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1.
J Virol Methods ; 299: 114344, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34742743

RESUMO

Waterborne epidemics of human hepatitis virus A and E (HAV and HEV) have been reported worldwide. Molecular biology techniques, such as reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), have been widely used to detect the two hepatitis viruses. However, comparative studies of various types of samples are needed, and different environmental factors, including the low copy pathogens, presence of PCR inhibitors in the sample, unknown non-specific reaction with template, and sequence diversity leading to new variants in viruses, should be considered. In addition, standard positive material is required to determine the accuracy of the PCR and should be able to distinguish between false and real positives. In this study, we developed RT-PCR primer sets and optimised standard templates for HAV and HEV detection to address the above concerns associated with test sensitivity and possible PCR inhibition. Finally, previously reported diagnostic methods of HAV and HEV were compared and an applicability test using groundwater was performed. The nested RT-PCR developed in this study is expected to contribute to assess water safety by monitoring HAV and HEV in non-disinfected water, like groundwater.

2.
Hum Mol Genet ; 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34850884

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH) involves necrosis of bone and bone marrow of the femoral head caused by ischemia with unknown etiology. Previous genetic studies on ONFH failed to produce consistent results, presumably because ONFH has various causes with different genetic backgrounds and the underlying diseases confounded the associations. Steroid-associated ONFH (S-ONFH) accounts for one-half of all ONFH, and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a representative disease underlying S-ONFH. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to identify genetic risk factors for S-ONFH in patients with SLE. METHODS: We conducted a two-staged GWAS on 636 SLE patients with S-ONFH and 95 588 non-SLE controls. Among the novel loci identified, we determined S-ONFH specific loci by comparing allele frequencies between SLE patients without S-ONFH and non-SLE controls. We also used Korean datasets comprising 148 S-ONFH cases and 37 015 controls to assess overall significance. We evaluated the functional annotations of significant variants by in-silico analyses. RESULTS: The Japanese GWAS identified four significant loci together with 12 known SLE susceptibility loci. The four significant variants showed comparable effect sizes on S-ONFH compared with SLE controls and non-SLE controls. Three of the four loci, MIR4293/MIR1265 (OR = 1.99, P-value = 1.1 × 10-9), TRIM49/NAALAD2 (OR = 1.65, P-value = 4.8 × 10-8) and MYO16 (OR = 3.91, P-value = 4.9 × 10-10), showed significant associations in the meta-analysis with Korean datasets. Bioinformatics analyses identified MIR4293, NAALAD2 and MYO16 as candidate causal genes. MIR4293 regulates a PPARG-related adipogenesis pathway relevant to S-ONFH. CONCLUSIONS: We identified three novel susceptibility loci for S-ONFH in SLE.

3.
J Clin Med ; 10(22)2021 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34830734

RESUMO

Older patients with pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis (PVO) usually have more medical comorbidities compared with younger patients, and present with advanced infections from different causative organisms. To aid surgical decision-making, we compared surgical outcomes of older patients with PVO to those who underwent nonoperative treatment. We identified the risk factors for adverse post-operative outcomes, and analyzed the clinical risks from further spinal instrumentation. This retrospective comparative study included 439 patients aged ≥75 years with PVO. Multivariable analysis was performed to compare treatment outcomes among three groups: 194, 130, and 115 patients in the non-operative, non-instrumented, and instrumented groups, respectively. The risk factors for adverse outcomes after surgical treatment were evaluated using a logistic regression model, and the estimates of the multivariable models were internally validated using bootstrap samples. Recurrence and mortality of these patients were closely associated with neurologic deficits, and increased surgical invasiveness, resulting from additional spinal instrumentation, did not increase the risk of recurrence or mortality. We propose that surgical treatment for these patients should focus on improving neurologic deficits through immediate and sufficient removal of abscesses. Spinal instrumentation can be performed if indicated, within reasonable clinical risk.

