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1.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; : e2103484, 2021 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34837480

RESUMO

A biological receptor serves as sensory transduction from an external stimulus to an electrical signal. It allows humans to better match the environment by filtering out repetitive innocuous information and recognize potentially damaging stimuli through key features, including adaptive and maladaptive behaviors. Herein, for the first time, the authors develop substantial artificial receptors involving both adaptive and maladaptive behaviors using diffusive memristor. Metal-oxide nanorods (NR) as a switching matrix enable the electromigration of an active metal along the surface of the NRs under electrical stimulation, resulting in unique surface-dominated switching dynamics with the advantage of fast Ag migration and fine controllability of the conductive filament. To experimentally demonstrate its potential application, a thermoreceptor system is constructed using memristive artificial receptors. The proposed surface-dominated diffusive memristor allows the direct emulation of the biological receptors, which represents an advance in the bioinspired technology adopted in creating artificial intelligence systems.

2.
Biomolecules ; 11(11)2021 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34827648

RESUMO

The efficacy of α-cubebenol isolated from Schisandra chinensis has been studied in several diseases, including cecal ligation, puncture challenge-induced sepsis, and degranulation of neutrophils. To identify the novel functions of α-cubebenol on lipid metabolism, alterations on the regulation of lipogenesis, lipolysis, and inflammatory response were observed in 3T3-L1 adipocytes treated with α-cubebenol. Most lipogenic targets, including lipid accumulation, level of lipogenic transcription factors, and expression of lipogenic regulators, were suppressed in MDI (3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine, dexamethasone, and insulin)-stimulated 3T3-L1 adipocytes treated with α-cubebenol without significant cytotoxicity. In addition, similar inhibition effects were observed in the iNOS-induced COX-2 mediated pathway and NLRP3 inflammasome pathway of MDI-stimulated 3T3-L1 cells treated with α-cubebenol. Lipolytic targets, such as cAMP concentration, expression of adenylyl cyclase and PDE4, and their downstream signaling pathway, in MDI-stimulated 3T3-L1 cells were stimulated by the α-cubebenol treatment. The levels of transcription factors and related proteins for ß-oxidation were significantly higher in the MDI + α-cubebenol treated group than in the MDI + Vehicle treated group. These results show that α-cubebenol has a novel role as a lipogenesis inhibitor, lipolysis and ß-oxidation stimulator, and inflammasome suppressor in MDI-stimulated 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

3.
Lab Anim Res ; 37(1): 31, 2021 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34809705

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The oral administration of polystyrene-microplastics (PS-MPs) causes chronic constipation of ICR mice, but there are no reports on their effects on the inflammatory response in the colon. To determine if the oral administration of MPs causes inflammation in the colon, the changes in the apoptosis-associated speck like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain (ASC)-inflammasome pathway, nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) signaling pathway, and inflammatory cytokine expression were evaluated in the mid colon of ICR mice treated with 0.5 µm size PS-MPs for two weeks. RESULTS: The thicknesses of the mucosa, muscle, flat luminal surface, and crypt layer were decreased significantly (p < 0.01) in the mid colon of the MPs treated group compared to the Vehicle treated group. On the other hand, a remarkable increase in the expression levels of NOD-like receptor pyrin domain-containing protein (NLRP) 3, ASC, and Cleaved Caspase (Cas)-1 protein was observed in the MPs treated group. In addition, similar increasing pattern in the levels of p-NF-κB and phospho-inhibitory subunit of NF-κB (p-IkB) α protein was detected. Four inflammatory cytokines, including NF-κB, interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and IL-1ß, showed an increased expression level after the MPs treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Therefore, the present study suggests that PS-MPs can be a novel cause of an inflammatory response in the mid colon of ICR mice.

