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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33534549

RESUMO

The design and synthesis of a stable and efficient hole-transport material (HTM) for perovskite solar cells (PSCs) are one of the most demanding research areas. At present, 2,2',7,7'-tetrakis[N,N-di(4-methoxyphenyl)amino]-9,9'-spirobifluorene (spiro-MeOTAD) is a commonly used HTM in the fabrication of high-efficiency PSCs; however, its complicated synthesis, addition of a dopant in order to realize the best efficiency, and high cost are major challenges for the further development of PSCs. Herein, various diketopyrrolopyrrole-based small molecules were synthesized with the same backbone but distinct alkyl side-chain substituents (i.e., 2-ethylhexyl-, n-hexyl-, ((methoxyethoxy)ethoxy)ethyl-, and (2-((2-methoxyethoxy)ethoxy)ethyl)acetamide, designated as D-1, D-2, D-3, and D-4, respectively) as HTMs. The variation in the alkyl chain has shown obvious effects on the optical and electrochemical properties as well as on the molecular packing and film-forming ability. Consequently, the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the PSC under one sun illumination (100 mW cm-2) is shown to increase in the order of D-1 (8.32%) < D-2 (11.12%) < D-3 (12.05%) < D-4 (17.64%). Various characterization techniques reveal that the superior performance of D-4 can be ascribed to the well-aligned highest occupied molecular orbital energy level with the counter electrode, the more compact π-π stacking with a higher coherence length, and the excellent hole mobility of 1.09 × 10-3 cm2 V-1 s-1, thus providing excellent energetics for effective charge transport with minimal charge-carrier recombination. Furthermore, the addition of the dopant Li-TFSI in D-4 is shown to deliver a remarkable PCE of 20.19%, along with a short-circuit current density (JSC), open-circuit voltage (VOC), and fill factor (FF) of 22.94 mA cm-2, 1.14 V, and 73.87%, respectively, and superior stability compared to that of other HTMs. These results demonstrate the effectiveness of side-chain engineering for tailoring the properties of HTMs, thus offering new design tactics to fabricate for the synthesis of highly efficient and stable HTMs for PSCs.

2.
Chem Soc Rev ; 2020 Dec 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33367452

RESUMO

Pnictogens (the non-metal phosphorus, metalloids arsenic and antimony, and metal bismuth) possess diverse chemical characteristics that support the formation of extended molecular structures. As witnessed by the centuries-old (and ongoing) clinical utilities, pnictogen-based compounds have secured their places in history as "magic bullet" therapeutic drugs in medicinal contexts. Moreover, with the development of recent metalloproteomics and bio-coordination chemistry, the pnictogen-based drugs functionally binding to proteins/enzymes in biological systems have been underlaid for "drug repurposing" with promising opportunities. Furthermore, advances in the modern materials science and nonotechnology have stimulated a revolution in other newly discovered forms of pnictogens-phosphorene, arsenene, antimonene, and bismuthine (layered pnictogens). Based on their favorable optoelectronic properties, layered pnictogens have shown dramatic superiority as emerging photonic nanomedicines for the treatment of various diseases. This tutorial review outlines the history and mechanism of action of ancient pnictogen-based drugs (e.g., arsenical compounds in traditional Chinese medicine) and their repurposing into modern therapeutics. Then, the revolutionary use of emerging layered pnictogens as photonic nanomedicines, alongside assessments of their in vivo biosafety, is discussed. Finally, the challenges to further development of pnictogens are set forth and insights for further exploration of their appealing properties are offered. This tutorial review may also provide some deep insights into the fields of integrated traditional Chinese and Western medicines from the perspective of materials science and nanotechnology.