4.
Clin Nutr ; 40(12): 5718-5725, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34749131

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Plant-based diets have been suggested to have health benefits, and risk differs by quality of plant foods. However, evidence on the association between the quality of plant-based diets and mortality are limited. This study examined the associations between 3 different types of plant-based diet indices and risk of total and disease-specific mortality. METHODS: Analyses were based on a population-based cohort of 118,577 South Korean adults (40-69 years of age) who participated in the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study_Health Examinees (2004-2019). Dietary intakes were assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Based on the questionnaire, we calculated 3 plant-based diet indices: overall plant-based diet index (PDI), healthful plant-based diet index (hPDI), and unhealthful plant-based diet index (uPDI). The PDI assigned higher scores for higher consumption of all plant foods. The hPDI assigned higher scores for higher consumption of only healthy plant foods. The uPDI assigned higher scores for higher consumption of only unhealthy plant foods. RESULTS: During a total of 1,191,426 person-years of follow-up, we ascertained 3074 deaths, including 447 deaths from cardiovascular disease and 1515 deaths from cancer. Comparing the highest versus lowest quintiles of PDI, the multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios of total mortality were 0.76 (95% CI, 0.68-0.85, P-trend<0.0001). Comparing the highest versus lowest quintile of uPDI, the hazard ratios were 1.30 for total mortality (95% CI, 1.15-1.48, P-trend<0.0001), 1.55 for cardiovascular disease mortality (95% CI, 1.08-2.25, P-trend = 0.06), and 1.23 for cancer mortality (95% CI, 1.02-1.47, P-trend = 0.06) after adjustment for demographic characteristics and lifestyle factors. For 10-point higher in PDI score was associated with 13% (95% CI, 0.82-0.92, P < 0.0001) lower risk of total mortality. In contrast, 10-point higher in uPDI score was associated with 16% (95% CI, 1.06-1.17, P < 0.0001) higher risk of total mortality with modest association with cancer mortality. No association was observed between hPDI and any cause of mortality. The correlation coefficients were 0.39 between PDI and hPDI, -0.22 between hPDI and uPDI, and 0.07 between PDI and uPDI. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, greater adherence to a plant-based dietary pattern was associated with lower total mortality, but among those with predominantly unhealthful plant-based diets, total and disease-specific mortality rates were higher. The quality of plant foods may be crucial for reducing mortality in a population that mainly consume diets rich in plant foods.

5.
J Microbiol ; 2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34757586

RESUMO

The polymorphic bacterial oncoprotein, CagA shows geography-dependent variation in the C-terminal Glu-Pro-Ile-Tyr-Ala (EPIYA) motifs; East-Asian H. pylori isolates carry the ABD type while Western isolates carry the ABC type. In Western isolates, the EPIYA-C motif is sometimes found in multi-copy and this genotype is associated with disease severity. Interestingly, a small number of East-Asian H. pylori isolates have been found to carry Western ABC-type CagA. To gain a better understanding of these unusual isolates, the genomes of four Korean H. pylori clinical isolates carrying ABC-type CagA were sequenced via third generation (Pac-Bio SMRT) sequencing technology. The obtained data were utilized for phylogenetic analysis as well as comparison of additional virulence factors that are known to show geographic-dependent polymorphisms. Three of four isolates indeed belonged to the hpEastAsia group and showed typical East-Asian polymorphism in virulence factors such as homA/B/C, babA/B/C, and oipA. One isolate grouped to HpAfrica and showed typical Western polymorphism of virulence factors such as cagA, homA/B/C, and oipA. To understand the occurrence of the multi-copy EPIYA-C motif genotype in an East-Asian H. pylori background, the Korean clinical isolate, K154 was analyzed; this strain belonged to hpEastAsia but encoded CagA EPIYA-ABCCCC. Based on DNA sequence homology within the CagA multimerization (CM) sequence that flanked the EPIYA-C motifs, we predicted that the number of C motifs might change via homologous recombination. To test this hypothesis, K154 was cultured for one generation and 287 single colonies were analyzed for the number of EPIYA-C motifs using PCR-based screening and DNA sequencing verification. Three out of 284 (1%) single colony isolates showed changes in the number of EPIYA-C motifs in vitro; one isolate increased to five EPIYA-C motifs, one decreased to three EPIYA-C motifs, and one completely deleted the EPIYA-C motifs. The capacity for dynamic changes in the number of EPIYA-C repeats of CagA may play a role in generating important intraspecies diversity in East-Asian H. pylori.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770182