4.
J Clin Med ; 10(22)2021 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34830707

RESUMO

Grip strength is a simple indicator of physical strength and is closely associated with systemic health. Conversely, oral health has also been reported to have an important association with systemic health. The present study aimed to assess the effect of oral health status on relative handgrip strength. The data pertaining to 11,337 participants were obtained by means of the seventh Korea National Health and Nutrition Survey (2016 to 2018). Oral health status was evaluated on the basis of the presence of periodontitis and number of remaining teeth (PT, present teeth). Relative handgrip strength was evaluated by means of a digital dynamometer and the value pertaining to the lower 25% of measurements was used as the quartile by gender. The association between oral health status and relative handgrip strength was evaluated by means of multiple regression analysis and multiple logistic regression analysis with covariate correction. Analysis of the crude model revealed a significant association in the group of patients with periodontal disease (odds ratio = 1.69, 95% confidence interval: 1.51-1.89). However, analysis with adjusted covariates revealed that the association was not statistically significant. Moreover, statistical analysis after adjustment for covariates revealed a consistent correlation between PT and relative handgrip strength as categorical and continuous variables. Hence, the present study observed a significant association between oral health status and relative handgrip strength among the Korean adult population.

5.
Lab Anim Res ; 37(1): 32, 2021 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34839833

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study was undertaken to compare the sensitivities of mice strains during tumor induction by transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALEN)-mediated Trp53 mutant gene. Alterations of their tumorigenic phenotypes including survival rate, tumor formation and tumor spectrum, were assessed in FVB/N-Trp53em2Hwl/Korl and C57BL/6-Trp53em1Hwl/Korl knockout (KO) mice over 16 weeks. RESULTS: Most of the physiological phenotypes factors were observed to be higher in FVB/N-Trp53em2Hwl/Korl KO mice than C57BL/6-Trp53em1Hwl/Korl KO mice, although there were significant differences in the body weight, immune organ weight, number of red blood cells, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), platelet count (PLT), total bilirubin (Bil-T) and glucose (Glu) levels in the KO mice relative to the wild type (WT) mice. Furthermore, numerous solid tumors were also observed in various regions of the surface skin of FVB/N-Trp53em2Hwl/Korl KO mice, but were not detected in C57BL/6-Trp53em1Hwl/Korl KO mice. The most frequently observed tumor in both the Trp53 KO mice was malignant lymphoma, while soft tissue teratomas and hemangiosarcomas were only detected in the FVB/N-Trp53em2Hwl/Korl KO mice. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that the spectrum and incidence of tumors induced by the TALEN-mediated Trp53 mutant gene is greater in FVB/N-Trp53em2Hwl/Korl KO mice than C57BL/6-Trp53em1Hwl/Korl KO mice over 16 weeks.

6.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 9: 734950, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34660591

RESUMO

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membranous structures containing bioactive molecules, secreted by most cells into the extracellular environment. EVs are classified by their biogenesis mechanisms into two major subtypes: ectosomes (enriched in large EVs; lEVs), budding directly from the plasma membrane, which is common in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, and exosomes (enriched in small EVs; sEVs) generated through the multivesicular bodies via the endomembrane system, which is unique to eukaryotes. Even though recent proteomic analyses have identified key proteins associated with EV subtypes, there has been no systematic analysis, thus far, to support the general validity and utility of current EV subtype separation methods, still largely dependent on physical properties, such as vesicular size and sedimentation. Here, we classified human EV proteomic datasets into two main categories based on distinct centrifugation protocols commonly used for isolating sEV or lEV fractions. We found characteristic, evolutionarily conserved profiles of sEV and lEV proteins linked to their respective biogenetic origins. This may suggest that the evolutionary trajectory of vesicular proteins may result in a membership bias toward specific EV subtypes. Protein-protein interaction (PPI) network analysis showed that vesicular proteins formed distinct clusters with proteins in the same EV fraction, providing evidence for the existence of EV subtype-specific protein recruiters. Moreover, we identified functional modules enriched in each fraction, including multivesicular body sorting for sEV, and mitochondria cellular respiration for lEV proteins. Our analysis successfully captured novel features of EVs embedded in heterogeneous proteomics studies and suggests specific protein markers and signatures to be used as quality controllers in the isolation procedure for subtype-enriched EV fractions.

