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1.
Ann Clin Lab Sci ; 51(1): 136-139, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33653793

RESUMO

Hereditary spherocytosis (HS) is a congenital disorder of the red blood cell membrane and is characterized by hemolytic anemia, variable jaundice, and splenomegaly. In neonates, the diagnosis of HS can be difficult in the absence of family history. Herein, we describe clinical and molecular genetic findings in a Korean neonate with HS. A one-month-old girl presented with severe anemia and jaundice. Spherocytes were frequently observed on peripheral blood smear, but the erythrocyte osmotic fragility test result was normal. Targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) revealed the patient was heterozygous for a novel frameshift mutation, c.191_194del (p.Leu64Argfs*7), in exon 3 of ANK1 gene. Family study was performed by direct sequencing, and neither of her parents carried this mutation. The patient also harbored the UGT1A1*6 allele. To the best of our knowledge, this ANK1 mutation identified by targeted NGS has not been reported previously.

2.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 22(1): 140, 2021 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33541326

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of high disease activity as measured using the Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Score (ASDAS) in ankylosing spondylitis (AS) patients who nonetheless have low Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI) scores after anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) treatment. Its clinical impact on anti-TNF survival was also investigated. METHODS: We conducted a single-centre retrospective cohort study of AS patients having low BASDAI scores (< 4) and available ASDAS-C-reactive protein (CRP) data after 3 months of first-line anti-TNF treatment. Patients were grouped into high-ASDAS (≥ 2.1) and low-ASDAS (< 2.1) groups according to the ASDAS-CRP after 3 months of anti-TNF treatment. Their characteristics were compared. And survival analyses were carried out using Kaplan-Meier curves and log-rank test with the event being discontinuation of anti-TNF treatment due to lack/loss of efficacy. RESULTS: Among 116 AS patients with low BASDAI scores after 3 months of anti-TNF treatment, 38.8% were grouped into the high-ASDAS group. The high-ASDAS group tended to have greater disease activity after 9 months of treatment (BASDAI 2.9 ± 1.1 vs. 2.3 ± 1.4, p=0.007; ASDAS-CRP 1.8 ± 0.6 vs. 1.5 ± 0.7, p=0.079; proportion of high ASDAS-CRP 27.8% vs. 13.8%, p=0.094) and greater risk of discontinuing anti-TNF treatment due to lack/loss of efficacy than the low-ASDAS group (p=0.011). CONCLUSIONS: A relatively high proportion of AS patients with low BASDAI scores had high ASDAS-CRP. These low-BASDAI/high-ASDAS-CRP patients also had a greater risk for discontinuation of anti-TNF treatment due to low/lack of efficacy than the low-ASDAS group. The use of the ASDAS-CRP alone or in addition to the BASDAI may improve the assessment of AS patients treated with anti-TNF agents.

3.
Microb Ecol ; 2021 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33624137

RESUMO

Methylmercury (MeHg), which is formed in rice paddy soil, exhibits strong neurotoxicity through bioaccumulation in the food chain. A few groups of microorganisms drive both mercury methylation and nitrogen fixation in the rhizosphere. Little is known about how the shifted soil microbial community by Hg contamination affects nitrogen fixation rate and plant growth in paddy soil. Here, we examined how stimulated short-term Hg amendment affects the nitrogen fixing microbial community and influences plant-microbe interactions. Soil was treated with low (0.2 mg/kg) and high (1.1 mg/kg) concentrations of Hg for 4 weeks; then, rice (Oryza sativa) was planted and grown for 12 weeks. The nitrogen-fixation rate and rice growth were measured. The diversity and structure of the microbial community were analyzed by sequencing the nifH gene before and after rice cultivation. Hg treatments significantly decreased the nitrogen fixation rate and dry weight of the rice plants. The structure of the nifH-harboring community was remarkably changed after rice cultivation depending on Hg treatments. Iron- or sulfate-reducing bacteria, including Desulfobacca, Desulfoporosimus, and Geobacter, were observed as legacy response groups; their abundances increased in the soil after Hg treatment. The high abundance of those groups were maintained in control, but the abundance drastically decreased after rice cultivation in the soil treated with Hg, indicating that symbiotic behavior of rice plants changes according to the legacy effects on Hg contamination. These results suggested that Hg contamination can persist in soil microbial communities, affecting their nitrogen-fixation ability and symbiosis with rice plants in paddy soil.