RESUMO

This study aims to identify the factors associated with smartphone addiction tendency in Korean adolescents. A convenience sample of 502 students from four middle schools participated in the survey for the assessment of demographic, personal factors (resilience and academic stress), environmental factors (parental support, teacher support, friend support, and bullying victimization), as well as smartphone addiction tendency. Smartphone addiction tendency was determined based on the Smartphone Addiction Proneness Scale for Youth (SAPS) criteria developed by Kim et al. The collected data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, chi-squared test, t-test, Pearson's correlation coefficients, and hierarchical logistic regression. Among the adolescents, 17.9% were in the smartphone addiction tendency group. The factors associated with smartphone addiction tendency were subjective economic level, academic stress, parental support, and bullying victimization. Based on the findings of this study, it is considered necessary to approach smartphone addiction management considering personal factors as well as environmental factors.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo , Bullying , Adolescente , Comportamento Aditivo/epidemiologia , Humanos , Transtorno de Adição à Internet , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Smartphone
7.
J Microbiol ; 2021 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34718962

RESUMO

Helicobacter pylori outer membrane inflammatory protein A (OipA) was originally named for its role in inducing inflammation in the host, as evidenced by high mucosal IL-8 levels. Expression of OipA is regulated by phase variation of a CT dinucleotide-repeat located in the 5' region of the gene. However, little is known about OipA geographic diversity across isolates. To address this gap, we conducted a large-scale molecular epidemiologic analysis using H. pylori clinical isolates obtained from two geographically distinct populations: Korea and the United States (US). Most Korean isolates (98.7%) possessed two copies of oipA located at two specific loci (A and B) while all US isolates contained only one copy of oipA at locus A. Furthermore, most Korean oipA (94.8%) possessed three or less CT repeats while most US oipA (96.6%) contained five or more CT repeats. Among the two copies, all Korean H. pylori possessed at least one oipA 'on' phase variant while the single copy of oipA in US isolates showed 56.2% 'on' and 43.8% 'off.' Thus, host differences seem to have driven geographic diversification of H. pylori across these populations such that OipA expression in US isolates is still regulated by phase variation with 5 or more CT repeats, while Korean isolates always express OipA; duplication of the oipA combined with a reduction of CT repeats to three or less ensures continued expression. En masse, these findings suggest that diversity in the oipA gene copy number, CT repeats, and phase variation among H. pylori from different populations may confer a benefit in adaptation to particular host populations.

8.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34578969

RESUMO

Postmenopausal women are vulnerable to aging and oxidative stress due to reduced estrogen. Previous studies have shown that Korean red ginseng (KRG) has beneficial effects on aging and antioxidant capacity. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of KRG on biological aging and antioxidant capacity in postmenopausal women. This study conducted a double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial. The participants were randomly administered KRG or a placebo, and the following metrics were measured: mitochondria DNA (mtDNA) copy number as an indicator of biological aging and, total antioxidant status (TAS) as a marker of antioxidant capacity. Clinical symptoms of fatigue, as measured by the fatigue severity scale, were assessed before and after KRG administration. There were 63 participants, of whom 33 received KRG and 30 received a placebo. The mtDNA copy number (KRG group: 1.58 ± 2.05, placebo group: 0.28 ± 2.36, p = 0.023) and TAS (KRG group: 0.11 ± 0.25 mmol/L, placebo group: -0.04 ± 0.16 mmol/L, p = 0.011) increased and the fatigue severity scale (KRG group: -7 ± 12, placebo group: -1 ± 11, p = 0.033) decreased significantly more in the KRG group than the placebo group. KRG significantly increased the mtDNA copy number, total antioxidant status, and improved symptoms of fatigue in postmenopausal women.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Panax/química , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Pós-Menopausa , Idoso , Antioxidantes/análise , DNA Mitocondrial/sangue , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Ginsenosídeos/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Placebos , República da Coreia
9.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(18)2021 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34577317

