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1.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(22): e013448, 2019 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31694442

RESUMO

Background Behavioral dysexecutive syndrome (BDES) is a common phenomenon following stroke. To date, research has focused mainly on individual behavioral symptoms rather than a more comprehensive characterization of goal-directed behavior in stroke survivors. This cross-sectional study evaluated the prevalence and clinical correlates of BDES in Hong Kong stroke survivors. Methods and Results A total of 369 stroke survivors were recruited from a regional hospital at 3 months after their index stroke. Patients' demographic and clinical characteristics were extracted from a comprehensive stroke database. BDES was measured with the Chinese version of the Dysexecutive Questionnaire. Four neurocognitive batteries assessed domains of cognitive executive functions. The prevalence of BDES 3 months poststroke was 18.7%. At that time point, the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale and Mini-Mental State Examination scores and the presence of depression were significant predictors of BDES in a multivariate logistic regression analysis. These parameters remained significant predictors of the Dysexecutive Questionnaire score in a linear stepwise regression analysis and together accounted for 28.5% of the variance. Current depression was predictive of the Dysexecutive Questionnaire score in patients with BDES, with a variance of 9.7%. Furthermore, compared with the non-BDES group, patients with BDES exhibited poor performance-based executive function in the Chinese version of the Frontal Assessment Battery and color trails, arrow, and category fluency tests. Conclusions Symptoms of anxiety, current depression, and global cognitive function may be independent predictors of the presence and severity of BDES 3 months poststroke. Stroke survivors with BDES exhibit poor executive functioning, including goal maintenance and semantic memory.

2.
Neurointervention ; 2019 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31437873

RESUMO

Endovascular recanalization therapy (ERT) has been a standard of care for patients with acute ischemic stroke due to large artery occlusion (LAO) within 6 hours after onset, since five landmark ERT trials conducted by 2015 demonstrated its clinical benefit. Recently, two randomized clinical trials demonstrated that ERT, even in the late time window of up to 16 hours or 24 hours after last known normal time, improved the outcome of patients who had a target mismatch, defined as either clinical-core mismatch or perfusion-core mismatch, which prompted the update of national guidelines in several countries. Accordingly, to provide evidence-based and up-to-date recommendations for ERT in patients with acute LAO in Korea, the Clinical Practice Guidelines Committee of the Korean Stroke Society decided to revise the previous Korean Clinical Practice Guidelines of Stroke for ERT. For this update, the members of the writing group were appointed by the Korean Stroke Society and the Korean Society of Interventional Neuroradiology. After thoroughly reviewing the updated evidence from two recent trials and relevant literature, the writing members revised recommendations, for which formal consensus was achieved by convening an expert panel composed of 45 experts from the participating academic societies. The current guidelines are intended to help healthcare providers, patients, and their caregivers make well-informed decisions and to improve the quality of care regarding ERT. The ultimate decision for ERT in a particular patient must be made in light of circumstances specific to that patient.

3.
J Neurol ; 266(9): 2286-2293, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31175434

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of intra-arterial thrombectomy (IAT) and prognosis for acute ischaemic stroke patients with active cancer. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 253 patients who underwent IAT within 24 h after stroke onset between January 2012 and August 2017. We classified the patients into active cancer (n = 26) and control groups (n = 227) and compared clinical data. Primary outcome was a modified Rankin scale score at 3 months with ordinal logistic regression (shift analysis). RESULTS: Initial National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) and rate of successful recanalisation did not differ between groups, but the active cancer group showed poor outcomes at 3 months on shift analysis (P = 0.001). The independent predictors of poor prognosis were age [adjusted common odds ratio (aOR) 1.03, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01-1.05], baseline NIHSS (aOR 1.14, 95% CI 1.09-1.19), baseline C-reactive protein level (aOR 1.14, 95% CI 1.03-1.25), any cerebral haemorrhage (aOR 1.92, 95% CI 1.21-3.06), and active cancer (aOR 2.35, 95% CI 1.05-5.25). Mortality at 90 days was 30.8% in the cancer group and 8.8% in the control group (P = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS: Although baseline characteristics and recanalisation rate after IAT up to 24 h after stroke onset were similar between acute ischaemic stroke patients with active cancer and without any cancer, stroke-related death and short-term outcome were significantly poorer in patients with active cancer than the controls. Post-procedural haemorrhage and active cancer itself were independent predictors of a decrease in functional independence at 3 months.

