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1.
New Phytol ; 2021 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34632584

RESUMO

• Hypersensitive response (HR) is a robust immune response mediated by nucleotide-binding, leucine-rich repeat receptors (NLRs). However, the early molecular event that links activated NLRs to cell death is unclear. • Here, we demonstrate that NLRs target plasma membrane H+ -ATPases (PMAs) that generate electrochemical potential, an essential component of living cells, across the plasma membrane. CCA 309, an autoactive N-terminal domain of a coiled-coil NLR (CNL) in pepper, associates with PMAs. Silencing or overexpression of PMAs reversibly affects cell death induced by CCA 309 in Nicotiana benthamiana. • CCA 309-induced extracellular alkalization causes plasma membrane depolarization, followed by cell death. Co-immunoprecipitation analyses suggest that CCA 309 inhibits PMA activation by pre-occupying the dephosphorylated penultimate threonine residue of PMA. Moreover, pharmacological experiments using fusicoccin, an irreversible PMA activator, showed that inhibition of PMAs contributes to CNL-type (but not TNL-type) resistance proteins-induced cell death. • We suggest PMAs as primary targets of plasma membrane-associated CNLs leading to HR-associated cell death by disturbing the electrochemical gradient across the membrane. These results provide new insight into NLR-mediated cell death in plants, as well as innate immunity in higher eukaryotes.

2.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 71(10)2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34596509

RESUMO

A bacterial strain, designated TCH3-2T, was isolated from the rhizosphere of tomato plant grown at Dong-A University Agricultural Experiment Station, Republic of Korea. The strain was Gram-stain-negative, obligate aerobic, orange yellow-coloured, motile by gliding and short rod-shaped. Strain TCH3-2 T only grew on 1/2 tryptic soy agar and Luria-Bertani agar among the media tested, with optimum growth at 28 °C and pH 7. Salt of 1 % NaCl was necessary to support the growth of TCH3-2T. Strain TCH3-2T produced flexirubin-type pigments. The predominant cellular fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0 (55.6 %), iso-C17 : 0 3-OH (17.9 %), summed feature 9 (comprising C16 : 0 10-methyl and/or iso-C17 : 1 ω9c; 10.5 %), iso-C15 : 0 3-OH (4.8 %) and anteiso-C15 : 0 (2.3 %). The major menaquinone was menaquinone-6 and the major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, five unknown aminolipids and three unknown lipids. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA sequences indicated that TCH3-2T was closely related to Flavobacterium ummariense DS-12T (95.16 %), Flavobacterium marinum SW105T (95.14 %) and Flavobacterium viscosus YIM 102796T (94.54 %). The draft genome of TCH3-2T comprised ca. 2.8 Mb with a G+C content of 34.61 mol%. The average nucleotide identity and digital DNA-DNA hybridization values between TCH3-2T and closely related Flavobacterium species showed that it belongs to a distinct species. Furthermore, the results of morphological, physiological and biochemical tests allowed further phenotypic differentiation of TCH3-2T from its closest relatives. Thus, chemotaxonomic characteristics together with phylogenetic affiliation illustrate that TCH3-2T represents a novel species of the genus Flavobacterium, for which the name Flavobacterium dauae sp. nov. (type strain TCH3-2T=KACC 19054T=JCM 34025T) is proposed.


Assuntos
Flavobacterium , Lycopersicon esculentum , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Flavobacterium/genética , Humanos , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Rizosfera , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Solo
3.
Int J Med Sci ; 18(15): 3353-3360, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34522160