RESUMO

Cryptographic circuits generally are used for applications of wireless sensor networks to ensure security and must be tested in a manufacturing process to guarantee their quality. Therefore, a scan architecture is widely used for testing the circuits in the manufacturing test to improve testability. However, during scan testing, test-power consumption becomes more serious as the number of transistors and the complexity of chips increase. Hence, the scan chain reordering method is widely applied in a low-power architecture because of its ability to achieve high power reduction with a simple architecture. However, achieving a significant power reduction without excessive computational time remains challenging. In this paper, a novel scan correlation-aware scan cluster reordering is proposed to solve this problem. The proposed method uses a new scan correlation-aware clustering in order to place highly correlated scan cells adjacent to each other. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method achieves a significant power reduction with a relatively fast computational time compared with previous methods. Therefore, by improving the reliability of cryptography circuits in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) through significant test-power reduction, the proposed method can ensure the security and integrity of information in WSNs.

11.
Br J Nutr ; : 1-7, 2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34503592

RESUMO

This study investigated the association between the different types of plant-based diets and dyslipidaemia in Korean adults using data from the nationally representative sample. Using the 2012-2016 Korea National Health and Nutrition Survey data, a total of 14 167 adults (≥19 years old) participated in this study. Dietary intake was assessed by a semi-quantitative FFQ. Three different plant-based diet indices (overall plant-based diet index (PDI), healthful plant-based diet index (hPDI), unhealthful plant-based diet index (uPDI)), were calculated. Dyslipidaemia and its components (hypertriacylglycerolaemia, hypercholesterolaemia, low HDL-cholesterol, high LDL-cholesterol, use of anti-hyperlipidaemia agent) were measured. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to examine the associations between plant-based diet and dyslipidaemia and individual lipid disorders. Totally, 47% of overall population had dyslipidaemia. Individual in the highest quintile of uPDI had 22% greater odds of dyslipidaemia (95 % CI 1·05, 1·41) and 48 % higher odds of hypertriacylglycerolaemia (95 % CI 1·21, 1·81) and 16% higher odds of low HDL-cholesterol (OR: 1·16, 95 % CI 1·00, 1·35) than those in the lowest quintile of uPDI. PDI was associated with 16 % higher odds of low HDL-cholesterol, and hPDI was associated with 25% lower odds of high LDL-cholesterol. However, neither PDI nor hPDI was significantly associated with the prevalence of dyslipidaemia. Greater adherence to unhealthful plant-based diets was associated with greater odds of the dyslipidaemia and its components suggesting the importance of the quality of plant-based diet in South Korean adults for dyslipidaemia prevention.

12.
Endocrinol Metab (Seoul) ; 36(4): 823-834, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34474517

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most prevalent cause of chronic liver disease worldwide. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a risk factor that accelerates NAFLD progression, leading to fibrosis and cirrhosis. Thus, here we aimed to develop a simple model to predict the presence of NAFLD based on clinical parameters of patients with T2DM. METHODS: A total of 698 patients with T2DM who visited five medical centers were included. NAFLD was evaluated using transient elastography. Univariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify potential contributors to NAFLD, followed by multivariable logistic regression analyses to create the final prediction model for NAFLD. RESULTS: Two NAFLD prediction models were developed, with and without serum biomarker use. The non-laboratory model comprised six variables: age, sex, waist circumference, body mass index (BMI), dyslipidemia, and smoking status. For a cutoff value of ≥60, the prediction accuracy was 0.780 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.743 to 0.817). The second comprehensive model showed an improved discrimination ability of up to 0.815 (95% CI, 0.782 to 0.847) and comprised seven variables: age, sex, waist circumference, BMI, glycated hemoglobin, triglyceride, and alanine aminotransferase to aspartate aminotransferase ratio. Our non-laboratory model showed non-inferiority in the prediction of NAFLD versus previously established models, including serum parameters. CONCLUSION: The new models are simple and user-friendly screening methods that can identify individuals with T2DM who are at high-risk for NAFLD. Additional studies are warranted to validate these new models as useful predictive tools for NAFLD in clinical practice.

