARTICIPANTS/SETTING: In total, 10,777 Korean adults who completed a questionnaire regarding their general medical history, including clinical test results, and a validated food frequency questionnaire were included. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The main outcome measure was the prevalence of self-reported cancer at baseline. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: DP networks were identified using a GGM. The GGM-identified networks were scored and categorized into tertiles, and their association with the prevalence of self-reported cancer was investigated using a multivariable logistic regression model. RESULTS: The GGM identified the following 4 DP networks: principal, oil-sweet, meat, and fruit. After adjusting for covariates, the odds of moderate and high consumption of foods in the oil-sweet DP for participants who self-reported cancer were 25% and 34% lower than those for participants who did not report a cancer diagnosis (odds ratio [OR] = 0.75, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.62-0.90 and OR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.53-0.81, respectively). Additionally, the odds of meat DP consumption in the self-reported cancer group was 29% lower than in participants who did not report a cancer diagnosis (OR = 0.71 and 95% CI = 0.57-0.88). In contrast, an increase in the odds of fruit DP consumption was observed for self-reported cancer participants (OR = 1.34 and 95% CI = 1.09-1.65). Similar results were observed among the female but not the male subjects. CONCLUSIONS: GGM is a novel method that can distinguish the direct pairwise correlation of food groups and control for the indirect effect of other foods. Future large-scale longitudinal population-based studies are needed to build on these findings in general populations.

4.
Int J Cancer ; 2020 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33326609

RESUMO

Associations of coffee and tea consumption with lung cancer risk have been inconsistent, and most lung cancer cases investigated were smokers. Included in this study were over 1.1 million participants from 17 prospective cohorts. Cox regression analyses were conducted to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Potential effect modifications by sex, smoking, race, cancer subtype and coffee type were assessed. After a median 8.6 years of follow-up, 20 280 incident lung cancer cases were identified. Compared with noncoffee and nontea consumption, HRs (95% CIs) associated with exclusive coffee drinkers (≥2 cups/d) among current, former and never smokers were 1.30 (1.15-1.47), 1.49 (1.27-1.74) and 1.35 (1.15-1.58), respectively. Corresponding HRs for exclusive tea drinkers (≥2 cups/d) were 1.16 (1.02-1.32), 1.10 (0.92-1.32) and 1.37 (1.17-1.61). In general, the coffee and tea associations did not differ significantly by sex, race or histologic subtype. Our findings suggest that higher consumption of coffee or tea is associated with increased lung cancer risk. However, these findings should not be assumed to be causal because of the likelihood of residual confounding by smoking, including passive smoking, and change of coffee and tea consumption after study enrolment.

5.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(11)2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33207660

RESUMO

We carried out a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the effects of both prediagnostic and postdiagnostic dietary intake on all-cause mortality and CRC-specific mortality among CRC survivors. An extensive search of PubMed and Embase was conducted to identify eligible studies. We applied a random-effects model to estimate the pooled relative risks (RRs)/hazard ratios (HRs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs). As a result, a total of 45 studies were included in the final analysis. Pooled effect sizes from at least three study populations showed that whole grains and calcium were inversely associated with all-cause mortality, with RRs/HRs (95% CIs) of 0.83 (0.69-0.99) and 0.84 (0.73-0.97), respectively. In contrast, a positive association between an unhealthy dietary pattern and both all-cause mortality (RR/HR = 1.47, 95% CI = 1.05-2.05) and CRC-specific mortality (RR/HR = 1.52, 95% CI = 1.13-2.06) was observed among CRC survivors. In the subgroup analysis by CRC diagnosis, prediagnostic and postdiagnostic dietary intake such as carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and fiber were observed to have different effects on all-cause mortality. Overall, an unhealthy dietary pattern increased the risks of both all-cause mortality and CRC-specific mortality. The role of prediagnostic and postdiagnostic intake of dietary elements such as macronutrients and fatty acids could be different in the risk of all-cause mortality.

