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1.
Clin Transl Gastroenterol ; 11(3): e00145, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32132452

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The male-predominant sex difference through the spectrum of erosive esophagitis to Barrett's esophagus is widely known. We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) stratified by sex for identifying factors that can predict the endoscopically diagnosed erosive esophagitis. METHODS: Erosive esophagitis was diagnosed by endoscopy and assessed for severity. We identified genetic factors associated with erosive esophagitis that accounted for the sex differences in a cohort of 4,242 participants via a GWAS. After quality control and imputation, genetic associations with erosive esophagitis were investigated by multivariate linear regression in 3,620 subjects. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with P < 5.0 × 10 were considered significant genome wide, and a genetic risk score was constructed for the prediction of erosive esophagitis risk. RESULTS: Six genome-wide significant SNPs near the GRIK2 gene on chromosome 6 were found to be associated with erosive esophagitis only in male subjects. These were predictive of severity through a genetic risk score (P < 0.05), and the findings were validated in a cohort of 622 subjects (P < 0.05). DISCUSSION: This is the first GWAS of erosive esophagitis, and we identified 6 genome-wide significant SNPs in male subjects. These SNPs could help explain the pathogenesis of erosive esophagitis and contribute to the understanding of sex differences. Further genetic investigation could allow for the prediction of high risk for erosive esophagitis and development of new treatment options.

2.
Gastroenterology ; 2020 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32119927

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Narrow-band imaging (NBI) can be used to determine whether colorectal polyps are adenomatous or hyperplastic. We investigated whether an artificial intelligence (AI) system can increase the accuracy of characterizations of polyps by endoscopists of different skill levels. METHODS: We developed convolutional neural networks (CNNs) for evaluation of diminutive colorectal polyps, based on efficient neural architecture searches via parameter sharing with augmentation using narrow-band images of diminutive (≤5 mm) polyps, collected from October 2015 through October 2017 at the Seoul National University Hospital, Healthcare System Gangnam Center (training set). We trained the CNN using images from 1100 adenomatous polyps and 1050 hyperplastic polyps from 1379 patients. We then tested the system using 300 images of 180 adenomatous polyps and 120 hyperplastic polyps, obtained from January 2018 to May 2019. We compared the accuracy of 22 endoscopists of different skill levels (7 novices, 4 experts, and 11 NBI-trained experts) vs the CNN in evaluation of images (adenomatous vs hyperplastic) from 180 adenomatous and 120 hyperplastic polyps. The endoscopists then evaluated the polyp images with knowledge of the CNN-processed results. We conducted mixed-effect logistic and linear regression analyses to determine the effects of AI assistance on the accuracy of analysis of diminutive colorectal polyps by endoscopists (primary outcome). RESULTS: The CNN distinguished adenomatous vs hyperplastic diminutive polyps with 86.7% accuracy, based on histologic analysis as the reference standard. Endoscopists distinguished adenomatous vs hyperplastic diminutive polyps with 82.5% overall accuracy (novices, 73.8% accuracy; experts, 83.8% accuracy; and NBI-trained experts, 87.6% accuracy). With knowledge of the CNN-processed results, the overall accuracy of the endoscopists increased to 88.5% (P<.05). With knowledge of the CNN-processed results, the accuracy of novice endoscopists increased to 85.6% (P<.05). The CNN-processed results significantly reduced endoscopist time of diagnosis (from 3.92 to 3.37 seconds per polyp, P=.042). CONCLUSIONS: We developed a CNN that significantly increases the accuracy of evaluation of diminutive colorectal polyps (as adenomatous vs hyperplastic) and reduces the time of diagnosis by endoscopists. This AI assistance system significantly increased the accuracy of analysis by novice endoscopists, who achieved near-expert levels of accuracy without extra training. The CNN assistance system can reduce the skill-level dependence of endoscopists and costs.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32109637

RESUMO

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disease worldwide and a major cause of liver-related morbidity and mortality.1 Although our understanding of its classic risk factors has improved, the prevalence of NAFLD has increased rapidly; thus, further investigation of modifiable risk factors for NAFLD is needed.