13.
Adv Mater ; 33(44): e2103974, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34510572

RESUMO

Continuous monitoring of vital signs is an essential aspect of operations in neonatal and pediatric intensive care units (NICUs and PICUs), of particular importance to extremely premature and/or critically ill patients. Current approaches require multiple sensors taped to the skin and connected via hard-wired interfaces to external data acquisition electronics. The adhesives can cause iatrogenic injuries to fragile, underdeveloped skin, and the wires can complicate even the most routine tasks in patient care. Here, materials strategies and design concepts are introduced that significantly improve these platforms through the use of optimized materials, open (i.e., "holey") layouts and precurved designs. These schemes 1) reduce the stresses at the skin interface, 2) facilitate release of interfacial moisture from transepidermal water loss, 3) allow visual inspection of the skin for rashes or other forms of irritation, 4) enable triggered reduction of adhesion to reduce the probability for injuries that can result from device removal. A combination of systematic benchtop testing and computational modeling identifies the essential mechanisms and key considerations. Demonstrations on adult volunteers and on a neonate in an operating NICUs illustrate a broad range of capabilities in continuous, clinical-grade monitoring of conventional vital signs, and unconventional indicators of health status.

14.
Spine (Phila Pa 1976) ; 46(18): 1207-1217, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34435983

RESUMO

STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to develop recurrence-prediction models of pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis (PVO). SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Prediction of recurrence in PVO is crucial to avoid additional prolonged antibiotic therapy and aggressive spinal surgery and to reduce mortality. However, prediction of PVO recurrence by previously identified, initial risk factors is limited in PVO patients who exceptionally require prolonged antibiotic therapy and experience various clinical events during the treatment. We hypothesized that time-series analysis of sequential C-reactive protein (CRP) routinely measured to estimate the response to the antibiotics in PVO patients could reflect such long treatment process and increase the power of the recurrence-prediction model. METHODS: A retrospective study was performed to develop a PVO recurrence-prediction model, including initial risk factors and time-series data of CRP. Of 704 PVO patients, 493 and 211 were divided into training and test cohorts, respectively. Conventional stepwise logistic regression and artificial neural network (ANN) models were created from the training cohort, and the predictions of recurrence in the test cohort were compared. RESULTS: Prediction models using initial risk factors showed poor sensitivity (4.7%) in both conventional logistic model and ANN models. However, baseline ANN models using time-series CRP data showed remarkably increased sensitivity (55.8%-60.5%). Ensemble ANN model using both initial risk factors and time-series CRP data showed additional benefit in prediction power. CONCLUSION: The recurrence-prediction models for PVO created only using the initial risk factors showed low sensitivity, regardless of statistical method. However, ANN models using time-series data of CRP values and their ensemble model showed considerably increased prediction power. Therefore, clinicians treating PVO patients should pay attention to the treatment response including changes of CRP levels to identify high-risk patients for recurrence, and further studies to develop recurrence-prediction model for PVO should focus on the treatment response rather than initial risk factors.Level of Evidence: 4.


Assuntos
Proteína C-Reativa , Osteomielite , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Humanos , Redes Neurais de Computação , Osteomielite/diagnóstico , Osteomielite/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
BMC Geriatr ; 21(1): 469, 2021 08 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34425788