4.
AJR Am J Roentgenol ; 213(4): 817-818, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31120792

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE. We estimated the natural history of subcentimeter stage I non-small cell lung cancers detected on screening CT using a computed mean 230-day tumor volume doubling time and exponential growth. CONCLUSION. We found that the majority of patients with subcentimeter, non-small cell lung cancers would survive for more than 5 years without treatment. The benefit of cancer interdiction would be offset to some extent by the combined effects of surgical mortality and materially diminished longer-term disease-free survival among the more than 40% of patients who would be overdiagnosed.

5.
J Affect Disord ; 253: 218-223, 2019 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31054447

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cerebral small vessel diseases (SVD) are associated with poststroke depressive symptoms (PDS). The mechanisms underlying the association between SVD burden and PDS are unclear. This study investigated the clinical pathways linking SVD burden to PDS. METHOD: A cohort of 563 patients with acute ischemic stroke were examined at three and fifteen months after stroke. PDS was measured with the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS). Cognitive and physical functions were assessed with the Mini-Mental State Examination and the modified Rankin Scale, respectively. All patients received MRI scans at baseline. Infarct volumes and the four SVD markers (lacunae, white matter hyperintensities, cerebral microbleeds, and perivascular spaces) were assessed on magnetic resonance imaging. SVD burden was defined as a latent variable encompassing the information about all four SVD markers in structural equation modeling (SEM). SEM was further employed to examine the direct and indirect linking pathways between SVD burden, infarct volumes, stroke severity, poststroke cognitive and physical dysfunctions, and PDS. RESULTS: The latent SVD burden was directly associated with more severe PDS at the 3-month follow-up (path coefficient=0.11), while SVD burden and PDS at the 15-month were mainly linked through PDS at the 3-month follow-up (path coefficient=0.48). The volume of acute infarcts and impaired physical functions predominantly mediated the association between SVD burden and PDS at 3-month follow-up. Physical and cognitive functions 15 months after stroke mainly bridged the link between SVD burden and the PDS at the 15-month follow-up. LIMITATIONS: The study included patients with mild stroke, which reduced the generalizability of the findings. CONCLUSIONS: SVD burden not only directly determines poststroke depressive symptoms, but also worsens acute stroke lesions, stroke severity, and poststroke neurological deficits, thereby contributing further to the development of PDS over the first 15 months after stroke.

6.
Int J Stroke ; 14(7): 678-685, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30961463

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Randomized controlled trials provide high-level evidence, but the necessity to include selected patients may limit the generalisability of their results. METHODS: Comparisons were made of baseline and outcome data between patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) recruited into the alteplase-dose arm of the international, multi-center, Enhanced Control of Hypertension and Thrombolysis Stroke study (ENCHANTED) in the United Kingdom (UK), and alteplase-treated AIS patients registered in the UK Sentinel Stroke National Audit Programme (SSNAP) registry, over the study period June 2012 to October 2015. RESULTS: There were 770 AIS patients (41.2% female; mean age 72 years) included in ENCHANTED at sites in England and Wales, which was 19.5% of alteplase-treated AIS patients registered in the SSNAP registry. Trial participants were significantly older, had lower baseline neurological severity, less likely Asian, and had more premorbid symptoms, hypertension and atrial fibrillation. Although ENCHANTED participants had higher rates of symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage than those in SSNAP, there were no differences in onset-to-treatment time, levels of disability (assessed by the modified Rankin scale) at hospital discharge, and mortality over 90 days between groups. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the high level of participation, equipoise over the dose of alteplase among UK clinician investigators favored the inclusion of older, frailer, milder AIS patients in the ENCHANTED trial. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical Trial Registration-URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov . Unique identifier: NCT01422616.