3.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 9(11)2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33143023

RESUMO

Multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria have become a severe problem for public health. Developing new antibiotics for MDR bacteria is difficult, from inception to the clinically approved stage. Here, we have used a new approach, modification of an antibiotic, ciprofloxacin (CFX), with triphenylphosphonium (TPP, PPh3) moiety via ester- (CFX-ester-PPh3) and amide-coupling (CFX-amide-PPh3) to target bacterial membranes. In this study, we have evaluated the antibacterial activities of CFX and its derivatives against 16 species of bacteria, including MDR bacteria, using minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assay, morphological monitoring, and expression of resistance-related genes. TPP-conjugated CFX, CFX-ester-PPh3, and CFX-amide-PPh3 showed significantly improved antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus, including MDR S. aureus (methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA)) strains. The MRSA ST5 5016 strain showed high antibacterial activity, with MIC values of 11.12 µg/mL for CFX-ester-PPh3 and 2.78 µg/mL for CFX-amide-PPh3. The CFX derivatives inhibited biofilm formation in MRSA by more than 74.9% of CFX-amide-PPh3. In the sub-MIC, CFX derivatives induced significant morphological changes in MRSA, including irregular deformation and membrane disruption, accompanied by a decrease in the level of resistance-related gene expression. With these promising results, this method is very likely to combat MDR bacteria through a simple TPP moiety modification of known antibiotics, which can be readily prepared at clinical sites.

4.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(46): 28667-28677, 2020 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33139557

RESUMO

The treatment of diabetic ulcer (DU) remains a major clinical challenge due to the complex wound-healing milieu that features chronic wounds, impaired angiogenesis, persistent pain, bacterial infection, and exacerbated inflammation. A strategy that effectively targets all these issues has proven elusive. Herein, we use a smart black phosphorus (BP)-based gel with the characteristics of rapid formation and near-infrared light (NIR) responsiveness to address these problems. The in situ sprayed BP-based gel could act as 1) a temporary, biomimetic "skin" to temporarily shield the tissue from the external environment and accelerate chronic wound healing by promoting the proliferation of endothelial cells, vascularization, and angiogenesis and 2) a drug "reservoir" to store therapeutic BP and pain-relieving lidocaine hydrochloride (Lid). Within several minutes of NIR laser irradiation, the BP-based gel generates local heat to accelerate microcirculatory blood flow, mediate the release of loaded Lid for "on-demand" pain relief, eliminate bacteria, and reduce inflammation. Therefore, our study not only introduces a concept of in situ sprayed, NIR-responsive pain relief gel targeting the challenging wound-healing milieu in diabetes but also provides a proof-of-concept application of BP-based materials in DU treatment.

5.
Nat Rev Mater ; : 1-14, 2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33078077

RESUMO

The ongoing SARS-CoV-2 pandemic highlights the importance of materials science in providing tools and technologies for antiviral research and treatment development. In this Review, we discuss previous efforts in materials science in developing imaging systems and microfluidic devices for the in-depth and real-time investigation of viral structures and transmission, as well as material platforms for the detection of viruses and the delivery of antiviral drugs and vaccines. We highlight the contribution of materials science to the manufacturing of personal protective equipment and to the design of simple, accurate and low-cost virus-detection devices. We then investigate future possibilities of materials science in antiviral research and treatment development, examining the role of materials in antiviral-drug design, including the importance of synthetic material platforms for organoids and organs-on-a-chip, in drug delivery and vaccination, and for the production of medical equipment. Materials-science-based technologies not only contribute to the ongoing SARS-CoV-2 research efforts but can also provide platforms and tools for the understanding, protection, detection and treatment of future viral diseases.

6.
Chem ; 6(6): 1408-1419, 2020 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32864504

RESUMO

Tumor recurrence as a result of therapy-induced nuclear DNA lesions is a major issue in cancer treatment. Currently, only a few examples of potentially non-genotoxic drugs have been reported. Mitochondrial re-localization of ciprofloxacin, one of the most commonly prescribed synthetic antibiotics, is reported here as a new approach. Conjugating ciprofloxacin to a triphenyl phosphonium group (giving lead Mt-CFX), is used to enhance the concentration of ciprofloxacin in the mitochondria of cancer cells. The localization of Mt-CFX to the mitochondria induces oxidative damage to proteins, mtDNA, and lipids. A large bias in favor of mtDNA damage over nDNA was seen with Mt-CFX, contrary to classic cancer chemotherapeutics. Mt-CFX was found to reduce cancer growth in a xenograft mouse model and proved to be well tolerated. Mitochondrial relocalization of antibiotics could emerge as a useful approach to generating anticancer leads that promote cell death via the selective induction of mitochondrially-mediated oxidative damage.