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inclined walking requires more cardiopulmonary metabolic energy and muscle strength than flat-level walking. This study sought to investigate changes in lower-limb muscle activity and cardiopulmonary metabolic energy cost during treadmill walking with different inclination grades and to discern any correlation between these two measures in older adults. METHODS: Twenty-four healthy older adults (n = 11 males; mean age: 75.3 ± 4.0 years) participated. All participants walked on a treadmill that was randomly inclined at 0% (condition 1), 10% (condition 2), and 16% (condition 3) for five minutes each. Simultaneous measurements of lower-limb muscle activity and cardiopulmonary metabolic energy cost during inclined treadmill walking were collected. Measured muscles included the rectus abdominis (RA), erector spinae (ES), rectus femoris (RF), biceps femoris (BF), vastus medialis (VM), tibialis anterior (TA), medial head of the gastrocnemius (GCM), and soleus (SOL) muscles on the right side. RESULTS: As compared with 0% inclined treadmill gait, the 10% inclined treadmill gait increased the net cardiopulmonary metabolic energy cost by 22.9%, while the 16% inclined treadmill gait increased the net cardiopulmonary metabolic energy cost by 44.2%. In the stance phase, as the slope increased, activity was significantly increased in the RA, RF, VM, BF, GCM, and SOL muscles. In the swing phase, As the slope increased activity was significantly increased in the RA, RF, VM, BF, and TA muscles. SOL muscle activity was most relevant to the change in cardiopulmonary metabolic energy cost in the stance phase of inclined treadmill walking. The relationship between the increase in cardiopulmonary metabolic energy cost and changes in muscle activity was also significant in the VM, GCM, and RF. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that changes in SOL, VM, GCM, and RA muscle activity had a significant relationship with cardiopulmonary metabolic energy cost increment during inclined treadmill walking. These results can be used as basic data for various gait-training programs and as an indicator in the development of assistive algorithms of wearable walking robots for older adults. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical trials registration information: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04614857 (05/11/2020).


Assuntos
Marcha , Extremidade Inferior , Idoso , Eletromiografia , Humanos , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético , Caminhada
16.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5116, 2021 08 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34433814

RESUMO

NMDA receptor (NMDAR) and GABA neuronal dysfunctions are observed in animal models of autism spectrum disorders, but how these dysfunctions impair social cognition and behavior remains unclear. We report here that NMDARs in cortical parvalbumin (Pv)-positive interneurons cooperate with gap junctions to promote high-frequency (>80 Hz) Pv neuronal burst firing and social cognition. Shank2-/- mice, displaying improved sociability upon NMDAR activation, show impaired cortical social representation and inhibitory neuronal burst firing. Cortical Shank2-/- Pv neurons show decreased NMDAR activity, which suppresses the cooperation between NMDARs and gap junctions (GJs) for normal burst firing. Shank2-/- Pv neurons show compensatory increases in GJ activity that are not sufficient for social rescue. However, optogenetic boosting of Pv neuronal bursts, requiring GJs, rescues cortical social cognition in Shank2-/- mice, similar to the NMDAR-dependent social rescue. Therefore, NMDARs and gap junctions cooperate to promote cortical Pv neuronal bursts and social cognition.


Assuntos
Junções Comunicantes/metabolismo , Interneurônios/fisiologia , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Cognição Social , Sinapses/fisiologia , Animais , Junções Comunicantes/genética , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Parvalbuminas/genética , Parvalbuminas/metabolismo , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/genética , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/metabolismo , Comportamento Social , Sinapses/genética
17.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4374, 2021 07 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34272375

RESUMO

Self-powered implantable devices have the potential to extend device operation time inside the body and reduce the necessity for high-risk repeated surgery. Without the technological innovation of in vivo energy harvesters driven by biomechanical energy, energy harvesters are insufficient and inconvenient to power titanium-packaged implantable medical devices. Here, we report on a commercial coin battery-sized high-performance inertia-driven triboelectric nanogenerator (I-TENG) based on body motion and gravity. We demonstrate that the enclosed five-stacked I-TENG converts mechanical energy into electricity at 4.9 µW/cm3 (root-mean-square output). In a preclinical test, we show that the device successfully harvests energy using real-time output voltage data monitored via Bluetooth and demonstrate the ability to charge a lithium-ion battery. Furthermore, we successfully integrate a cardiac pacemaker with the I-TENG, and confirm the ventricle pacing and sensing operation mode of the self-rechargeable cardiac pacemaker system. This proof-of-concept device may lead to the development of new self-rechargeable implantable medical devices.