4.
World J Gastroenterol ; 26(4): 404-415, 2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32063689

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is increasing in Asia. Numerous risk factors associated with IBD development have been investigated. AIM: To investigate trends and environmental risk factors of Crohn's disease (CD) diagnosed in persons aged ≥ 40 years in South Korea. METHODS: Using the National Health Insurance Service database, a total of 14060821 persons aged > 40 years who underwent national health screening in 2009 were followed up until December 2017. Patients with newly diagnosed CD were enrolled and compared with non-CD cohort. CD was identified according to the International Classification of Diseases 10th revision and the rare/intractable disease registration program codes from the National Health Insurance Service database. The mean follow-up periods was 7.39 years. Age, sex, diabetes, hypertension, smoking, alcohol consumption, regular exercise, body mass index, anemia, chronic kidney disease (CKD) and dyslipidemia were adjusted for in the multivariate analysis model. RESULTS: During the follow-up, 1337 (1.33/100000) patients developed CD. Men in the middle-aged group (40-64 years) had a higher risk than women [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 1.46, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.29-1.66]; however, this difference tended to disappear as the age of onset increases. In the middle-aged group, patients with a history of smoking [aHR 1.46, 95%CI: 1.19-1.79) and anemia (aHR 1.85, 95%CI: 1.55-2.20) had a significantly higher CD risk. In the elderly group (age, ≥ 65 years), ex-smoking and anemia also increased the CD risk (aHR 1.68, 95%CI: 1.22-2.30) and 1.84 (95%CI: 1.47-2.30, respectively). Especially in the middle-aged group, those with CKD had a statistically elevated CD risk (aHR 1.37, 95%CI: 1.05-1.79). Alcohol consumption and higher body mass index showed negative association trend with CD incidence in both of the age groups. [Middle-aged: aHR 0.77 (95%CI: 0.66-0.89) and aHR 0.73 (95%CI: 0.63-0.84), respectively] [Elderly-group: aHR 0.57 (95%CI: 0.42-0.78) and aHR 0.84 (95%CI 0.67-1.04), respectively]. For regular physical activity and dyslipidemia, negative correlation between CD incidences was proved only in the middle-aged group [aHR 0.88 (95%CI: 0.77-0.89) and aHR 0.81 (95%CI: 0.68-0.96), respectively]. CONCLUSION: History of cigarette smoking, anemia, underweight and CKD are possible risk factors for CD in Asians aged > 40 years.

5.
Inflamm Bowel Dis ; 2020 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31895948

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Selective blocking of HDAC6 has become a promising strategy in treating inflammatory bowel disease. CKD-506 is a novel isoform-selective inhibitor of histone deacetylase 6. The present study was performed to evaluate the effect of CKD-506 on the NF-κB signaling pathway in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) and macrophages and on murine models of acute and chronic colitis. METHODS: RAW264RAW264.7 murine macrophages and COLO 205 human IECs were pretreated with CKD-506 and then stimulated with lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Cytokine expression of TNF-α, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and IL-10 was measured by ELISA. The effect of CKD-506 on NF-κB signaling was evaluated by Western blotting of IκBα phosphorylation/degradation and electrophoretic mobility shift assay. In vivo studies were performed using a dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced acute colitis model, a chronic colitis model in IL-10 knockout mice, and an adoptive transfer model. Colitis was quantified by the disease activity index, colon length, and histopathologic evaluation. RESULTS: CKD-506 suppressed the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α in IECs and macrophages. CKD-506 strongly inhibited IκBα phosphorylation/degradation and the DNA-binding activity of NF-κB. Oral administration of CKD-506 attenuated DSS-induced acute colitis and chronic colitis in IL-10-/- and adoptive transfer models. CKD-506 ameliorated weight loss, disease activity, and histopathologic score in colitis mice and downregulated IκBα phosphorylation and pro-inflammatory cytokine production significantly. CONCLUSIONS: CKD-506 blocked NF-κB signaling in IECs and macrophages and ameliorated experimental acute and chronic murine colitis models, which suggests that CKD-506 is a promising candidate for inflammatory bowel disease treatment as a small molecular medicine.