6.
Nutrients ; 12(10)2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33092130

RESUMO

Statins and omega-3 supplementation have shown potential benefits in preventing cardiovascular disease (CVD), but their comparative effects on mortality outcomes, in addition to primary and secondary prevention and mixed population, have not been investigated. This study aimed to examine the effect of statins and omega-3 supplementation and indirectly compare the effects of statin use and omega-3 fatty acids on all-cause mortality and CVD death. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) from meta-analyses published until December 2019. Pooled relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to indirectly compare the effect of statin use versus omega-3 supplementation in a frequentist network meta-analysis. In total, 55 RCTs were included in the final analysis. Compared with placebo, statins were significantly associated with a decreased the risk of all-cause mortality (RR = 0.90, 95% CI = 0.86-0.94) and CVD death (RR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.80-0.92), while omega-3 supplementation showed a borderline effect on all-cause mortality (RR = 0.97, 95% CI = 0.94-1.01) but were significantly associated with a reduced risk of CVD death (RR = 0.92, 95% CI = 0.87-0.98) in the meta-analysis. The network meta-analysis found that all-cause mortality was significantly different between statin use and omega-3 supplementation for overall population (RR = 0.91, 95% CI = 0.85-0.98), but borderline for primary prevention and mixed population and nonsignificant for secondary prevention. Furthermore, there were borderline differences between statin use and omega-3 supplementation in CVD death in the total population (RR = 0.92, 95% CI = 0.82-1.04) and primary prevention (RR = 0.85, 95% CI = 0.68-1.05), but nonsignificant differences in secondary prevention (RR = 0.97, 95% CI = 0.66-1.43) and mixed population (RR = 0.92, 95% CI = 0.75-1.14). To summarize, statin use might be associated with a lower risk of all-cause mortality than omega-3 supplementation. Future direct comparisons between statin use and omega-3 supplementation are required to confirm the findings.

8.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(9)2020 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32961943

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of systemic therapies in the treatment of unresectable advanced or metastatic colorectal cancer. Predicted hazard ratios (HRs) and their 95% credible intervals (CrIs) for overall survival (OS) were calculated from the odds ratio (OR) for the overall response rate and/or HR for progression-free survival using multivariate random effects (MVRE) models. We performed a network meta-analysis (NMA) of 49 articles to compare the efficacy and safety of FOLFOX/FOLFIRI±bevacizumab (Bmab)/cetuximab (Cmab)/panitumumab (Pmab), and FOLFOXIRI/CAPEOX±Bmab. The NMA showed significant OS improvement with FOLFOX, FOLFOX+Cmab, and FOLFIRI+Cmab compared with that of FOLFIRI (HR = 0.84, 95% CrI = 0.73-0.98; HR = 0.76, 95% CrI = 0.62-0.94; HR = 0.80, 95% CrI = 0.66-0.96, respectively), as well as with FOLFOX+Cmab and FOLFIRI+Cmab compared with that of FOLFOXIRI (HR = 0.69, 95% CrI = 0.51-0.94 and HR = 0.73, 95% CrI = 0.54-0.97, respectively). The odds of adverse events grade ≥3 were significantly higher for FOLFOX+Cmab vs. FOLFIRI+Bmab (OR = 2.34, 95% CrI = 1.01-4.66). Higher odds of events were observed for FOLFIRI+Pmab in comparison with FOLFIRI (OR = 2.16, 95% CrI = 1.09-3.84) and FOLFIRI+Bmab (OR = 3.14, 95% CrI = 1.51-5.89). FOLFOX+Cmab and FOLFIRI+Bmab showed high probabilities of being first- and second-line treatments in terms of the efficacy and safety, respectively. The findings of the efficacy and safety comparisons may support the selection of appropriate treatments in clinical practice. PROSPERO registration: CRD42020153640.