7.
J Stroke ; 2019 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30991800

RESUMO

Endovascular recanalization therapy (ERT) has been a standard of care for patients with acute ischemic stroke due to large artery occlusion (LAO) within 6 hours after onset, since five landmark ERT trials conducted by 2015 demonstrated its clinical benefit. Recently, two randomized clinical trials demonstrated that ERT, even in the late time window of up to 16 hours or 24 hours after last known normal time, improved the outcome of patients who had a target mismatch, defined as either clinical-core mismatch or perfusion-core mismatch, which prompted the update of national guidelines in several countries. Accordingly, to provide evidence-based and up-to-date recommendations for ERT in patients with acute LAO in Korea, the Clinical Practice Guidelines Committee of the Korean Stroke Society decided to revise the previous Korean Clinical Practice Guidelines of Stroke for ERT. For this update, the members of the writing group were appointed by the Korean Stroke Society and the Korean Society of Interventional Neuroradiology. After thoroughly reviewing the updated evidence from two recent trials and relevant literature, the writing members revised recommendations, for which formal consensus was achieved by convening an expert panel composed of 45 experts from the participating academic societies. The current guidelines are intended to help healthcare providers, patients, and their caregivers make well-informed decisions and to improve the quality of care regarding ERT. The ultimate decision for ERT in a particular patient must be made in light of circumstances specific to that patient.

8.
J Thorac Imaging ; 34(3): 154-156, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30882498

RESUMO

Lung cancer seems an ideal screening candidate because of its frequency and lethality, its well-known risk factors, and because it can often be identified at a curable stage with noninvasive procedures. The lethality of clinically diagnosed lung cancers rendered the possibility of material overdiagnosis (OD) (by means of screening) implausible in the judgment of experienced clinicians. Increased experience with lung cancer screening trials, which showed an excess of cases in screened versus control cohorts, led to broader acceptance of its existence. The magnitude of OD and the appropriate methodology for its assessment are disputed. Overdiagnosed individuals experience substantial surgical mortality and their loss of pulmonary reserve leads, in many, to a material reduction in the duration and quality of life. To estimate the scale of computerized tomographic OD, taken as the excess of screen-identified cases versus unscreened controls, we pooled the long-term findings in the 3 reporting European trials comprising 10,675 subjects. There were 263 detected lung cancers in the low-dose, computerized tomographic-screened versus 153 in controls, a 42% excess.

10.
Cerebrovasc Dis ; 46(5-6): 200-209, 2018 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30408800

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the previous prospective observational study, we found that cerebral atherosclerosis is an independent predictor of acute stroke after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). However, it is unknown whether intracranial cerebral atherosclerosis (ICAS) is important as much as extracranial cerebral atherosclerosis (ECAS) in estimating the risk of post-CABG adverse events. Extending the previous study, we aimed to investigate the immediate and long-term prognostic value of the location of cerebral atherosclerosis in CABG patients. METHODS: This follow-up study of previously reported prospective cohort included 1,367 consecutive patients who received CABG between 2004 and 2007. All patients underwent preoperative magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) to assess intracranial and ECAS, both defined by significant steno-occlusion (≥50%). Participants were classified into 4 groups according to the location of cerebral atherosclerosis: no cerebral atherosclerosis, ECAS only, ICAS only, and ECAS + ICAS. Post-CABG stroke within 14 days (immediate outcome) and mortality (long-term outcome) following CABG were compared between the groups. Survival data for all participants through June 2016 were obtained from the Korean National Registry of Vital Statistics. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) of post-CABG stroke and mortality; patients lacking cerebral atherosclerosis were defined as the reference group. RESULTS: The median follow-up duration after CABG was 9.2 years (interquartile range 8.4-10.2 years). Of the participants, 278 (20.3%) patients had ICAS only, while 269 (19.7%) and 347 (25.4%) showed ECAS only and ECAS + ICAS, respectively, in their preoperative MRA. Having ICAS only (HR 5.07; 95% CI 1.37-18.75; p = 0.015) and having ECAS + ICAS (HR 8.43; 95% CI, 2.48-28.61; p = 0.001) independently predicted the immediate stroke, whereas being with ECAS only did not (HR 1.71; 95% CI 0.35-8.50; p = 0.509). Conversely, ICAS-only status was not independently associated with long-term mortality (HR 1.22; 95% CI 0.90-1.65; p = 0.207), whereas ECAS-only status (HR 1.42; 95% CI 1.05-1.90; p = 0.021) and ECAS + ICAS status (HR 1.58; 95% CI 1.20-2.07; p = 0.001) showed independent associations. CONCLUSIONS: Over 10 years of follow-up, cerebral atherosclerosis significantly associated with the development of adverse outcomes after CABG. The prognostic value of ICAS might be different from that of ECAS; immediate post-CABG stroke was more closely associated with ICAS, whereas there was a closer association between long-term post-CABG mortality and ECAS.