4.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(2)2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33526521

RESUMO

Vertebral osteomyelitis is an infection of the vertebrae that can lead to spinal degeneration, most commonly caused by Staphylococcus aureus Here, we report an unusual case of pyogenic osteomyelitis caused by Gardnerella vaginalis and Streptococcus parasanguinis in a 61-year-old postmenopausal woman. The patient presented with a 2-week history of worsening lower back pain and fever and a recent episode of cystitis following re-engagement of sexual activity. Imaging revealed a deterioration of vertebrae discs and spinal canal stenosis at the L3-L4 levels with a formation of abscess in the right psoas muscle. Needle aspiration of the abscess identified G. vaginalis and S. parasanguinis and the patient was successfully treated with a 6-week course of ceftriaxone and metronidazole. This case describes an unusual coinfection of two pathogens that normally reside in the urogenital tract and oral cavity, respectively, and highlights the risk posed when these organisms breach the body's normal barriers.


Assuntos
Discite/microbiologia , Gardnerella vaginalis/isolamento & purificação , Vértebras Lombares , Osteomielite/microbiologia , Abscesso do Psoas/microbiologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/microbiologia , Streptococcus/isolamento & purificação , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Técnicas de Cultura , Discite/diagnóstico por imagem , Discite/tratamento farmacológico , Discite/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/diagnóstico , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/microbiologia , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteomielite/diagnóstico por imagem , Osteomielite/tratamento farmacológico , Osteomielite/fisiopatologia , Pós-Menopausa , Abscesso do Psoas/diagnóstico por imagem , Abscesso do Psoas/tratamento farmacológico , Estenose Espinal/fisiopatologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/diagnóstico , Infecções Estreptocócicas/tratamento farmacológico
5.
Hum Mol Genet ; 2021 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33517446

RESUMO

Lipotoxicity was recently reported in several forms of kidney disease, including focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). Susceptibility to FSGS in African Americans is associated with the presence of genetic variants of the Apolipoprotein L1 gene (APOL1) named G1 and G2. If and how endogenous APOL1 may alter mitochondrial function by modifying cellular lipid metabolism is unknown. Using transgenic mice expressing the APOL1 variants (G0, G1 or G2) under endogenous promoter, we show that APOL1 risk variant expression in transgenic mice does not impair kidney function at baseline. However, APOL1 G1 expression worsens proteinuria and kidney function in mice characterized by the podocyte inducible expression of nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT), which we have found to cause FSGS. APOL1 G1 expression in this FSGS-model also results in increased triglyceride and cholesterol ester contents in kidney cortices, where lipid accumulation correlated with loss of renal function. In vitro, we show that the expression of endogenous APOL1 G1/G2 in human urinary podocytes is associated with increased cellular triglyceride content and is accompanied by mitochondrial dysfunction in the presence of compensatory oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) complexes elevation. Our findings indicate that APOL1 risk variant expression increases the susceptibility to lipid-dependent podocyte injury, ultimately leading to mitochondrial dysfunction.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33440048