Assuntos
Fontes de Energia Elétrica , Monitorização Fisiológica/instrumentação , Nanotecnologia/instrumentação , Marca-Passo Artificial , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Cães , Eletricidade , Gravitação , Movimento (Física) , Próteses e Implantes , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis
18.
Am J Infect Control ; 2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34273462

RESUMO

Outpatient empiric urinary tract infection (UTI) prescribing is an area of interest for antimicrobial stewardship efforts. We conducted a retrospective chart review evaluating optimal antibiotic prescribing for UTIs in our internal medicine and urology clinics and found significant differences in prescribing patterns between provider type and UTI category. These data will inform our antimicrobial stewardship efforts in these clinics.

19.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 23(28): 15119-15126, 2021 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34251005

RESUMO

It has previously been predicted [H.-I. Yoo and M. Martin, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2010, 12, 14699] and observed [E. Kim, et al., Solid State Ionics, 2013, 235, 22] that the open-circuit voltage U of a galvanic cell, involving a ternary or higher compound with more than one kind of mobile ionic carrier, is path- and time-dependent upon imposition or removal of the mobile components' chemical potential differences, in contradistinction to the cell involving a binary compound. This has been attributed [H.-I. Yoo and M. Martin, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2010, 12 14699; J.-Y. Yoon, et al., Solid State Ionics, 2012, 213, 22] to the decoupled redistributions of multiple mobile components or multi-fold relaxation. We hereby experimentally demonstrate with SrTi0.982Al0.018O3-Δ, known to have an appreciable water solubility depending on temperature, that introduction of a secondary ionic carrier H+ in addition to the native O2- indeed renders the otherwise time-independent U time-dependent; and that this phenomenon may, thus, be employed to probe the presence of a secondary ionic carrier, e.g., H+ in addition to the primary O2- in BaTi0.982Al0.018O3-Δ whose water solubility is yet to be known. The temporal behavior of U of SrTi0.982Al0.018O3-Δ subjected to the two fixed chemical potential differences, ΔµO and ΔµH, is precisely delineated in terms of two-fold relaxation of H and O, yielding their chemical diffusivity values, and consequently, the ambiguity with the EMF-method to determine the ionic transference numbers of a multinary compound is cleared away.

20.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 700, 2021 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34294037

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Predicting hospital length of stay (LoS) for patients with COVID-19 infection is essential to ensure that adequate bed capacity can be provided without unnecessarily restricting care for patients with other conditions. Here, we demonstrate the utility of three complementary methods for predicting LoS using UK national- and hospital-level data. METHOD: On a national scale, relevant patients were identified from the COVID-19 Hospitalisation in England Surveillance System (CHESS) reports. An Accelerated Failure Time (AFT) survival model and a truncation corrected method (TC), both with underlying Weibull distributions, were fitted to the data to estimate LoS from hospital admission date to an outcome (death or discharge) and from hospital admission date to Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admission date. In a second approach we fit a multi-state (MS) survival model to data directly from the Manchester University NHS Foundation Trust (MFT). We develop a planning tool that uses LoS estimates from these models to predict bed occupancy. RESULTS: All methods produced similar overall estimates of LoS for overall hospital stay, given a patient is not admitted to ICU (8.4, 9.1 and 8.0 days for AFT, TC and MS, respectively). Estimates differ more significantly between the local and national level when considering ICU. National estimates for ICU LoS from AFT and TC were 12.4 and 13.4 days, whereas in local data the MS method produced estimates of 18.9 days. CONCLUSIONS: Given the complexity and partiality of different data sources and the rapidly evolving nature of the COVID-19 pandemic, it is most appropriate to use multiple analysis methods on multiple datasets. The AFT method accounts for censored cases, but does not allow for simultaneous consideration of different outcomes. The TC method does not include censored cases, instead correcting for truncation in the data, but does consider these different outcomes. The MS method can model complex pathways to different outcomes whilst accounting for censoring, but cannot handle non-random case missingness. Overall, we conclude that data-driven modelling approaches of LoS using these methods is useful in epidemic planning and management, and should be considered for widespread adoption throughout healthcare systems internationally where similar data resources exist.


Assuntos
COVID-19/terapia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Análise de Dados , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Feminino , Número de Leitos em Hospital , Planejamento Hospitalar/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
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