7.
Soa Chongsonyon Chongsin Uihak ; 32(4): 129-136, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34671185

RESUMO

Objectives: To investigate the relationship between brain structure and empathy in early adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Methods: Nineteen early adolescents with ADHD and 20 healthy controls underwent 3T MRI. All the participants were assessed for different aspects of empathy using measures including the Interpersonal Reactivity Index and Empathy Quotient. Cortical thickness and subcortical structural volume based on T1-weighted scans were analyzed using FreeSurfer. Results: Cognitive empathy (t=-2.52, p=0.016) and perspective taking (t=-2.10, p=0.043) were impaired in the ADHD group compared with the control group. The cluster encompassing the left posterior insular, supramarginal, and transverse temporal cortices [cluster-wise p-value (CWP)=0.001], which are associated with emotional empathy, was significantly smaller in the ADHD group, and the volume of the left nucleus accumbens was greater than that of the control group (F=10.12, p=0.003, effect size=0.22). In the control group, the left superior temporal (CWP=0.002) and lingual cortical (CWP=0.035) thicknesses were positively associated with cognitive empathy, while the right amygdala volume was positively associated with empathic concern (Coef=14.26, t=3.92, p=0.001). However, there was no significant correlation between empathy and brain structure in the ADHD group. Conclusion: The ADHD group had a smaller volume of the cortical area associated with emotional empathy than the control group, and there was no brain region showing significant correlation with empathy, unlike in the control group.

8.
Med Sci Monit ; 27: e933027, 2021 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34702795

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Laparoscopic surgery has several benefits, but it requires prolonged carbon dioxide (CO2) insufflation. Several factors affect the accuracy of continuous and noninvasive hemoglobin (SpHb) monitoring, but the effects of CO2 insufflation are undetermined. This study investigated the effect of CO2 insufflation on SpHb monitoring in laparoscopic surgery. MATERIAL AND METHODS Twenty patients undergoing laparoscopic gastrectomy were enrolled. Anesthesia was maintained using sevoflurane and remifentanil within an end-tidal CO2 of 30-45 mmHg. The CO2 insufflation was maintained at 12 mmHg using CO2. SpHb was monitored with a Radical-7 Pulse CO-Oximeter, and laboratory hemoglobin (tHb) was analyzed using a satellite blood analyzer. RESULTS Forty paired measurements were analyzed. The mean perfusion index, SpHb, and tHb were 3.10±1.77%, 10.92±1.48 g/dL, and 11.51±0.88 g/dL, respectively. SpHb underestimated tHb with a bias (precision) of -0.59 (1.28 g/dL), and the 95% limit of agreement was wide (-3.11 to 1.92 g/dL). SpHb was moderately correlated with tHb (r=0.50, 95% CI: 0.23 to 0.70). The concordance rate was 67%. ΔSpHb was not correlated with ΔtHb (r=0.29, 95% CI: -0.18 to -0.65). A similar bias, wider limits of agreement, a higher |SpHb-tHb|, but more significant correlation between SpHb and tHb were observed for the "PaCO2 <40 mmHg" range compared with the "40 mmHg ≤PaCO2" range. CONCLUSIONS SpHb may have an acceptable accuracy but has a weak trending ability in the presence of CO2 insufflation, and it can be affected by PaCO2. Further research on the effects of CO2 insufflation on SpHb is needed.

9.
Mol Nutr Food Res ; : e2100549, 2021 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34710274

RESUMO

SCOPE: Allulose is shown to increase the muscle weight in diet-induced obese mice. However, there are no studies on the effects of allulose in age-associated sarcopenia. This study aims to elucidate the mechanisms of action for allulose in age associated by analyzing the transcriptional patterns in aged mice. METHODS AND RESULTS: The 48-week-old mice are fed with AIN-93diet containing allulose for 12 weeks. Allulose supplementation increases the muscle mass and grip strength in aged mice. Allulose increases the insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and its downstream factor expressions which 40 are related protein synthesis, while inhibits the myostatin expression related protein degradation. In mRNA-seq analysis, allulose supplementation significantly decreases in Adiponectin, Adipsin, cell death inducing DFFA like effector (CIDEC), Haptoglobin, Neuroglobin, and stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1) and increases in cytokine-inducible SH2-containing protein (CISH) and ceramide synthase 1 (CerS1) that are regulate protein turn over in gastrocnemius. Also, allulose alleviates autophagy in muscle with regulated mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway and increases the anti-oxidant enzyme activity. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that allulose improves the age-associated sarcopenia with enhancing antioxidant properties by altering mRNA and protein expression.