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate changes in glycaemic status in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). DESIGN: Longitudinal observational study. PATIENTS: Women with PCOS who underwent baseline and follow-up screening tests for diabetes (n = 262). Four patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) at baseline and 6 patients who were taking drugs at the final follow-up were excluded. MEASUREMENTS: Changes in glycaemic classification based on fasting glucose, haemoglobin A1c and oral glucose tolerance test. RESULTS: The median length of follow-up was 2.9 years. The mean age and body mass index in the normoglycaemia group (n = 202) were 23.0 years and 21.6 kg/m2 , while it was 23.6 years and 22.9 kg/m2 in the prediabetes group (n = 50). In the normoglycaemia group, 38 (18.8%) and 2 (1.0%) developed prediabetes and T2DM, respectively. In the prediabetes group, 22 (44.0%) remained in the same category, 6 (12.0%) developed T2DM, while 22 (44.0%) achieved normoglycaemia. The incidence rate of T2DM was 9.3 per 1,000 person-years, which was significantly higher than that of the female population of similar age, and the incidence was higher in women with fasting glucose ≥ 5.6 mmol/L at baseline than in women with < 5.6 mmol/L. CONCLUSIONS: About 20% of normoglycaemic women had developed prediabetes or T2DM after a median time of 2.9 years. Meanwhile, nearly half of prediabetes women achieved normoglycaemia. Higher baseline fasting glucose levels were associated with an increased incidence of T2DM. Our results are the first to evaluate glycaemic status changes using all three parameters in patients with PCOS.

7.
EBioMedicine ; 63: 103162, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33340991

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Discoidin domain receptor 1 (DDR1) is a receptor tyrosine kinase that is activated by collagens that is involved in the pathogenesis of fibrotic disorders. Interestingly, de novo production of the collagen type I (Col I) has been observed in Col4a3 knockout mice, a mouse model of Alport Syndrome (AS mice). Deletion of the DDR1 in AS mice was shown to improve survival and renal function. However, the mechanisms driving DDR1-dependent fibrosis remain largely unknown. METHODS: Podocyte pDDR1 levels, Collagen and cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36) expression was analyzed by Real-time PCR and Western blot. Lipid droplet accumulation and content was determined using Bodipy staining and enzymatic analysis. CD36 and DDR1 interaction was determined by co-immunoprecipitation. Creatinine, BUN, albuminuria, lipid content, and histological and morphological assessment of kidneys harvested from AS mice treated with Ezetimibe and/or Ramipril or vehicle was performed. FINDINGS: We demonstrate that Col I-mediated DDR1 activation induces CD36-mediated podocyte lipotoxic injury. We show that Ezetimibe interferes with the CD36/DDR1 interaction in vitro and prevents lipotoxicity in AS mice thus preserving renal function similarly to ramipril. INTERPRETATION: Our study suggests that Col I/DDR1-mediated lipotoxicity contributes to renal failure in AS and that targeting this pathway may represent a new therapeutic strategy for patients with AS and with chronic kidney diseases (CKD) associated with Col4 mutations. FUNDING: This study is supported by the NIH grants R01DK117599, R01DK104753, R01CA227493, U54DK083912, UM1DK100846, U01DK116101, UL1TR000460 (Miami Clinical Translational Science Institute, National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences and the National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities), F32DK115109, Hoffmann-La Roche and Alport Syndrome Foundation.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33203820

RESUMO

Vanillyl alcohol (VA), which is abundant in Vanilla bean, has strong antioxidant activity. However, the use of VA in the food and cosmetics industries is limited, due to its low solubility in emulsion or organic solvents. Meanwhile, medium chain fatty acids and medium chain monoglycerides have antibacterial activity. We synthesized butyric acid vanillyl ester (BAVE) or caprylic acid vanillyl ester (CAVE) from VA with tributyrin or tricaprylin through transesterification reaction using immobilized lipases. BAVE and CAVE scavenged 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radicals in organic solvents. In addition, BAVE and CAVE decreased the production rate of conjugated diene and triene in the menhaden oil-in-water emulsion system. While BAVE showed no antibacterial activity, CAVE showed antibacterial activity against food spoilage bacteria, including Bacillus coagulans. In this study, the antibacterial activity of vanillyl ester with medium chain fatty acid was first revealed. Zeta potential measurements confirmed that BAVE and CAVE were inserted into B. coagulans membrane. In addition, the propidium iodide uptake assay and fluorescent microscopy showed that CAVE increased B. coagulans membrane permeability. Therefore, CAVE is expected to play an important role in the food and cosmetics industries as a bi-functional material with both antioxidant and antibacterial activities.