RESUMO

Background: Despite several studies on the effect of adeno-associated virus (AAV)-based therapeutics on osteoarthritis (OA), information on the transduction efficiency and applicable profiles of different AAV serotypes to chondrocytes in hard cartilage tissue is still limited. Moreover, the recent discovery of additional AAV serotypes makes it necessary to screen for more suitable AAV serotypes for specific tissues. Here, we compared the transduction efficiencies of 14 conventional AAV serotypes in human chondrocytes, mouse OA models, and human cartilage explants obtained from OA patients. Methods: To compare the transduction efficiency of individual AAV serotypes, green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression was detected by fluorescence microscopy or western blotting. Likewise, to compare the transduction efficiencies of individual AAV serotypes in cartilage tissues, GFP expression was determined using fluorescence microscopy or immunohistochemistry, and GFP-positive cells were counted. Results: Only AAV2, 5, 6, and 6.2 exhibited substantial transduction efficiencies in both normal and OA chondrocytes. All AAV serotypes except AAV6 and rh43 could effectively transduce human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. In human and mouse OA cartilage tissues, AAV2, AAV5, AAV6.2, AAV8, and AAV rh39 showed excellent tissue specificity based on transduction efficiency. These results indicate the differences in transduction efficiencies of AAV serotypes between cellular and tissue models. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that AAV2 and AAV6.2 may be the best choices for AAV-mediated gene delivery into intra-articular cartilage tissue. These AAV vectors hold the potential to be of use in clinical applications to prevent OA progression if appropriate therapeutic genes are inserted into the vector.

4.
Korean J Intern Med ; 36(5): 1126-1133, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34503319

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Ascertaining the prevalence of isolated nocturnal hypertension (INHT) in the general population and identifying the characteristics of patients with INHT may be important to determine patients who should receive 24- hour ambulatory blood pressure (BP) measurements. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and characteristics of INHT in the general population. METHODS: Of 1,128 participants (aged 20 to 70 years), we analyzed 823 who had valid 24-hour ambulatory BP measurements and were not on antihypertensive drug treatment. RESULTS: The prevalence of INHT in the study was 22.8%. Individuals with INHT had a higher office, 24-hour, and daytime and nighttime ambulatory systolic and diastolic BPs compared to individuals with sustained day-night normotension. INHT was more prevalent in individuals with masked hypertension (MH) than in those with sustained hypertension (59.8% vs. 15.6%, p < 0.001). Among individuals with INHT, 92.6% had MH. Among individuals with office BP-based prehypertension, 34.5% had both INHT and MH. The prevalence of INHT was highest in individuals with office BP-based prehypertension. INHT was an independent determinant of MH after adjustment for age, sex, body mass index, diabetes, low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol, 24-hour systolic and diastolic BP, systolic and diastolic BP dipping, and systolic and diastolic BP non-dipping. CONCLUSION: The present study showed that INHT is not uncommon and is a major determinant of MH. Our findings strongly suggest the use of 24-hour ambulatory BP measurement for individuals within the prehypertension range of office BP owing to the high prevalence of INHT and MH in this population.


Assuntos
Hipertensão , Hipertensão Mascarada , Pressão Sanguínea , Monitorização Ambulatorial da Pressão Arterial , Ritmo Circadiano , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão Mascarada/diagnóstico , Hipertensão Mascarada/epidemiologia , Prevalência
5.
Molecules ; 26(17)2021 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500626

RESUMO

We investigated the protective effect and mechanisms of apigenin against cognitive impairments in a scopolamine-injected mouse model. Our results showed that intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of scopolamine leads to learning and memory dysfunction, whereas the administration of apigenin (synthetic compound, 100 and 200 mg/kg/day) improved cognitive ability, which was confirmed by behavioral tests such as the T-maze test, novel objective recognition test, and Morris water maze test in mice. In addition, scopolamine-induced lipid peroxidation in the brain was attenuated by administration of apigenin. To further evaluate the protective mechanisms of apigenin on cognitive and memory function, Western blot analysis was carried out. Administration of apigenin decreased the B-cell lymphoma 2-associated X/B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bax/Bcl-2) ratio and suppressed caspase-3 and poly ADP ribose polymerase cleavage. Furthermore, apigenin down-regulated the ß-site amyloid precursor protein-cleaving enzyme, along with presenilin 1 (PS1) and PS2 protein levels. Apigenin-administered mice showed lower protein levels of a receptor for advanced glycation end-products, whereas insulin-degrading enzyme, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB) expression were promoted by treatment with apigenin. Therefore, this study demonstrated that apigenin is an active substance that can improve cognitive and memory functions by regulating apoptosis, amyloidogenesis, and BDNF/TrkB signaling pathways.