10.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(19)2021 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34638295

RESUMO

The biological behavior of sebaceous carcinoma (SeC) is relatively indolent; however, local invasion or distant metastasis is sometimes reported. Nevertheless, a lack of understanding of the genetic background of SeC makes it difficult to apply effective systemic therapy. This study was designed to investigate major genetic alterations in SeCs in Korean patients. A total of 29 samples, including 20 ocular SeCs (SeC-Os) and 9 extraocular SeCs (SeC-EOs), were examined. Targeted next-generation sequencing tests including 171 cancer-related genes were performed. TP53 and PIK3CA genes were frequently mutated in both SeC-Os and SeC-EOs with slight predominance in SeC-Os, whereas the NOTCH1 gene was more commonly mutated in SeC-EOs. In clinical correlation, mutations in RUNX1 and ATM were associated with development of distant metastases, and alterations in MSH6 and BRCA1 were associated with inferior progression-free survival (all p < 0.05). In conclusion, our study revealed distinct genetic alterations between SeC-Os and SeC-EOs and some important prognostic molecular markers. Mutations in potentially actionable genes, including EGFR, ERBB2, and mismatch repair genes, were noted, suggesting consideration of a clinical trial in intractable cases.

11.
Polymers (Basel) ; 13(19)2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34641158

RESUMO

This work introduces a facile geometry-controlled method for the fabrication of embossed and engraved polymeric moth-eye-inspired nanostructures in imprinting molds using anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) templates, resulting in a novel anti-reflective transparent coating. The moth-eye nanostructures are prepared directly on the surface of a flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate. As a prerequisite procedure, a UV-curable polyurethane acrylate resin is spun on the PET. The shape of the moth-eye nanostructures can then be adjusted by controlling the size and shape of the nanopores in the AAO templates. Both embossed and concaved polymer moth-eye nanostructures were successfully mounted on a PET substrate. Embossed polymer replica molds were prepared using the AAO master templates in combination with an imprinting process. As revealed by field-emission electron microscope (FE-SEM) images, conical nanopatterns in the AAO template with a diameter of ~90 nm and a depth of ~100 nm, create a homogeneous embossed morphology in the polymer moth-eye nanostructure. The polymeric molds with the depths of 300 and 500 nm revealed the amalgamated structures in their apexes. In addition, a dip-imprinting process of the polymeric layers was implemented to yield a concaved mold by assembly on the surface of the 100 nm embossed polymer mold substrate. Considering that the embossed structures may be crumbled due to their protuberant shapes, the concaved geometries can have an advantage of stability in a certain application concerning physical degradation along with a higher transmission by ~2%, despite somewhat nonuniform structure. The experimental and theoretical results of this study indicate that this polymer layer has the potential for use in anti-reflective coating applications in transparent films.

12.
Brain Sci ; 11(9)2021 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34573252

RESUMO

A substantial amount of amyloid-beta (Aß) accumulates in the occipital cortices; however, it draws less attention. We investigated the clinical implications of Aß accumulation in the occipital lobes in the Alzheimer's disease (AD) continuum. [18F]-Florbetaben amyloid PET scans were performed in a total of 121 AD or amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) patients. Of the 121 patients, 74 Aß positive patients were divided into occipital Aß positive (OCC+) and occipital Aß negative (OCC-) groups based on Aß accumulation in the bilateral occipital lobes. The OCC+ group (41/74, 55.4%) was younger and had a younger age at onset than the OCC- group. The OCC+ group also had an increased standard uptake value ratio in the occipital lobes and greater cortical thinning in relevant areas. The OCC+ group had a higher global deterioration scale, lower performance for the copy, immediate recall, delayed recall, and recognition in Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure tests than the OCC- group, although both groups had similar disease durations. AD or aMCI patients in the OCC+ group exhibited features noted in early onset AD with relevant neuropsychological and image findings. Occipital Aß positivity in amyloid PET scans need to be considered as an underestimated marker of early onset AD continuum.