9.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 14590, 2020 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32883994

RESUMO

The inflammatory process is known to increase the risk of gastric carcinogenesis, and both genetic and dietary factors are associated with inflammation. In the present study of 1,125 participants (373 cases and 752 controls), we determined whether the dietary inflammatory index (DII) is associated with the risk of gastric cancer (GC) and investigated whether a TNF polymorphism (rs1799964) modifies this association. Semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire derived data were used to calculate the DII scores. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using multivariable logistic models adjusted for confounders. When we stratified the data by sex, the association between GC and the DII was significant only among the women (OR, 2.27; 95% CI 1.25-4.19), and the DII effect on the risk of GC differed depending on the TNF genotype (OR, 2.30; 95% CI 1.27-4.24 in TT genotype; OR, 0.78; 95% CI 0.37-1.65 in CC + CT, p for interaction = 0.035). Furthermore, the association between the DII and GC was significant in the Helicobacter pylori-positive group; similarly, the effect differed based on the TNF genotype (OR, 1.76; 95% CI 1.13-2.73 in TT genotype; OR,0.98; 95% CI 0.54-1.77 in CT + CC, p for interaction = 0.034). In conclusion, rs1799964 may modify the effect of the DII on GC.

10.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(9)2020 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32937864

RESUMO

Although the microbiome has a potential role in gastric cancer (GC), little is known about microbial dysbiosis and its functions. This study aimed to observe the associations between the alterations in gastric microbial communities and GC risk. The study participants included 268 GC patients and 288 controls. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing was performed to characterize the microbiome. Streptococcus_NCVM and Prevotella melaninogenica species were highly enriched in cases and controls, respectively. Those who were in the third tertile of P. melaninogenica showed a significantly decreased risk of GC in total (odds ratio (OR): 0.91, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.38-0.96, p-trend = 0.071). Class Bacilli was phylogenetically enriched in cases, while phylum Actinobacteria, class Actinobacteria were related to the controls. The microbial dysbiosis index (MDI) was significantly higher for the cases compared with the healthy controls in the female population (p = 0.002). Females in the third tertile of the MDI showed a significantly increased risk of GC (OR: 2.66, 95% CI: 1.19-5.99, p-trend = 0.017). Secondary bile acid synthesis and biosynthesis of ansamycins pathways were highly abundant in cases and controls, respectively. Dysbiosis of gastric microbial communities is associated with an increased risk of GC specifically in females.

11.
Nutrients ; 12(9)2020 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32825393

RESUMO

Previous studies on the association between polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and cancer have focused on n-3 PUFAs. To investigate the association between intake or blood levels of n-6 PUFAs and cancer, we searched the PubMed and Embase databases up to March 2020 and conducted a meta-analysis. A total of 70 articles were identified. High blood levels of n-6 PUFAs were associated with an 8% lower risk of all cancers (relative risk (RR) = 0.92; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.86-0.98) compared to low blood levels of n-6 PUFAs. In the subgroup analyses by cancer site, type of n-6 PUFAs, and sex, the inverse associations were strong for breast cancer (RR = 0.87; 95% CI: 0.77-0.98), linoleic acid (LA) (RR = 0.91; 95% CI: 0.82-1.00), and women (RR = 0.88; 95% CI: 0.79-0.97). In the dose-response analysis, a 2% and 3% decrease in the risk of cancer was observed with a 5% increase in blood levels of n-6 PUFAs and LA, respectively. Thus, there was no significant association between n-6 PUFA intake and the risk of cancer. The pooled RR of cancer for the highest versus lowest category of n-6 PUFA intake was 1.02 (95% CI: 0.99-1.05). Evidence from prospective studies indicated that intake of n-6 PUFAs was not significantly associated with risk of cancer, but blood levels of n-6 PUFAs were inversely associated with risk of cancer.