Assuntos
Apigenina/farmacologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/induzido quimicamente , Disfunção Cognitiva/tratamento farmacológico , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Escopolamina/farmacologia , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/metabolismo , Disfunção Cognitiva/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Memória/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Neurônios/metabolismo , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Receptor trkB/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
6.
J Environ Manage ; 300: 113693, 2021 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34547573

RESUMO

A dual isotopes approach and the Bayesian isotope mixing model were applied to trace nitrogen pollution sources and to quantify their relative contribution to river water quality. We focused on two points to enhance the applicability of the method: 1) Direct measurement on the end-members to distinguish "sewage" and "manure" which used to be grouped in one pollution source as their isotope ranges overlap; 2) The Lagrangian sampling method was applied to consider the transport of nitrogen pollutants in a long river so that any fractionation process can be dealt with in the given Bayesian modeling framework. The results of the analysis confirmed the NO3- isotope composition in the river of interest to be within the range of NO3- with origins in "NH4+ in fertilizer", "Soil N", and "Manure and sewage" pollution. This suggests that nitrogen pollution is mostly attributed to anthropogenic sources. The δ18O NO3 value follows the range +2.5∼+15.0‰, implying that NO3- in the river is mainly derived from nitrification, and possible nitrification in groundwater or waterfront other than surface water. The ratio of the concentration of δ15N NO3 to that of δ18O NO3, and the corresponding regression equation indicates that the denitrification effect in surface water was insignificant during the study period. From the results of the contribution ratio of each source, improving the water quality of the discharge from the sewage treatment plants was proved to be the key factor to reduce nitrogen pollution in the river.


Assuntos
Água Subterrânea , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Teorema de Bayes , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Nitratos/análise , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
7.
Gut ; 2021 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34389621

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Gastric cancer (GC) is a leading cause of cancer-related mortality. Although microbes besides Helicobacter pylori may also contribute to gastric carcinogenesis, wild-type germ-free (GF) mouse models investigating the role of human gastric microbiota in the process are not yet available. We aimed to evaluate the histopathological features of GF mouse stomachs transplanted with gastric microbiota from patients with different gastric disease states and their relationships with the microbiota. DESIGN: Microbiota profiles in corpus and antrum tissues and gastric fluid from 12 patients with gastric dysplasia or GC were analysed. Thereafter, biopsied corpus and antrum tissues and gastric fluid from patients (n=15 and n=12, respectively) with chronic superficial gastritis, intestinal metaplasia or GC were inoculated into 42 GF C57BL/6 mice. The gastric microbiota was analysed by amplicon sequencing. Histopathological features of mouse stomachs were analysed immunohistochemically at 1 month after inoculation. An independent set of an additional 15 GF mice was also analysed at 1 year. RESULTS: The microbial community structures of patients with dysplasia or GC in the corpus and antrum were similar. The gastric microbiota from patients with intestinal metaplasia or GC selectively colonised the mouse stomachs and induced premalignant lesions: loss of parietal cells and increases in inflammation foci, in F4/80 and Ki-67 expression, and in CD44v9/GSII lectin expression. Marked dysplastic changes were noted at 1 year post inoculation. CONCLUSION: Major histopathological features of premalignant changes are reproducible in GF mice transplanted with gastric microbiota from patients with intestinal metaplasia or GC. Our results suggest that GF mice are useful for analysing the causality of associations reported in human gastric microbiome studies.