13.
J Pers Med ; 11(9)2021 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34575664

RESUMO

Remifentanil has been used to suppress peri-extubation cough. Palonosetron, a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, is an effective antiemetic, and 5-HT receptors mediate the cough reflex. We assessed the impact of palonosetron on effect-site concentration (Ce) of remifentanil for preventing emergence cough in females. Forty-five female patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy randomly received 0.075 mg of palonosetron (n = 21) or normal saline (n = 24) intravenously at the end of surgery. The remifentanil Ce for 50% (EC50) and for 95% (EC95) of patients were estimated via Dixon's up-and-down method or isotonic regression. Using Dixon's method, EC50 in the control group (1.33 ± 0.38 ng/mL) was comparable to that of the palonosetron group (1.42 ± 0.75 ng/mL) (p = 0.813). Using isotonic regression, EC50 (83% CIs) and EC95 (95% CIs) did not reveal significant differences between the control and the palonosetron groups (1.17 (0.86-1.43) and 1.90 (1.45-1.96) ng/mL and 0.88 (0.78-1.23) and 2.43 (1.94-2.47) ng/mL, respectively). No difference was found in the remifentanil Ce to suppress emergence cough in the palonosetron group compared with the control group. It may indicate no effect of palonosetron on antitussive activity of remifentanil.

14.
Psychiatry Investig ; 18(9): 904-912, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500504

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Several predictors of unfavorable pharmacological treatment response (PTR) in panic disorder (PD) patients have been suggested, such as the duration of the illness, presence of agoraphobia, depression, being a woman, and early trauma. This study aimed to examine whether pathological worry is associated with PTR in PD patients. METHODS: This study included 335 PD patients and 418 healthy controls (HCs). The Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ), the Early Trauma Inventory Self Report-Short Form (ETISR-SF), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Panic Disorder Severity Scale (PDSS), and Anxiety Sensitivity Inventory-Revised (ASI-R) were administered. We measured the PTR at 8 weeks and 6 months. Student t-test, chisquare tests, Pearson's correlation analyses, and binary logistic regression model were used. RESULTS: Our results showed that the total scores of the PSWQ correlated with the ETISR-SF, BDI, and ASI-R were significantly higher in patients with PD compared with HCs. The PSWQ and BDI could predict unfavorable PTR at 6 months in PD patients. CONCLUSION: This is the first study to demonstrate that pathological worry may contribute to poor long-term PTR in PD patients. Therefore, our research suggests that clinicians must be aware of worry to optimize PTR for PD patients.

15.
Epilepsy Behav ; 124: 108318, 2021 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34560359

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We investigated sex differences in the effect of seizures on social anxiety in persons with epilepsy. METHOD: In this cross-sectional multicenter study, social anxiety was measured using the short forms of the Social Phobia Scale (SPS-6) and Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS-6). SPS-6 scores ≥ 9 and SIAS-6 scores ≥ 12 were considered to indicate social phobia and social interaction anxiety, respectively. The Patient Health Questionnaire-9, Stigma Scale-Revised, and Family Adaptation-Partnership-Growth-Affection-Resolve scale were also completed. A logistic regression analysis with an interaction term was used to analyze the data. RESULTS: Out of 285 participants, a SPS-6 score ≥ 9 and a SIAS-6 score ≥ 12 were noted in 62 (21.8%) and 36 (12.6%) of participants, respectively. There was no difference in the prevalence of social anxiety between men and women. Intractable seizures and lack of seizure freedom were associated with a SPS-6 score ≥ 9 and a SIAS-6 score ≥ 12, but statistical significance was lost in the adjusted models. However, intractable seizures and lack of seizure freedom significantly interacted with sex for a SPS-6 score ≥ 9 (p = 0.018) and a SIAS-6 score ≥ 12 (p = 0.048) in both the separate and adjusted models. Specifically, intractable seizures tended to be positively associated with SPS-6 scores ≥ 9 than non-intractable seizures in men only (odds ratio = 2.602, p = 0.068), whereas lack of seizure freedom tended to be negatively associated with SIAS-6 scores ≥ 12 than seizure freedom in women only (odds ratio = 4.804, p = 0.053). CONCLUSION: We found significant sex differences in seizure effects on social anxiety. Intractable seizures were associated with social phobia in men, whereas lack of seizure freedom in the last year was associated with social interaction anxiety in women.