12.
J Lipid Atheroscler ; 9(1): 205-229, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32821732

RESUMO

Objective: Previous studies have separately reported the contributions of dietary factors to the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and its markers, including blood pressure (BP) and lipid profile. This study systematically reviewed the current evidence on this issue in the Korean population. Methods: Sixty-two studies from PubMed and Embase were included in this meta-analysis. We performed a random-effects model to analyze pooled odds ratios (ORs) and hazard ratios (HRs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the consumption of 14 food items, three macro- and eight micro-nutrients, two dietary patterns, and three dietary indices. Results: An analysis of pooled effect sizes from at least four individual study populations showed significant associations between coffee consumption and CVD (OR/HR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.52-0.97) and elevated/high triglycerides (TG) (OR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.78-0.90), sugar-sweetened beverage intake and elevated BP (OR/HR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.09-1.33), and milk and dairy intake and elevated/high TG and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (OR/HR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.76-0.89 for both). Carbohydrate consumption and the low-carbohydrate-diet score were consistently related to an approximately 25% risk reduction for elevated TG and low HDL-C. A lower risk of elevated total cholesterol, but not low-density lipoprotein, was additionally observed for those with a higher low-carbohydrate-diet score. A healthy dietary pattern was only associated with a reduced risk of elevated TG in the Korea National Cancer Screenee Cohort (OR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.67-0.98). Conclusion: This study showed that milk and dairy and coffee had protective effects for CVD and its risk factors, such as BP and lipid profile, while sugar-sweetened beverages exerted harmful effects.

13.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(7)2020 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32650429

RESUMO

The combined effects of comorbidities can cause cancer incidence, while the effects of individual conditions, alone, might not. This study was conducted to investigate the joint impact of comorbidities on cancer incidence. The dietary score for energy-adjusted intake was calculated by applying a Gaussian graphical model and was then categorized into tertiles representing light, normal, and heavy eating behaviors. The risk point for cancer, according to the statuses of blood pressure, total cholesterol, fasting glucose, and glomerular filtration rate was computed from a Cox proportional hazard model adjusted for demographics and eating behavior. The comorbidity risk score was defined as the sum of the risk points for four comorbidity markers. We finally quantified the hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between the strata of the comorbidity risk score and cancer incidence. A total of 13,644 subjects were recruited from the Cancer Screenee Cohort from 2007-2014. The comorbidity risk score was associated with cancer incidence in a dose-dependent manner (HR = 2.15, 95% CI = 1.39, 3.31 for those scoring 16-30 vs. those scoring 0-8, P-trend < 0.001). Subgroup analysis still showed significant dose-dependent relationships (HR = 2.39, 95% CI = 1.18, 4.84 for males and HR = 1.99, 95% CI = 1.11, 3.59 for females, P-trend < 0.05). In summary, there was a dose-dependent impact of comorbidities on cancer incidence; Highlights: Previous studies have generally reported that hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes, and chronic kidney disease might predispose patients to cancer. Combining these chronic diseases into a single score, this study found a dose-dependent association between the data-driven comorbidity risk score and cancer incidence.

14.
Nutrients ; 12(8)2020 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32722395

RESUMO

Statins and omega-3 supplementation have been recommended for cardiovascular disease prevention, but comparative effects have not been investigated. This study aimed to summarize current evidence of the effect of statins and omega-3 supplementation on cardiovascular events. A meta-analysis and a network meta-analysis of 63 randomized controlled trials were used to calculate pooled relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the effects of specific statins and omega-3 supplementation compared with controls. Overall, the statin group showed significant risk reductions in total cardiovascular disease, coronary heart disease, myocardial infarction, and stroke; however, omega-3 supplementation significantly decreased the risks of coronary heart disease and myocardial infarction only, in the comparison with the control group. In comparison with omega-3 supplementation, pravastatin significantly reduced the risks of total cardiovascular disease (RR = 0.81, 95% CI = 0.72-0.91), coronary heart disease (RR = 0.75, 95% CI = 0.60-0.94), and myocardial infarction (RR = 0.71, 95% CI = 0.55-0.94). Risks of total cardiovascular disease, coronary heart disease, myocardial infarction, and stroke in the atorvastatin group were statistically lower than those in the omega-3 group, with RRs (95% CIs) of 0.80 (0.73-0.88), 0.64 (0.50-0.82), 0.75 (0.60-0.93), and 0.81 (0.66-0.99), respectively. The findings of this study suggest that pravastatin and atorvastatin may be more beneficial than omega-3 supplementation in reducing the risk of total cardiovascular disease, coronary heart disease, and myocardial infarction.