9.
Plant Mol Biol ; 2020 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33206358

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Enhanced glutathione content improves lateral root development by positively regulating the transcripts of root development genes responsive to glutathione treatment, thereby increasing the overall productivity of rice plants. Glutathione is primarily known as a cellular antioxidant molecule, but its role in lateral root development in rice plants has not been elucidated. Here, we have investigated its role in lateral root development of rice Oryza sativa L. Exogenous glutathione (GSH) promoted both the number and length of lateral roots in rice, and the GSH biosynthesis inhibitor buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) significantly reduced these parameters, compared to untreated plants. The inhibition by BSO was reversed with exogenous GSH. Transcript profiling by RNA-seq revealed that expression of the transcription factor genes DREB and ERF and the hormone-related genes AOS, LOX, JAZ, and SAUR were significantly downregulated in the BSO-treated plants and, in contrast, upregulated in plants treated with GSH and with GSH and BSO together. We generated OsGS-overexpressing transgenic plants in which the transgene is controlled by the abiotic-stress-inducible OsRab21 promoter to study the effect of endogenously increased GSH levels. In cold stress, transgenic rice plants enhanced stress tolerance and lateral root development by maintaining redox homeostasis and improving upregulating the expression of transcription factors and hormone-related genes involved in lateral root development. We observed improved root growth of OsGS-overexpressing plants in paddy fields compared to the wild-type controls. These traits may have alleviated transplanting stress during early growth in the field and accounted for the increased productivity. These results provide information and perspectives on the role of GSH in gene expression, lateral root development, and grain yield in rice.

10.
Microorganisms ; 8(11)2020 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33212981

RESUMO

(1) Background: Dental calculus works as a niche wherein pathogenic bacteria proliferate in the oral cavity. Previous studies revealed the anticalculus activity of pyrophosphates, however there was no clinical study that evaluated microbiome changes associated with calculus inhibition. Therefore, the aim of this randomized clinical trial was to evaluate the calculus inhibition of pyrophosphate-containing toothpaste and its effect on oral microbiome changes. (2) Methods: Eighty subjects with a calculus index ≥2 on the lingual of the mandibular anterior tooth were randomly allocated to the test group that pyrophosphate-containing toothpaste was given to or the placebo control group. Full mouth debridement and standardized tooth brushing instruction were given before the allocation. Plaque index, gingival index, calculus index, probing depth, and bleeding on probing were measured at the baseline, and at 4, 8 and 12 weeks. Genomic DNA was extracted from the plaque samples collected at the baseline and at 12 weeks, and 16S ribosomal RNA gene amplicon sequencing was applied for microbiome analysis. (3) Results: None of the clinical parameters showed significant differences by visits or groups, except the plaque index of the test group, which reduced significantly between 4 and 12 weeks. A significant difference of microbiome between the baseline and 12 weeks was observed in the test group. Between baseline and 12 weeks, the proportion of Spirochetes decreased in the control group, and the proportions of Proteobacteria, Fusobacteria and Spirochetes in the phylum level and the proportions of Haemophilus, Fusobacterium and Capnocytophaga in the genus level decreased in the test group. In the test group, as plaque index decreased, Streptococcus increased, and Fusobacterium and Haemophilus parainfluenza decreased. (4) Conclusion: The use of pyrophosphate-containing toothpaste effectively inhibited the dysbiosis of the oral microbiome and the proliferation of pathogenic species in periodontal disease. Clinically, plaque formation in the pyrophosphate-containing toothpaste group was effectively decreased, however there was no significant change in calculus deposition.

11.
J Pathol ; 2020 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33009821

RESUMO

In a recent issue of The Journal of Pathology, Iampietro et al isolated and characterized several clones of urine-derived podocytes from three patients with Alport syndrome (AS) and proteinuria and one age-matched non-proteinuric control. They reported differential expression of genes involved in cell motility, adhesion, survival, and angiogenesis. The authors found AS podocytes to be less motile and to have significantly higher permeability to albumin compared to control podocytes, highlighting that AS podocytes may retain their phenotype even when losing contact with the glomerular basement membrane. The establishment of urine-derived podocyte cell lines from patients with different genetic forms of AS may represent a valuable and minimally invasive tool to investigate the cellular mechanisms contributing to kidney disease progression in AS and may allow for the establishment of patient-specific drug screening opportunities. © 2020 The Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