8.
J Forensic Sci ; 2021 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34405913

RESUMO

Metomidate and etomidate belong to the non-barbiturate imidazole family of sedative-hypnotics and elicit little analgesic action when used alone. Metomidate, in particular, has little analgesic activity in humans and is, therefore, used for veterinary purposes. In 2019, a Korean woman in her twenties was found unconscious in a motel bath and eventually died. Etomidate, alprazolam, escitalopram, and metomidate were detected in the postmortem specimens. To our knowledge, this is the first case of human metomidate abuse reported in the Republic of Korea. In this research, a simple and reliable method was developed for the analysis of metomidate and etomidate in human blood samples using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Blood samples were deproteinized with acetonitrile, filtered, and analyzed by LC-MS/MS. Linear calibration curves were obtained with six concentrations ranging from 1 to 50 ng/ml for metomidate and 10 to 500 ng/ml for etomidate. The method was validated by assessing the selectivity, linearity, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantitation (LOQ), intra- and inter-day precision and accuracy, matrix effect, and stability and successfully applied to the analysis of metomidate and etomidate in human blood samples. In a postmortem case, the concentrations of metomidate and etomidate were found to be 8 and 110 ng/ml in femoral blood and 6 and 210 ng/ml in cardiac blood, respectively.

9.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 223: 112285, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34411952

RESUMO

Microbial pumping rhodopsin is a seven-transmembrane retinal binding protein, which is light-driven ion pump with a functional key motif. Ion-pumping with the key motif and charged amino acids in the rhodopsin is biochemically important. The rhodopsins with DTG motif have been discovered in various eubacteria, and they function as H+ pump. Especially, the DTG motif rhodopsins transported H+ despite the replacement of a proton donor by Gly. We investigated Methylobacterium populi rhodopsin (MpR) in one of the DTG motif rhodopsin clades. To determine which ions the MpR transport, we tested with various monovalent ion solutions and determined that MpR transports Li+/Na+. By replacing the three negatively charged residues residues which are located in helix B, Glu32, Glu33, and Asp35, we concluded that the residues play a critical role in the transport of Li+/Na+. The MpR E33Q transported H+ in place of Li+/Na+, suggesting that Glu33 is a Li+/Na+ binding site on the cytoplasmic side. Gly93 in MpR was replaced by Asp to convert from the Li+/Na+ pump to the H+ pump, resulting in MpR G93D transporting H+. Dissociation constant (Kd) values of Na+ for MpR WT and E33Q were determined to be 4.0 and 72.5 mM, respectively. These results indicated the mechanism by which MpR E33Q transports H+. Up to now, various ion-pumping rhodopsins have been discovered, and Li+/Na+-pumping rhodopsins were only found in the NDQ motif in NaR. Here, we report a new light-driven Na+ pump MpR and have determined the important residues required for Li+/Na+-pumping different from previously known NaR.


Assuntos
Lítio/metabolismo , Rodopsinas Microbianas/metabolismo , Sódio/metabolismo , Motivos de Aminoácidos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Transporte de Íons/efeitos da radiação , Luz , Lítio/química , Methylobacteriaceae/metabolismo , Mutagênese Sítio-Dirigida , Filogenia , Ligação Proteica , Conformação Proteica em alfa-Hélice , Proteínas Recombinantes/biossíntese , Proteínas Recombinantes/química , Proteínas Recombinantes/isolamento & purificação , Rodopsinas Microbianas/química , Rodopsinas Microbianas/classificação , Rodopsinas Microbianas/genética , Sódio/química
10.
Int Arch Allergy Immunol ; : 1-5, 2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34419947