11.
Eur Radiol ; 2018 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30421013

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine whether fast scanned MRI using a 1.5-T scanner is a reliable method for the detection and characterization of acute ischemic stroke in comparison with conventional MRI. METHODS: From May 2015 to June 2016, 862 patients (FLAIR, n = 482; GRE, n = 380; MRA, n = 190) were prospectively enrolled in the study, with informed consent and under institutional review board approval. The patients underwent both fast (EPI-FLAIR, ETL-FLAIR, TR-FLAIR, EPI-GRE, parallel-GRE, fast CE-MRA) and conventional MRI (FLAIR, GRE, time-of-flight MRA, fast CE-MRA). Two neuroradiologists independently assessed agreements in acute and chronic ischemic hyperintensity, hyperintense vessels (FLAIR), microbleeds, susceptibility vessel signs, hemorrhagic transformation (GRE), stenosis (MRA), and image quality (all MRI), between fast and conventional MRI. Agreements between fast and conventional MRI were evaluated by generalized estimating equations. Z-scores were used for comparisons of the percentage agreement among fast FLAIR sequences and fast GRE sequences and between conventional and fast MRA. RESULTS: Agreements of more than 80% were achieved between fast and conventional MRI (ETL-FLAIR, 96%; TR-FLAIR, 97%; EPI-GRE, 96%; parallel-GRE, 98%; fast CE-MRA, 86%). ETL- and TR-FLAIR were significantly superior to EPI-FLAIR in the detection of acute ischemic hyperintensity and hyperintense vessels, while parallel-GRE was significantly superior to EPI-GRE in the detection of susceptibility vessel sign (p value < 0.05 for all). There were no significant differences in the other scores and image qualities (p value > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Fast MRI at 1.5 T is a reliable method for the detection and characterization of acute ischemic stroke in comparison with conventional MRI. KEY POINTS: • Fast MRI at 1.5 T may achieve a high intermethod reliability in the detection and characterization of acute ischemic stroke with a reduction in scan time in comparison with conventional MRI.

12.
J Stroke ; 20(3): 404-406, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30309235
13.
14.
Cerebrovasc Dis ; 46(3-4): 108-117, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30199876

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinical syndromes secondary to infarcts in the distal basilar artery (BA) area have been described as "top of the basilar" (TOB) syndrome. However, in the era of advanced imaging technology, it has been realized that the clinical and imaging features are quite diverse in patients with distal BA occlusion. The aim of the present study was to investigate the patterns and clinical outcomes of TOB assessed with modern images and categorize TOBs accordingly. Additionally, we examined the possible influence of the posterior communicating artery (PcoA) on the patterns of TOB. METHODS: Patients with distal BA occlusion on magnetic resonance angiography were categorized as TOB-A, and those with multiple lesions in the distal BA territory on diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging as TOB-L. Patients with angiographically and lesion distribution-defined TOB were classified as having TOB-A&L; those with angiographically defined TOB as having TOB-A without TOB-L; and those with lesion distribution-defined TOB as having TOB-L without TOB-A. The PcoA was categorized as "textbook-type" (good P1) and "fetal-type" (absent P1). Factors associated with unfavorable short-term outcomes (modified Rankin Scale 5-6 at discharge), and 1-year and long-term mortalities, were assessed. RESULTS: Of 1,466 patients with ischemic stroke in the posterior circulation who were admitted to Asan Medical Center within 24 h of symptom onset, 124 (8.5%) had TOB, including 45 with TOB-A&L, 44 with TOB-A, and 35 with TOB-L. NIHSS scores (21 [9.5-26] vs. 6 [3-11.5] vs. 6 [3-9]; p < 0.01) and rates of motor deficit (75.6 vs. 54.5 vs. 34.4%; p < 0.01), concomitant pontine lesions (17.8 vs. 25.0 vs. 2.9%; p < 0.01), PcoA presence (44.4 vs. 68.2 vs. 25.7%; p < 0.01), and unfavorable short-term outcomes (62.2 vs. 25.0 vs. 14.3%; p < 0.01) differed significantly in the 3 patient groups. Multivariate analysis showed that textbook-type PcoA was independently associated with a lower frequency of unfavorable short-term outcomes (OR 0.15, 95% CI 0.03-0.70). Reperfusion therapy (hazard ratio [HR] 0.25, 95% CI 0.07-0.89) and the presence of textbook-type PcoA (HR 0.20, 95% CI 0.05-0.90) were associated with a lower 1-year mortality rate after stroke. CONCLUSION: Patterns and clinical outcomes of TOB vary and are affected by the hemodynamic status of the arterial system, such as BA recanalization and the presence of textbook-type PcoA.