12.
Lasers Med Sci ; 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33079312

RESUMO

In the last few decades, there has essentially been an explosion in the use of lasers in medicine, especially in the area of cosmetic dermatology. Potentially harmful substances are liberated when tissues are vaporized with laser. This creates numerous risks, including the spread of infectious disease. Smoke evacuators are devices that capture and filter laser plume, thereby maintaining a safe environment for the surgical team and patient. Our aim was to characterize the microbial community structure within the suction tube and funnel of the smoke evacuator system, identify their origin, and evaluate pathogenicity. Dust particles were collected from the instruments with a cotton swab. DNA was extracted from the swabs and the transport media, and sequencing was performed using the Illumina HiSeq Xplatform. Metagenomic analysis was conducted using the Empowering the Development of Genomics Expertise (EDGE) Bioinformatics pipeline and custom Python scripts. The most abundant bacterial species were Micrococcus luteus and Brevibacterium casei in the suction tube, and Dermacoccus sp. Ellin 185 and Janibacter hoylei in the suction funnel. A total of 15 medium- to high-quality metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) were constructed where we found 104 antibiotic-resistant genes (ARGs) and 741 virulence factors. Findings indicate that the suction tube and funnel are likely a reservoir of virulence factor genes and ARGs, which can possibly be passed on to other bacteria via horizontal gene transfer. We would like to emphasize the health risk these microorganisms pose and the need to reevaluate the current hygiene standards with regard to the smoke evacuator system.

13.
Gynecol Endocrinol ; : 1-4, 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33124502

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between the aryl hydrocarbon receptor repressor (AhRR) C/G polymorphisms and glutathione-S-transferase M1 (GSTM1) and GSTT1 null mutation and the risk of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in Korean women. METHODS: This was a case-control study of 478 women with PCOS and 376 aged-matched healthy controls. Genotyping of the AhRR C/G polymorphism and GSTM1 and GSTT1 were performed using real-time PCR analysis and multiplex PCR, respectively. RESULTS: The genotype distribution of the AhRR C/G polymorphisms and GSTM1/GSTT1 null mutations did not differ between women with PCOS and controls. Using the wild-type combined AhRR CC and GSTT1 present genotype as a reference, the odds that a woman had PCOS were 1.54 (95% CIs 1.04-2.29) times higher if she had a combined AhRR CG or GG and GSTT1 null genotype. The odds that a woman had PCOS was 1.48 (95% CIs 1.08-2.04) times higher if she had a combined GSTM1/GSTT1 null genotype compared with the wild-type combined GSTM1/GSTT1 present genotype. However, there were no significant associations between the risk of PCOS and any combined AhRR and GSTM1. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that a combined AhRR CG or GG and GSTT1 null genotype or a combined GSTT1/GSTM1 null genotype might be associated with an increased risk of PCOS.

14.
Kidney Int ; 98(5): 1275-1285, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32739420

RESUMO

Defective cholesterol metabolism primarily linked to reduced ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) expression is closely associated with the pathogenesis and progression of kidney diseases, including diabetic kidney disease and Alport Syndrome. However, whether the accumulation of free or esterified cholesterol contributes to progression in kidney disease remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that inhibition of sterol-O-acyltransferase-1 (SOAT1), the enzyme at the endoplasmic reticulum that converts free cholesterol to cholesterol esters, which are then stored in lipid droplets, effectively reduced cholesterol ester and lipid droplet formation in human podocytes. Furthermore, we found that inhibition of SOAT1 in podocytes reduced lipotoxicity-mediated podocyte injury in diabetic kidney disease and Alport Syndrome in association with increased ABCA1 expression and ABCA1-mediated cholesterol efflux. In vivo, Soat1 deficient mice did not develop albuminuria or mesangial expansion at 10-12 months of age. However, Soat1 deficiency/inhibition in experimental models of diabetic kidney disease and Alport Syndrome reduced cholesterol ester content in kidney cortices and protected from disease progression. Thus, targeting SOAT1-mediated cholesterol metabolism may represent a new therapeutic strategy to treat kidney disease in patients with diabetic kidney disease and Alport Syndrome, like that suggested for Alzheimer's disease and cancer treatments.