7.
Adv Mater ; : e2001945, 2020 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32902000

RESUMO

Neurodegenerative diseases are debilitating disorders that feature progressive and selective loss of function or structure of anatomically or physiologically associated neuronal systems. Both chronic and acute neurodegenerative diseases are associated with high morbidity and mortality along with the death of neurons in different areas of the brain; moreover, there are few or no effective curative therapy options for treating these disorders. There is an urgent need to diagnose neurodegenerative disease as early as possible, and to distinguish between different disorders with overlapping symptoms that will help to decide the best clinical treatment. Recently, in neurodegenerative disease research, fluorescent-probe-mediated biomarker visualization techniques have been gaining increasing attention for the early diagnosis of neurodegenerative diseases. A survey of fluorescent probes for sensing and imaging biomarkers of neurodegenerative diseases is provided. These imaging probes are categorized based on the different potential biomarkers of various neurodegenerative diseases, and their advantages and disadvantages are discussed. Guides to develop new sensing strategies, recognition mechanisms, as well as the ideal features to further improve neurodegenerative disease fluorescence imaging are also explored.

8.
J Am Chem Soc ; 142(38): 16156-16160, 2020 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32914968

RESUMO

The NIR absorptivity of the metallotexaphyrin derivatives MMn, MGd, and MLu for photoacoustic (PA)-based imaging is explored in this study. All three complexes demonstrated excellent photostabilities; however, MMn provided the greatest PA signal intensities in both doubly distilled water and RAW 264.7 cells. In vivo experiments using a prostate tumor mouse model were performed. MMn displayed no adverse toxicity to major organs as inferred from hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining and cell blood count testing. MMn also allowed for PA-based imaging of tumors with excellent in vivo stability to provide 3D tumor diagnostic information. Based on the present findings and previous magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies, we believe MMn may have a role to play either as a stand-alone PA contrast agent or as a single molecule dual modal (PA and MR) imaging agent for tumor diagnosis.

9.
Biomaterials ; 259: 120315, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32836057

RESUMO

Despite the wide application of the traditional NIR-I phototheranostic platforms in basic research and clinical studies, problems such as tissue scattering, auto-fluorescence combined with aggregation caused quenching hamper precise image-guided phototherapy. Herein, we developed a multifunctional NIR-II phototheranostic platform using a novel AIE-based dye (ZSY-TPE) for single laser-activated imaging-guided combined photothermal and photodynamic therapies of tumors and pathogens. As confirmed through in vivo studies, the ZSY-TPE dots displayed precise and efficient high-performance NIR-II imaging-guided combination phototherapy against 4T1 tumor as well as S. aureus-infected mice models without any noticeable side effects. The current study demonstrates ZSY-TPE as a powerful phototheranostic platform for precise NIR-II fluorescence/PA imaging and synergistic photodynamic/photothermal therapy of tumors and bacterial infections.

10.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 56(71): 10317-10320, 2020 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32760939

RESUMO

A novel ferrocene decorated vinyl pyridinium-substituted tetraphenylethylene (TPEPY-S-Fc) linked by a disulfide bond was designed as a GSH activatable photosensitizer by aggregation-induced emission for imaging-guided photodynamic therapy of cancer cells.

11.
Chem Soc Rev ; 49(22): 7856-7878, 2020 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32633291

RESUMO

Cancer stem cells (CSCs), also called tumor-initiating cells (TICs), have been studied intensively due to their rapid proliferation, migration, and role in the recurrence of cancer. In general, CSC marker-positive cells [CD133, CD44, CD166, aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), and epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM)] exhibit a 100-fold increased capacity to initiate cancer. Within a heterogeneous tumor mass, only approximately 0.05-3% of cells are suspected to be CSCs and able to proliferate under hypoxia. Interestingly, CSCs, cancer cells, and normal stem cells share many cytochemical properties, such as inhibition of the redox system for reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and high expression of drug resistance transporters. However, compared to normal stem cells, CSCs develop unique metabolic flexibility, which involves switching between oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and glycolysis as their main source of energy. Due to the similarities between CSCs and other cancer cells and normal stem cells, limited chemotherapeutic and bio-imaging reagents specific for CSCs have been developed. In this short review, we address the current knowledge regarding CSCs with a focus on designing chemotherapeutic and bio-imaging reagents that target CSCs.