15.
J Thorac Dis ; 10(6): E508-E509, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30069416

RESUMO

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.21037/jtd.2018.01.164.].

16.
J Stroke ; 20(2): 208-217, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29886713

RESUMO

Intracranial large artery disease (ILAD) is the major cause of stroke worldwide. With the application of recently introduced diagnostic techniques, the prevalence of non-atherosclerotic ILAD is expected to increase. Herein, we reviewed recent reports and summarized progress in the diagnosis and clinical impact of differentiation between ILAD of atherosclerotic and non-atherosclerotic origin. Our review of the literature suggests that more careful consideration of non-atherosclerotic causes and the application of appropriate diagnostic techniques in patients with ILAD may not only provide better results in the treatment of patients, but it may also lead to more successful clinical trials for the treatment of intracranial atherosclerosis.

17.
J Stroke ; 20(2): 143-144, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29886719
18.
J Stroke ; 20(2): 167-179, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29886717

RESUMO

Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and lacunar infarction (LI) are the major acute clinical manifestations of cerebral small vessel diseases (cSVDs). Hypertensive small vessel disease, cerebral amyloid angiopathy, and hereditary causes, such as Cerebral Autosomal Dominant Arteriopathy with Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL), constitute the three common cSVD categories. Diagnosing the underlying vascular pathology in these patients is important because the risk and types of recurrent strokes show significant differences. Recent advances in our understanding of the cSVD-related radiological markers have improved our ability to stratify ICH risk in individual patients, which helps guide antithrombotic decisions. There are general good-practice measures for stroke prevention in patients with cSVD, such as optimal blood pressure and glycemic control, while individualized measures tailored for particular patients are often needed. Antithrombotic combinations and anticoagulants should be avoided in cSVD treatment, as they increase the risk of potentially fatal ICH without necessarily lowering LI risk in these patients. Even when indicated for a concurrent pathology, such as nonvalvular atrial fibrillation, nonpharmacological approaches should be considered in the presence of cSVD. More data are emerging regarding the presentation, clinical course, and diagnostic markers of hereditary cSVD, allowing accurate diagnosis, and therefore, guiding management of symptomatic patients. When suspicion for asymptomatic hereditary cSVD exists, the pros and cons of prescribing genetic testing should be discussed in detail in the absence of any curative treatment. Recent data regarding diagnosis, risk stratification, and specific preventive approaches for both sporadic and hereditary cSVDs are discussed in this review article.

19.
J Stroke ; 20(2): 258-267, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29886724

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The pathophysiology of post-stroke depression (PSD) is complex and may differ according to an individual's mood immediately after stroke. Here, we compared the therapeutic response and clinical characteristics of PSD at a later stage between patients with and without depression immediately after stroke. METHODS: This study involved a post hoc analysis of data from EMOTION (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01278498), a placebo-controlled, double-blind trial that examined the efficacy of escitalopram (10 mg/day) on PSD and other emotional disturbances among 478 patients with acute stroke. Participants were classified into the Baseline-Blue (patients with baseline depression at the time of randomization, defined per the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale [MADRS] ≥8) or the Baseline-Pink groups (patients without baseline depression). We compared the efficacy of escitalopram and predictors of 3-month PSD (MADRS ≥8) between these groups. RESULTS: There were 203 Baseline-Pink and 275 Baseline-Blue patients. The efficacy of escitalopram in reducing PSD risk was more pronounced in the Baseline-Pink than in the Baseline-Blue group (p for interaction=0.058). Several risk factors differentially affected PSD development based on the presence of baseline depression (p for interaction <0.10). Cognitive dysfunction was an independent predictor of PSD in the Baseline-Blue, but not in the Baseline-Pink group, whereas the non-use of escitalopram and being female were more strongly associated with PSD in the Baseline-Pink group. CONCLUSIONS: Responses to escitalopram and predictors of PSD 3 months following stroke differed based on the presence of baseline depression. Our data suggest that PSD pathophysiology is heterogeneous; therefore, different therapeutic strategies may be needed to prevent PSD emergence following stroke.

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