16.
J Nephrol ; 34(5): 1457-1465, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34487334

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Additional research is warranted for the clinical significance of post-transplant hypertension and related antihypertensive medication use in kidney transplant (KT) recipients. METHODS: This observational study included nationwide KT recipients who maintained a functioning graft for at least 1 year after KT in South Korea, observed between 2008 and 2017. The use of antihypertensive medications lasting between 6 months and 1 year was the main exposure, and those who had inconsistent/transient use of antihypertensive drugs were excluded. The prognostic outcome included death-censored graft failure (DCGF), death-with functioning graft (DWFG), and major adverse cerebrocardiovascular events (MACCEs). RESULTS: We included 8,014 patients without post-transplant hypertension and 6,114 recipients who received treatment for hypertension in the post-transplant period. Those with post-transplant hypertension had a significantly higher risk of DCGF than those without [adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 1.27 (1.09-1.48)]. Post-transplant hypertension patients who required multiple drugs showed a significantly higher risk of DWFG [HR 1.57 (1.17-2.10)] and MACCE [HR 1.35 (1.01-1.81)] than the controls. Among the single-agent users, those who received beta-blockers showed a significantly higher risk of DCGF, although the risks of DWFG or MACCE were similar between the types of antihypertensive agents. Among the multiple agent users, the prognosis was similar, regardless of the prescribed types of antihypertensive agents. CONCLUSION: Post-transplant hypertension was associated with poor post-transplant prognosis, particularly when multiple types of medications were required for treatment. During initial prescription of antihypertensive medication, clinicians may consider that beta-blockers were associated with a higher risk of DCGF in the single-agent users.


Assuntos
Hipertensão , Transplante de Rim , Anti-Hipertensivos/efeitos adversos , Rejeição de Enxerto , Sobrevivência de Enxerto , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Transplante de Rim/efeitos adversos , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco , Transplantados
17.
Menopause ; 28(11): 1225-1232, 2021 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34520413

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Although menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) is the most effective treatment for menopausal symptoms, menopausal women hesitate to start MHT due to concerns about adverse events. Recently, however, it has been recommended to use it for appropriate patients who have been evaluated for baseline diseases, age, and timing of initiation. We aimed to investigate the association of MHT with cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and type 2 diabetes among middle-aged postmenopausal women in Korea. METHODS: Data were collected from the National Health Insurance Service database in Korea from 2002 to 2016. A total of 58,060 postmenopausal women (including 8,013 [13.8%] MHT users and 50,047 [86.2%] nonusers) were included. The time-dependent Cox regression model with a 1-year latency period was used to evaluate the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of the associations of MHT with CVDs and type 2 diabetes outcomes. Subgroup analyses by regimen type and cumulative duration were conducted. RESULTS: In the multivariate-adjusted model, MHT was not significantly associated with CVDs (HR = 1.085, 95% CI: 0.899-1.310) or type 2 diabetes (HR = 1.104, 95% CI: 0.998-1.221). Differential effects were not observed by regimen type, cumulative duration, and years since menopause subgroups. Sensitivity analyses also did not show adverse events by MHT on CVDs and type 2 diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: Although protective effects of MHT against CVDs or type 2 diabetes were not observed among postmenopausal women who had screened underlying diseases, our results may contribute to reducing the current concerns about the use of MHT for middle-aged postmenopausal women in Korea.