12.
Chem Soc Rev ; 49(22): 8065-8087, 2020 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32567633

RESUMO

Optical techniques using developed laser and optical devices have made a profound impact on modern medicine, with "biomedical optics" becoming an emerging field. Sophisticated technologies have been developed in cancer nanomedicine, such as photothermal therapy and photodynamic therapy, among others. However, single-mode phototherapy cannot completely treat persistent tumors, with the challenges of relapse or metastasis remaining; therefore, combinatorial strategies are being developed. In this review, the role of light in cancer therapy and the challenges of phototherapy are discussed. The development of combinatorial strategies with other therapeutic methods, including chemotherapy, immunotherapy, gene therapy, and radiotherapy, is presented and future directions are further discussed. This review aims to highlight the significance of light in cancer therapy and discuss the combinatorial strategies that show promise in addressing the challenges of phototherapy.

14.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 7608, 2020 05 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32376843

RESUMO

Meta-analysis can be applied to study the effectiveness of the summary estimates for experimental papers, producing objective and unbiased results. We investigated the effects of phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) on the inflammatory profile in allergic mouse models, which are currently under development in signal transduction materials. PubMed, EMBASE and Web of Science databases were searched for relevant literature using the search terms " PI3K inhibitor" and "allergy" or "asthma". Cochrane Review Manager and R were used for handling continuous variables. The primary outcomes of the inflammatory profile were divided into cell counts and inflammatory cytokines. We used a random effects model to draw a forest plot. Through the database search and subsequent selection, 17 articles were identified. Regarding the cell counts, both the PI3K pan-inhibitors and PI3K-δ inhibitors effectively reduced the total cell counts, eosinophils, neutrophils and lymphocytes. In contrast to PI3K-δ inhibitors, PI3K pan-inhibitors effectively reduced macrophages. Regarding the inflammatory cytokines, PI3K pan-inhibitors and PI3K-δ inhibitors effectively reduced total IgE, IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, TNF-α, IL-1ß, VEGF and had no effect on IL-6. Compared to the PI3K pan-inhibitors, which block all pathways, selective PI3K-δ inhibitors are expected to be relatively less toxic. Regarding the efficacy, PI3K-δ inhibitors have at least the same or better efficacy than PI3K pan-inhibitors in effector cells and inflammatory mediators.


Assuntos
Hipersensibilidade/complicações , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Inibidores de Fosfoinositídeo-3 Quinase/farmacologia , Pneumonia/complicações , Pneumonia/enzimologia , Animais , Humanos , Inibidores de Fosfoinositídeo-3 Quinase/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia/tratamento farmacológico
15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(20): e20337, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32443385

RESUMO

To investigate the potential relationship between septal deviation (SD) and headache using nationwide representative cohort sample data.This study used a nationwide cohort sample from the Korean National Health Insurance Service database. The cohort sample was composed of 1 million patients, which is obtained by propensity score matching from 2002 to 2013. There were 9171 individuals in the SD group and 28243 in the control or no SD group. The Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, the log-rank test, and Cox proportional hazard regression analysis were used to calculate the incidence, survival curve, and hazard ratio of headache for each group.There were no statistically significant differences in sex (P = .7708), age (P = .991), residential area (P = .9626), or socioeconomic status (P = .9982) between the 2 groups. The survival curve between SD and control or no SD showed a statistically significant difference. The adjusted hazard ratio for headache incidence during the 10-year follow-up period of the SD group was 1.37 (95% CI: 1.31-1.43).This cohort study suggests that SD is associated with headache. Therefore, these findings suggest that septoplasty can be considered as 1 of the treatment option in SD patients with headache.


Assuntos
Cefaleia/epidemiologia , Septo Nasal/patologia , Adulto , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Revisão da Utilização de Seguros , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Características de Residência , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
16.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 56(49): 6684-6687, 2020 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32412039

RESUMO

We report a novel fluorescent molecular conjugate, V-M1, enabling an accurate visualization of tumor tissues. The emission wavelength of V-M1 exceeds 650 nm, which is well within the near-infrared therapeutic window. Tumor accumulation of this cationic dye allows the visualization of cancerous cells as a function of mitochondrial viscosity.