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Predicting food allergy resolution is essential to minimize the number of restricted foods in children. However, there have been no studies on the natural history of peanut allergy (PA) in Korea. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the natural course and prognostic factors of immediate-type PA in children till the age of 10 years. METHODS: We retrospectively collected data of 122 children who developed PA before 60 months of age from 3 tertiary hospitals in Korea. Diagnosis and resolution of PA was defined as an oral food challenge test or a convincing history of symptoms within 2 h after peanut ingestion. The prognostic factors for resolution of PA were identified using the Cox proportional hazard model. RESULTS: The median (interquartile range) age at diagnosis was 2.0 (1.3-3.0) years. Among the 122 children, PA resolved in 18 (14.8%) children. The level of peanut-specific IgE (sIgE) at diagnosis in the persistence group was significantly higher than that in the resolution group (p = 0.026). The probabilities of resolution of PA were 10.3% and 32.8% at the ages of 6 and 10 years, respectively. A peanut-sIgE level ≥1 kU/L at diagnosis was significantly associated with persistent PA (hazard ratio, 5.99; 95% confidence interval, 1.89-18.87). CONCLUSIONS: Only 10.3% of our patients had a probability of developing spontaneous resolution of PA by 6 years of age. Peanut-sIgE levels ≥1 kU/L at diagnosis were associated with the persistence of PA.

11.
Carbohydr Polym ; 272: 118462, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34420722

RESUMO

In this study, we developed Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG)-encapsulating exfoliated bentonite/alginate nanocomposite hydrogels for protecting probiotics by delaying gastric fluid penetration into the nanocomposite and their on-demand release in the intestine. The pore size of the bentonite/alginate nanocomposite hydrogels (BA15) was two-fold smaller than that of alginate hydrogel (BA00). Following gastric pH challenge, the survival of LGG in BA15 decreased by only 1.43 log CFU/g as compared to the 6.25 log CFU/g decrease in alginate (BA00). Further, the internal pH of BA15 decreased more gradually than that of BA00. After oral administration in mice, BA15 maintained shape integrity during gastric passage, followed by appropriate disintegration within the target intestinal area. Additionally, a fecal recovery experiment in mice showed that the viable counts of LGG in BA15 were six-fold higher than those in BA00. The findings suggest the exfoliated bentonite/alginate nanocomposite hydrogel as a promising platform for intestinal delivery of probiotics.

12.
Front Immunol ; 12: 698721, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34456911

RESUMO

The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is frequently affected by inborn errors of immunity (IEI), and GI manifestations can be present in IEI patients before a diagnosis is confirmed. We aimed to investigate clinical features, endoscopic and histopathologic findings in IEI patients. This was a retrospective cohort study conducted from 1995 to 2020. Eligible patients were diagnosed with IEI and had GI manifestations that were enough to require endoscopies. IEI was classified according to the International Union of Immunological Societies classification. Of 165 patients with IEI, 55 (33.3%) had GI manifestations, and 19 (11.5%) underwent endoscopy. Among those 19 patients, nine (47.4%) initially presented with GI manifestations. Thirteen patients (68.4%) were male, and the mean age of patients 11.5 ± 7.9 years (range, 0.6 - 26.6) when they were consulted and evaluated with endoscopy. The most common type of IEI with severe GI symptoms was "Disease of immune dysregulation" (31.6%) followed by "Phagocyte defects" (26.3%), according to the International Union of Immunological Societies classification criteria. Patients had variable GI symptoms such as chronic diarrhea (68.4%), hematochezia (36.8%), abdominal pain (31.6%), perianal disease (10.5%), and recurrent oral ulcers (10.5%). During the follow-up period, three patients developed GI tract neoplasms (early gastric carcinoma, mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma of colon, and colonic tubular adenoma, 15.8%), and 12 patients (63.2%) were diagnosed with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)-like colitis. Investigating immunodeficiency in patients with atypical GI symptoms can provide an opportunity for correct diagnosis and appropriate disease-specific therapy. Gastroenterologists and immunologists should consider endoscopy when atypical GI manifestations appear in IEI patients to determine if IBD-like colitis or neoplasms including premalignant and malignant lesions have developed. Also, if physicians in various fields are better educated about IEI-specific complications, early diagnosis and disease-specific treatment for IEI will be made possible.