18.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0255020, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34351955

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hemodialysis is a life-saving renal replacement treatment for patients with chronic kidney disease, but various complications occur during hemodialysis and associated procedures. This study was conducted to analyze the specific characteristics of hemodialysis-related complications and malpractice that have led to legal disputes. METHODS: Judgments from cases litigated between 1991 and 2019 due to complications related to hemodialysis or vascular access were analyzed using the database of the Korean Supreme Court Judgment System. RESULTS: Of 32 dialysis-related litigation cases, 14 cases were dismissed and malpractice was recognized in 18 cases. Among all cases and those in which malpractice was recognized, the most common clinical complication was associated with central venous catheter (CVC) insertion (25.0% and 42.9%, respectively). In 22 of 32 (68.8%) cases, complications occurred before or after (not during) dialysis, and performance error was the most common clinical error leading to legal disputes (58.3%). Complications resulted in death in 59.4% of cases, and CVC-related complications were associated with the largest proportion (63.2%) of deaths. CONCLUSIONS: Hemodialysis was implicated in various medical disputes, and CVC-related complications were the most common and serious adverse events. Clinicians' awareness of the incidence and severity of possible complications of hemodialysis procedures should be increased.


Assuntos
Julgamento , Imperícia/legislação & jurisprudência , Diálise Renal/efeitos adversos , Dispositivos de Acesso Vascular/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , República da Coreia
19.
BMB Rep ; 54(11): 557-562, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34353430

RESUMO

Microglial activation is closely associated with neuroinflammatory pathologies. The nucleotide-binding and oligomerization domain-like receptor containing a pyrin domain 3 (NLRP3) inflammasomes are highly organized intracellular sensors of neuronal alarm signaling. NLRP3 inflammasomes activate nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) and reactive oxygen species (ROS), which induce inflammatory responses. Moreover, NLRP3 dysfunction is a common feature of chronic inflammatory diseases. The present study investigated the effect of a novel thiazol derivative, N-cyclooctyl-5-methylthiazol-2-amine hydrobromide (KHG26700), on inflammatory responses in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated BV-2 microglial cells. KHG26700 significantly attenuated the expression of several pro-inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1ß, and interleukin-6, in these cells, as well as the LPS-induced increases in NLRP3, NF-κB, and phospho-IkBα levels. KHG26700 also suppressed the LPS-induced increases in protein levels of autophagy protein 5 (ATG5), microtubule- associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3), and beclin-1, as well as downregulating the LPS-enhanced levels of ROS, lipid peroxidation, and nitric oxide. These results suggest that the anti-inflammatory effects of KHG26700 may be due, at least in part, to the regulation of the NLRP3-mediated signaling pathway during microglial activation. [BMB Reports 2021; 54(11): 557-562].

20.
Atherosclerosis ; 337: 59-65, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34429195

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Cardiovascular disease is the main cause of death in end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) patients. We aimed to explore the association between statin initiation after starting dialysis and all-cause mortality in statin-naïve ESKD patients. METHODS: We analyzed nationwide claims data of incident dialysis patients from 2010 to 2017 in South Korea. Patients who had previous cardiovascular events or were administered statins before dialysis were excluded. The study group included dialysis patients receiving statins within 1 year after dialysis initiation. The control group was organized after propensity-score matching with age, sex, time of dialysis initiation, and underlying diabetes mellitus and hypertension. The main outcomes were all-cause mortality and major cardiovascular events. RESULTS: We included 1596 patients who started statin treatment and 1:1 matched statin-nonusers. During the 9438 person-year follow-up, 468 deaths and 264 major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) occurred. Statin initiation was associated with a reduced risk of all-cause mortality (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 0.72, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.60-0.87, p = 0.001), but not with MACE incidence (aHR 1.06, 95% CI 0.83-1.36, p = 0.62). In particular, patients prescribed the recommended dosage of statins according to the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes guidelines showed the lowest mortality risk (aHR 0.55, 95% CI 0.40-0.75, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Statin initiation was associated with lower risk of all-cause mortality in statin-naïve ESKD patients. As indication bias may be present in observational study setting, further prospective studies are warranted to validate the association of statin initiation with mortality in incident dialysis cases.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases , Falência Renal Crônica , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Falência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Pontuação de Propensão , Diálise Renal , Estudos Retrospectivos
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