17.
Chem Soc Rev ; 49(11): 3244-3261, 2020 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32337527

RESUMO

Phototherapy, including photodynamic therapy and photothermal therapy, has the potential to treat several types of cancer. However, to be an effective anticancer treatment, it has to overcome limitations, such as low penetration depth, low target specificity, and resistance conferred by the local tumor microenvironment. As a non-invasive technique, low-intensity ultrasound has been widely used in clinical diagnosis as it exhibits deeper penetration into the body compared to light. Recently, sonodynamic therapy (SDT), a combination of low-intensity ultrasound with a chemotherapeutic agent (sonosensitizer), has been explored as a promising alternative for cancer therapy. As all known cancer treatments such as chemotherapy, photodynamic therapy, photothermal therapy, immunotherapy, and drug delivery have been advanced independently enough to complement others substantially, the combination of these therapeutic modalities with SDT is opportune. This review article highlights the recent advances in SDT in terms of sonosensitizers and their formulations and anticancer therapeutic efficacy. Also discussed is the potential of SDT in combination with other modalities to address unmet needs in precision medicine.

18.
Biomaterials ; 243: 119938, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32172033

RESUMO

Stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM) is a promising method for the visualization of ultra-fine mitochondrial structures. However, this approach is limited to monitoring dynamic intracellular events owing to its low temporal resolution. We developed a new strategy to capture mitochondrial dynamics using a compressed sensing STORM algorithm following raw data pre-treatments by a noise-corrected principal component analysis and K-factor image factorization. Using STORM microscopy with a vicinal-dithiol-proteins targeting probe, visualizing mitochondrial dynamics was attainable with spatial and temporal resolutions of 45 nm and 0.8 s, notably, dynamic mitochondrial tubulation retraction of ~746 nm in 1.2 s was monitored. The labeled conjugate was observed as clusters (radii, ~90 nm) distributed on the outer mitochondrial membranes, not yet reported as far as we know. This strategy is promising for the quantitative analysis of intracellular behaviors below the optical diffraction limit.

19.
J Am Chem Soc ; 142(11): 5380-5388, 2020 03 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32105455

RESUMO

Tumor hypoxia has proven to be the major bottleneck of photodynamic therapy (PDT) to clinical transformation. Different from traditional O2 delivery approaches, here we describe an innovative binary photodynamic O2-economizer (PDOE) tactic to reverse hypoxia-driven resistance by designing a superoxide radical (O2•-) generator targeting mitochondria respiration, termed SORgenTAM. This PDOE system is able to block intracellular O2 consumption and down-regulate HIF-1α expression, which successfully rescues cancer cells from becoming hypoxic and relieves the intrinsic hypoxia burden of tumors in vivo, thereby sparing sufficient endogenous O2 for the PDT process. Photosensitization mechanism studies demonstrate that SORgenTAM has an ideal intersystem crossing rate and triplet excited state lifetime for generating O2•- through type-I photochemistry, and the generated O2•- can further trigger a biocascade to reduce the PDT's demand for O2 in an O2-recycble manner. Furthermore, SORgenTAM also serves to activate the AMPK metabolism signaling pathway to inhibit cell repair and promote cell death. Consequently, using this two-step O2-economical strategy, under relatively low light dose irradiation, excellent therapeutic responses toward hypoxic tumors are achieved. This study offers a conceptual while practical paradigm for overcoming the pitfalls of phototherapeutics.

20.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 59(22): 8435-8439, 2020 05 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32052897

RESUMO

Heteroatom-containing spiropolymers were constructed in a facile manner by a catalyst-free multicomponent spiropolymerization route. P1a2b as the most potent of these spiropolymers, demonstrates cluster-triggered emission resulting from strong interactions with the MDM2 protein. By preventing the anti-apoptotic p53/MDM2 interaction, P1a2b triggers apoptosis in cancerous cells, while demonstrating a good biocompatibility and non-toxicity in non-cancerous cells. The combined results from solution and cell-based cluster-triggered emission studies, docking, protein expression experiments and cytotoxicity data strongly support the MDM2-binding hypothesis and indicate a potential application as a fluorescent cancer marker as well as therapeutic for this spiropolymer.

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