13.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 68(9): e29212, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34245210

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Positron emission tomography (PET)-based measures of baseline total-body tumor burden may improve risk stratification in intermediate-risk Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Evaluable patients were identified from a cohort treated homogeneously with the same combined modality regimen on the Children's Oncology Group AHOD0031 study. Eligible patients had high-quality baseline PET scans. Metabolic tumor volume (MTV) and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) were each measured based on 15 thresholds for every patient. Univariate and multivariable Cox regression and Kaplan-Meier survival analyses assessed for an association of MTV and TLG with event-free survival (EFS). RESULTS: From the AHOD0031 cohort (n = 1712), 86 patients were identified who (i) were treated with four cycles of doxorubicin, bleomycin, vincristine, etoposide, prednisone, cyclophosphamide (ABVE-PC) chemotherapy followed by involved field radiotherapy, and (ii) had a baseline PET scan that was amenable to quantitative analysis. Based on univariate Cox regression analysis, six PET-derived parameters were significantly associated with EFS. For each of these, Kaplan-Meier analyses and the log-rank test were used to compare patients with highest tumor burden (i.e., highest 15%) to the remainder of the cohort. EFS was significantly associated with all six PET parameters (all p < .029). In a multivariable model controlling for important covariates including disease bulk and response to chemotherapy, MTV2BP was significantly associated with EFS (p = .012). CONCLUSION: Multiple baseline PET-derived volumetric parameters were associated with EFS. MTV2BP was highly associated with EFS when controlling for disease bulk and response to chemotherapy. Incorporation of baseline MTV into risk-based treatment algorithms may improve outcomes in intermediate-risk HL.

14.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 221: 112241, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34130090

RESUMO

Rhodopsin and carotenoids are two molecules that certain bacteria use to absorb and utilize light. Type I rhodopsin, the simplest active proton transporter, converts light energy into an electrochemical potential. Light produces a proton gradient, which is known as the proton motive force across the cell membrane. Some carotenoids are involved in light absorbance and transfer of absorbed energy to chlorophyll during photosynthesis. A previous study in Salinibacter ruber has shown that carotenoids act as antennae to harvest light and transfer energy to retinal in xanthorhodopsin (XR). Here, we describe the role of canthaxanthin (CAN), a carotenoid, as an antenna for Gloeobacter rhodopsin (GR). The non-covalent complex formed by the interaction between CAN and GR doubled the proton pumping speed and improved the pumping capacity by 1.5-fold. The complex also tripled the proton pumping speed and improved the pumping capacity by 5-fold in the presence of strong and weak light, respectively. Interestingly, when canthaxanthin was bound to Gloeobacter rhodopsin, it showed a 126-fold increase in heat resistance, and it survived better under drought conditions than Gloeobacter rhodopsin. The results suggest direct complementation of Gloeobacter rhodopsin with a carotenoid for primitive solar energy harvesting in cyanobacteria.


Assuntos
Cantaxantina/química , Rodopsinas Microbianas/química , Energia Solar , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Bacteroidetes/metabolismo , Sítios de Ligação , Calorimetria , Cantaxantina/metabolismo , Cianobactérias/metabolismo , Luz , Ligação Proteica , Rodopsinas Microbianas/metabolismo , Alinhamento de Sequência
15.
Allergy Asthma Proc ; 42(4): e116-e125, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34187630

RESUMO

Background: The association between prenatal exposure to phthalate and childhood atopic dermatitis (AD) has previously been investigated; however, the results are inconsistent. Objective: We aimed to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of birth cohort studies to investigate whether prenatal exposure to phthalate increases the risk of developing AD in children. Methods: We performed an electronic search of medical literature data bases. Studies were critically appraised, and a meta-analysis was performed. Results: Among 129 articles identified, 11 studies met the eligibility criteria. Included studies originated from Europe (n = 5), the United States (n = 4), and Asia (n = 2). The study sample size ranged from 147 to 1024 mother-child pairs. Quality assessment by using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale of all the studies had scores of ≥6. A meta-analysis of data from eight selected studies suggested that monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP) exposure was significantly associated with the risk of AD development (odds ratio 1.16 [95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.31]; I² = 17.36%). However, AD development was not associated with other phthalate metabolites, such as mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, monoethyl phthalate, mono-isobutyl phthalate, mono-n-butyl phthalate, and the sum of di-[2-ethylhexyl] phthalate on the development of AD (all p values were > 0.05). Conclusion: Our meta-analysis suggested that prenatal exposure to phthalates may be associated with the development of childhood AD. However, further research is needed because only MBzP showed statistical significance and the number of articles in the literature is still insufficient.