15.
Br J Cancer ; 123(4): 610-618, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32488137

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immunomodulatory cytokines and systemic inflammatory markers are important during cancer development and progression. This study investigated the association and prognostic impact of systemic cytokine profiles and inflammatory markers in colorectal cancer (CRC). METHODS: Interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL-6, IL-8, IL-9, IL-10, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) serum levels were measured using multiplex bead assays in CRC patients. Data on systemic inflammatory markers, such as the modified Glasgow prognostic score (mGPS), the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR), prognostic nutritional index (PNI) and fibrinogen, were collected. Survival analysis was performed to identify factors associated with progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). RESULTS: There were moderate-to-strong correlations within serum cytokines, as well as within systemic inflammatory markers, whereas the associations between serum cytokines and systemic inflammatory markers were generally weak. IL-8 and the LMR were independent significant prognostic factors for PFS and OS. The low IL-8 and high LMR group had the best survival (both PFS and OS) of all groups. CONCLUSIONS: Systemic cytokine profiles and inflammatory markers have relatively weak intergroup correlations. A composite classification of systemic cytokine profiles and inflammatory markers has an enhanced prognostic value in CRC.

16.
Eur J Nutr ; 2020 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32350654

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Dietary pattern analysis has been considered as an approach to capture the complex interactions of overall diet, which are often lost in studies of single dietary components (e.g., foods and nutrients). The aim of this study was to identify the major dietary patterns of Koreans via principal component analysis based on the food groups and to investigate the association between dietary patterns and gastric cancer (GC) risk. METHODS: In this study, participants were recruited from the National Cancer Center, Korea. Among them, 415 cases were diagnosed with early GC, and 830 controls were age- and sex-matched at a ratio of 1:2. To determine the subjects' dietary patterns, 34 predefined food groups based on the 106-item semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire (SQFFQ) were used. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated across the tertiles of dietary pattern scores using logistic regression models. RESULTS: The two dietary patterns derived in this study were named westernized and prudent. Those patterns explained 24.83% of the total variation in food intake. Higher scores on the prudent pattern was inversely associated with the risk of GC (OR [95% CI] for the highest vs. lowest tertiles: 0.58 [0.41-0.84], p for trend = 0.004). CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that adherence to the prudent dietary pattern represented by high loadings of vegetables and fruits, was associated with lower GC risk. Further studies with a prospective design and larger sample sizes are necessary.

17.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(4)2020 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32340406

RESUMO

Gaussian graphical models (GGMs) are novel approaches to deriving dietary patterns that assess how foods are consumed in relation to one another. We aimed to apply GGMs to identify dietary patterns and to investigate the associations between dietary patterns and gastric cancer (GC) risk in a Korean population. In this case-control study of 415 GC cases and 830 controls, food intake was assessed using a 106-item semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire that captured 33 food groups. The dietary pattern networks corresponding to the total population contained a main network and four subnetworks. For the vegetable and seafood network, those who were in the highest tertile of the network-specific score showed a significantly reduced risk of GC both in the total population (OR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.47-0.93, p for trend = 0.018) and in males (OR = 0.55, 95% CI = 0.34-0.89, p for trend = 0.012). Most importantly, the fruit pattern network was inversely associated with the risk of GC for the highest tertile (OR = 0.56, 95% CI = 0.38-0.81, p for trend = 0.002). The identified vegetable and seafood network and the fruit network showed a protective effect against GC development in Koreans.