15.
Inorg Chem ; 59(16): 11562-11576, 2020 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32799505

RESUMO

Organelle-targeting fluorescence probes are valuable because they can provide spatiotemporal information about the trafficking of analytes of interest. The spatiotemporal resolution can be improved by using low-energy emission signals because they are barely contaminated by autofluorescence noises. In this study, we designed and synthesized a deep-red-fluorescent zinc probe (JJ) with a membrane-targeting cholesterol unit. This zinc probe consists of a boron-azadipyrromethene (aza-BODIPY) fluorophore and a zinc receptor that is tethered to a tri(ethylene glycol)-cholesterol chain. In aqueous solutions buffered to pH 7.4, JJ exhibits weak fluorescence with a peak wavelength of 663 nm upon excitation at 622 nm. The addition of ZnCl2 elicits an approximately 5-fold enhancement of the fluorescence emission with a fluorescence dynamic range of 141000. Our electrochemical and picosecond transient photoluminescence investigations indicate that the fluorescence turn-on response is due to the zinc-induced abrogation of the formation of a nonemissive intramolecularly charge-separated species, which occurs with a driving force of 0.98 eV. The fluorescence zinc response was found to be fully reversible and to be unaffected by pH changes or the presence of biological metal ions. These properties are due to tight zinc binding with a dissociation constant of 4 pM. JJ was found to be nontoxic to HeLa cells up to submicromolar concentrations, which enables cellular imaging. Colocalization experiments were performed with organelle-specific stains and revealed that JJ is rapidly internalized into intracellular organelles, including lysosomes and endoplasmic reticula. Unexpectedly, probe internalization was found to permeabilize the cell membrane, which facilitates the influx of exogens such as zinc ions. Such permeabilization does not arise for a control probe without the tri(ethylene glycol)-cholesterol chain (JJC). Our results show that the membrane-targeting cholesterol unit can disrupt membrane integrity.

17.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(34): e21751, 2020 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32846799

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Chryseobacterium arthrosphaerae is a gram-negative bacteria, known for its intrinsic multidrug resistance, which can lead to treatment difficulties. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 56-year-old male had an indwelling external ventricular drainage catheter for 6 months and had been frequently treated with antibiotics for nosocomial infections. He showed cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis and an abrupt fever during hospitalization. DIAGNOSIS: He was diagnosed as a ventriculitis caused by Chryseobacterium arthrosphaerae (C arthrosphaerae). INTERVENTION: Initially, we used ciprofloxacin as the backbone in combination with minocycline (and rifampin). However, fever and pleocytosis persisted, and improvement was slow. We then switched the minocycline and rifampin regiment to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. Following this switch of antibiotics, the patient's pleocytosis rapidly improved, allowing the replacement of his external ventricular drainage catheters. C arthrospharae was no longer growing in cerebrospinal fluid and he was recovered from ventriculitis. OUTCOMES: The patient remains alive without any incidence of C arthrosphaerae recurrence. CONCLUSION: We propose trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole alone or in combination with ciprofloxacin to be good candidates for the treatment of ventriculitis by C arthrosphaerae.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Ventriculite Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Chryseobacterium , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Cateteres de Demora , Ventriculite Cerebral/complicações , Ventriculite Cerebral/diagnóstico , Drenagem , Quimioterapia Combinada , Humanos , Leucocitose/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Minociclina/uso terapêutico , Rifampina/uso terapêutico , Combinação Trimetoprima e Sulfametoxazol/uso terapêutico
18.
Mol Plant Pathol ; 21(8): 1055-1069, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32643866