16.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(11): 14829-14842, 2021 06 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34091440

RESUMO

Samul-tang (SM), a traditional herbal medicine, is used to treat age-related human conditions, such as infertility and menstrual irregularities. The mechanism underlying the role of SM in ovary function needs elucidation. In this study, the influence of SM administration on the ovarian reserve of aged mice was investigated. Female BALB/c mice (8 and 40 weeks-old) were administered with distilled water (young or old group) or SM for 4 weeks. SM administration prevented age-related ovarian follicle loss in mice. Quality of oocytes and blastocysts were enhanced in SM-administrated mice compared to those of non-treated old mice. Further, SM administration increased the pregnancy rate and number of litters. SM triggered changes in aging-related genes that are linked to the RAS-mediated pathway. Thus, we demonstrate that SM can be used to increase the oocyte yield in aged women, potentially improving age-related cognitive decline in the ovarian reserve.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Fertilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Ovário/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais , Proteínas ras/metabolismo , Envelhecimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Hormônio Antimülleriano/sangue , Blastocisto/efeitos dos fármacos , Blastocisto/metabolismo , Análise por Conglomerados , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante/sangue , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Oócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Oócitos/metabolismo , Folículo Ovariano/efeitos dos fármacos , Ovário/efeitos dos fármacos , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo
17.
Free Radic Res ; 55(7): 799-809, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34181501

RESUMO

Consumption of high fat diet (HFD) increases risk of cognitive impairment and memory deficit by elevation of oxidative stress in the brain. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of krill oil (KO) against HFD-induced cognitive impairment in mice. The mice were fed with HFD for 10 weeks, and then KO was orally administered at doses of 100, 200, or 500 mg/kg/d for 4 weeks. To evaluate the cognitive abilities, we carried out the behavior tests, such as T-maze, novel object recognition test, and Morris water maze test. The HFD-induced cognitive impairment mice showed impairments in both spatial memory and novel object cognitive abilities. However, administration of KO at doses of 100, 200, or 500 mg/kg/d improved spatial memory ability and novel object cognition by increase of the exploration of new route and novel object. In addition, KO-administered group improved learning and memory abilities, showing shorter latency to reach hidden platform compared with control group. Furthermore, levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxidation, and nitric oxide (NO) were significantly elevated by consumption of HFD, indicating that consumption of HFD induces oxidative stress in the brain. However, administration of KO attenuated oxidative stress by decrease of the ROS levels, lipid peroxidation, and NO. This study suggests that KO improves HFD-induced cognitive impairment by attenuation of oxidative stress in the brain. Therefore, KO may play as a promising agent in treatment and prevention of HFD-induced cognitive impairment.

18.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 247, 2021 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34059006

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Peppers (Capsicum annuum L.) containing distinct capsaicinoids are the most widely cultivated spices in the world. However, extreme genomic diversity among species represents an obstacle to breeding pepper. RESULTS: Here, we report de novo genome assemblies of Capsicum annuum 'Early Calwonder (non-pungent, ECW)' and 'Small Fruit (pungent, SF)' along with their annotations. In total, we assembled 2.9 Gb of ECW and SF genome sequences, representing over 91% of the estimated genome sizes. Structural and functional annotation of the two pepper genomes generated about 35,000 protein-coding genes each, of which 93% were assigned putative functions. Comparison between newly and publicly available pepper gene annotations revealed both shared and specific gene content. In addition, a comprehensive analysis of nucleotide-binding and leucine-rich repeat (NLR) genes through whole-genome alignment identified five significant regions of NLR copy number variation (CNV). Detailed comparisons of those regions revealed that these CNVs were generated by intra-specific genomic variations that accelerated diversification of NLRs among peppers. CONCLUSIONS: Our analyses unveil an evolutionary mechanism responsible for generating CNVs of NLRs among pepper accessions, and provide novel genomic resources for functional genomics and molecular breeding of disease resistance in Capsicum species.