18.
Public Health Nutr ; : 1-8, 2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32223781

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: There is limited evidence on the interaction by alcohol dehydrogenase 2 (ADH1B) (rs1229984) and aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) (rs671) regarding the associations of alcohol and a methyl diet (low folate and high alcohol intake) with cancer risk, partly because of rare polymorphisms in Western populations. DESIGN: In a case-control study, we estimated the ORs and 95 % CIs to evaluate the associations of ADH1B and ALDH2 genotypes with colorectal cancer (CRC) and the joint association between methyl diets and ADH1B and ALDH2 polymorphisms with CRC risk using logistic regression models. SETTING: A hospital-based case-control study. PARTICIPANTS: In total, 1001 CRC cases and 899 cancer-free controls admitted to two university hospitals. RESULTS: We found that alcohol intake increased the risk of CRC; OR (95 % CI) was 2·02 (1·41, 2·87) for ≥60 g/d drinkers compared with non-drinkers (Ptrend < 0·001). The associations for two polymorphisms with CRC were not statistically significant. However, we found a potential interaction of ALDH2 with methyl diets and CRC. We observed a 9·08-fold (95 % CI 1·93, 42·60) higher risk of CRC for low-methyl diets compared with high-methyl diets among individuals with an A allele of ALDH2, but the association was not apparent among those with ALDH2 GG (Pinteraction = 0·02). CONCLUSIONS: Our data support the evidence that gene-methyl diet interactions may be involved in CRC risk in East Asian populations, showing that a low-methyl diet increased the risk of CRC among individuals with an A allele of ALDH2.

19.
Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek ; 113(7): 1009-1021, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32306134

RESUMO

Two bacterial strains, designated 2DFWM-2T and FW10M-9T, were isolated from gut of larva of Protaetia brevitarsis seulensis grown at the National Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Wanju-gun, South Korea. 16S rRNA and rpoB gene sequences showed that strain 2DFWM-2T formed a separate branch with Lactococcus allomyrinae 1JSPR-7T in the genus Lactococcus, adjacent to a group of Lactococcus lactis subspecies. ANI and dDDH values between 2DFWM-2T and Lactococcus allomyrinae 1JSPR-7T were 93.30% and 53.20%, respectively. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain FW10M-9T was classified into the genus Xylanimonas revealing 96.9-98.5% sequence similarities with the Xylanimonas species. The ANI values of strain FW10M-9T with the closely species Xylanimonas pachnodae NBRC 107786T, Xylanimonas allomyrinae 2JSPR-7T, Isoptericola variabilis JCM 11754T and Xylanimonas cellulosilytica DSM 15894T was 81.5%, 81.2%, 81.0% and 84.1%, respectively, and the dDDH values estimated by GGDC was 24.3%, 24.3%, 29.3% and 28.1%, respectively. On the basis of the phenotypic and genotypic data, it is proposed that strain 2DFWM-2T represents a novel species of the genus Lactococcus, for which the name Lactococcus protaetiae sp. nov. is proposed, and the type strain is 2DFWM-2T (= KACC 19320T = NBRC 113069T). And, strain FW10M-9T represents a novel species of the genus Xylanimonas, for which the name Xylanimonas protaetiae sp. nov. is proposed, and the type strain is FW10M-9T (= KACC 19331T = NBRC 113053T).

20.
J Clin Med ; 9(4)2020 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32283699

RESUMO

This study aims to investigate the efficacy of targeted therapies in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) by using a network meta-analysis of clinical trials. PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and Clinicaltrials.gov were searched by using keywords related to the topic on 19 September 2018. Two investigators independently selected relevant trials by pre-determined criteria. A pooled response ratio (RR) for overall response rate (ORR) and a hazard ratio (HR) for progression-free survival (PFS) were calculated based on both the Bayesian and frequentist approaches. A total of 128 clinical trials with 39,501 participants were included in the final analysis of 14 therapeutic groups. Compared with chemotherapy, both ORR and PFS were significantly improved for afatinib, alectinib, and crizotinib, while only PFS was significantly improved for cabozantinib, ceritinib, gefitinib, and osimertinib. Consistency was observed between the direct and indirect comparisons based on the Bayesian approach statistically and the frequentist approach visually. Cabozantinib and alectinib showed the highest probability for the first-line treatment ranking in ORR (62.5%) and PFS (87.5%), respectively. The current network meta-analysis showed the comprehensive evidence-based comparative efficacy of different types of targeted therapies, which would help clinicians use targeted therapies in clinical practice.

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