RESUMO

In the environment, bacteria show close association, such as interspecies interaction, with other bacteria as well as host organisms. The type VI secretion system (T6SS) in gram-negative bacteria is involved in bacterial competition or virulence. The plant pathogen Burkholderia glumae BGR1, causing bacterial panicle blight in rice, has four T6SS gene clusters. The presence of at least one T6SS gene cluster in an organism indicates its distinct role, like in the bacterial and eukaryotic cell targeting system. In this study, deletion mutants targeting four tssD genes, which encode the main component of T6SS needle formation, were constructed to functionally dissect the four T6SSs in B. glumae BGR1. We found that both T6SS group_4 and group_5, belonging to the eukaryotic targeting system, act independently as bacterial virulence factors toward host plants. In contrast, T6SS group_1 is involved in bacterial competition by exerting antibacterial effects. The ΔtssD1 mutant lost the antibacterial effect of T6SS group_1. The ΔtssD1 mutant showed similar virulence as the wild-type BGR1 in rice because the ΔtssD1 mutant, like the wild-type BGR1, still has key virulence factors such as toxin production towards rice. However, metagenomic analysis showed different bacterial communities in rice infected with the ΔtssD1 mutant compared to wild-type BGR1. In particular, the T6SS group_1 controls endophytic plant-associated bacteria such as Luteibacter and Dyella in rice plants and may have an advantage in competing with endophytic plant-associated bacteria for settlement inside rice plants in the environment. Thus, B. glumae BGR1 causes disease using T6SSs with functionally distinct roles.

19.
Biomater Sci ; 8(16): 4508-4520, 2020 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32627794

RESUMO

We previously demonstrated that the efficiency of direct cardiac reprogramming from fibroblasts could be enhanced via mimicking of the in vivo cardiac microenvironment through coculture with cardiomyocytes and by providing electric cues. In the present study, we developed cell sheets using the direct cardiac reprogrammed cells and a nanothin, nanoporous poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) membrane. Cell sheets were laid layer-by-layer and prevacularized with endothelial cells between the layers. These prevascularized, multilayered cell sheets were implanted on the epicardium of infarcted rat hearts, which led to an improvement in cardiac function and reduction in adverse cardiac remodeling post-myocardial infarction (MI). Thus, the in vivo mimicking direct cardiac reprogramming and prevascularization technique can enhance the efficiency of cell sheets in clinical applications and provide new opportunities to prevent heart failure following MI.

20.
Oncol Lett ; 20(1): 364-372, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32565962

RESUMO

The objective of the present study was to compare sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels according to sex (healthy male and female volunteers) and age to determine reference values. Serum SHBG expression levels in patients with breast cancer with different tumor burden states were also determined. A total of 109 samples were obtained from 34 patients in 3 different disease states (non-tumor, localized tumor and systemic metastasis) during follow-up. A sandwich ELISA was conducted to measure SHBG, cancer antigen (CA)15-3 and CA125 expression levels. Wilcoxon rank-sum tests were performed on non-normally distributed data and an unpaired t-test was used for normally distributed variables. SHBG expression levels were higher in females compared with males (P<0.0001). When SHBG expression levels were compared by sex, the difference was maintained in the age groups <30, 30-39 and ≥50 years, but not in the 40-49 years group. In males, SHBG expression levels increased until the age of 49 and then decreased (P=0.01). In females, SHBG expression levels exhibited a decreased trend until the age of 49 (P=0.66). In patients with breast cancer, the SHBG expression levels revealed a decreasing trend after the age of 50, which was different compared with the healthy females. There was a decreasing trend of SHBG expression levels from pre-menopause to post-menopause healthy volunteers (P=0.74). CA15-3 (r2=0.07; P=0.59) and CA 125 (r2=-0.18; P=0.17) levels did not exhibit any significant correlation with SHBG expression levels. There was a significant difference in the SHBG expression levels between male and female healthy volunteers. SHBG expression levels also revealed different patterns between healthy female volunteers and female patients with breast cancer ≥50 years of age. The present study demonstrated that SHBG does not have value as a biomarker, but different reference values according to age and sex may aid in predicting high-risk groups for hormone-dependent cancer and guide treatment direction for post-menopausal breast cancer.

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