Assuntos
Capsicum/genética , Evolução Molecular , Genoma de Planta , Leucina/genética , Sequências Repetitivas de Aminoácidos/genética , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Resistência à Doença/genética , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Filogenia , Melhoramento Vegetal , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Especificidade da Espécie
19.
Foot (Edinb) ; 47: 101768, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33946001

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In recent years, fall prevention in older adults has received considerable attention in healthcare. Among many interventions, insoles are considered cost-effective and easily adopted tools to improve balance in older people. Numerous studies have verified the immediate effects of insoles on balance in older adults. However, there is still lack of consensus regarding the immediate benefits of using insoles on balance improvement. RESEARCH QUESTION: Given this, a meta-analysis was conducted to provide more conclusive evidence about the immediate effect of insoles on balance in older adults and answer the question: "Do insoles influence balance in older people?" METHODS: PubMed, NDSL, Medline, Google Scholar, and Web of Science were searched from March to August 2018. The key terms were "insole", "elderly", "gait", "balance", "shoe", "foot", and "postural". Finally, seven primary studies were selected for this meta-analysis. The balance related outcomes were coded to compute effect sizes and the overall effect size of the standardized mean differences was analyzed. Moderating variables included kinematic variables of balance, static and dynamic balance, and type of insole. RESULTS: The overall effect size of insoles was medium (d = 0.618), which suggests that insoles are beneficial for older adults for improving balance. More specifically, this study revealed that textured and vibration insoles were the most effective types of insoles. SIGNIFICANCE: This finding supports the idea that augmented tactile and mechanical sensory input from insoles can enhance the postural control mechanisms in older adults with age-related deterioration of sensory mechanisms. The use of insoles may lead to a reduction in the rate of falls which are related to decreased quality of life in older adults.

20.
Microbiome ; 9(1): 122, 2021 05 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34039418

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Successful chemoprevention or chemotherapy is achieved through targeted delivery of prophylactic agents during initial phases of carcinogenesis or therapeutic agents to malignant tumors. Bacteria can be used as anticancer agents, but efforts to utilize attenuated pathogenic bacteria suffer from the risk of toxicity or infection. Lactic acid bacteria are safe to eat and often confer health benefits, making them ideal candidates for live vehicles engineered to deliver anticancer drugs. RESULTS: In this study, we developed an effective bacterial drug delivery system for colorectal cancer (CRC) therapy using the lactic acid bacterium Pediococcus pentosaceus. It is equipped with dual gene cassettes driven by a strong inducible promoter that encode the therapeutic protein P8 fused to a secretion signal peptide and a complementation system. In an inducible CRC cell-derived xenograft mouse model, our synthetic probiotic significantly reduced tumor volume and inhibited tumor growth relative to the control. Mice with colitis-associated CRC induced by azoxymethane and dextran sodium sulfate exhibited polyp regression and recovered taxonomic diversity when the engineered bacterium was orally administered. Further, the synthetic probiotic modulated gut microbiota and alleviated the chemically induced dysbiosis. Correlation analysis demonstrated that specific bacterial taxa potentially associated with eubiosis or dysbiosis, such as Akkermansia or Turicibacter, have positive or negative relationships with other microbial members. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, our work illustrates that an effective and stable synthetic probiotic composed of P. pentosaceus and the P8 therapeutic protein can reduce CRC and contribute to rebiosis, and the validity and feasibility of cell-based designer biopharmaceuticals for both treating CRC and ameliorating impaired microbiota. Video abstract.


Assuntos
Colite , Neoplasias Colorretais , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Probióticos , Animais , Azoximetano , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Sulfato de Dextrana , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
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