6.
Aliment Pharmacol Ther ; 51(4): 446-456, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31691306

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The relationships between lipid profiles and IBD remain elusive. AIM: To determine the association of IBD with serum lipid profiles. METHODS: A nationwide population-based study was performed using claims data from the Korean National Healthcare Insurance service. A total of 9 706 026 subjects undergoing medical check-ups in 2009 were enrolled and followed up until 2016. Individuals who developed Crohn's disease (CD) or ulcerative colitis (UC) were identified during follow-up. Adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) by age, sex, body mass index, cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking, exercise, income and underlying comorbidities was calculated to define the impact of serum lipid profiles on developing IBD. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 7.3 years, IBD was detected in 7,058 (0.07%) individuals. Compared with the highest quartile of serum total cholesterol (TC) levels, lower TC levels were associated with higher incidence of CD (aHR: Q1, 2.52; Q2, 1.52; Q3, 1.27), but not UC. Lower serum LDL-C levels were associated with higher incidence of CD (aHR: Q1, 1.92; Q2, 1.47; Q3, 1.22), but not UC. Moreover, lower serum HDL-C levels were associated with higher incidence of CD (aHR: Q1, 2.49; Q2, 1.90; Q3, 1.43), but not UC. In contrast, lower serum triglyceride levels were associated with higher incidence of UC (aHR: Q1, 1.22; Q2, 1.19; Q3, 1.19), but not CD. CONCLUSIONS: Low serum TC, LDL-C and HDL-C levels were associated with CD. Low serum triglyceride levels were related to UC.

7.
Inflamm Bowel Dis ; 26(2): 242-253, 2020 01 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586441

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α is a major proinflammatory cytokine that plays a key role in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Inactive rhomboid protein 2 (iRhom2) is essential for activating TNF-α-converting enzyme (TACE) in immune cells, which regulates TNF-α release. The aim of the study was to investigate the role of iRhom2 in intestinal inflammation in IBD. METHODS: The expression of iRhom2 and TACE in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated COLO 205 and RAW 264.7 cells was assessed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot analysis. The expression of iRhom2 and TACE in the colonic tissue of IBD patients and 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid solution (TNBS)-treated mice was determined by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. To assess the role of iRhom2 in intestinal inflammation, colitis was induced in wild-type and iRhom2-/- mice by the administration of TNBS enema. RESULTS: In LPS-stimulated COLO 205 and RAW 264.7 cells, the mRNA and protein levels of TACE and iRhom2 were upregulated. The expression of TACE and iRhom2 in the colon of the IBD patients and TNBS-treated mice was significantly enhanced. The inflammatory cells that expressed high levels of iRhom2 in the colon were identified as macrophages. Finally, iRhom2 deficiency ameliorated TNBS-induced colitis by inhibiting TNF-α release. CONCLUSIONS: iRhom2 has an important role in intestinal inflammation through TNF-α secretion in immune cells, which suggests that iRhom2 could be a novel therapeutic target for IBD.

8.
J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 35(1): 90-96, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31272131

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies on association between fatty liver disease and overall mortality have yielded conflicting results. We evaluated the impact of fatty liver disease and advanced fibrosis on overall morality with a focus on body size and abdominal fat distribution measured by computed tomography. METHODS: We performed a prospective cohort study including 34 080 subjects (mean age, 51.4 years; 58.6% men) who underwent abdominal ultrasonography and fat computed tomography, from 2007 to 2015. Fatty liver was diagnosed by ultrasonography, and advanced fibrosis was defined as high probability of advanced fibrosis based on three noninvasive methods, aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease fibrosis score, and fibrosis-4 score. Body size was categorized by body mass index into obese (≥ 25 kg/m2 ) or nonobese (< 25 kg/m2 ). Multivariate proportional Cox hazard regression analyses were performed. RESULTS: The prevalence of fatty liver disease was 37.5%, while the prevalence of advanced fibrosis in fatty liver disease was 1.8%. During a median follow-up of 87 months (interquartile range, 62-110), 296 deaths occurred. Fatty liver disease was not associated with higher overall mortality (multivariate-adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.02, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.77-1.34), while increased subcutaneous adiposity was associated with decreased mortality (HR 0.72, 95% CI 0.60-0.88). Advanced fibrosis resulted in a 3.5-fold increase in overall mortality (adjusted HR 3.52, 95% CI 1.86-6.65), which was more pronounced in the nonobese. CONCLUSIONS: While fatty liver disease did not impact overall mortality, subcutaneous adiposity was associated with reduced overall mortality. Advanced fibrosis was an independent predictor of increase in overall mortality.

9.
J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 35(2): 249-255, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31420894

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: The relationship between inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) remains unclear. We evaluated the risk for developing IPF in patients with IBD using a nationwide population-based study. METHODS: Using claims data from the National Health Insurance service in Korea, patients with IBD, including Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), were identified through both the 10th revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems and rare and intractable disease program codes from January 2010 to December 2013. We compared 38 921 IBD patients with age-matched and sex-matched individuals without IBD in a ratio of 1:3. Patients with newly diagnosed IPF were identified by both the 10th revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems and rare and intractable disease registration codes. RESULTS: During a mean 4.9-year follow-up, the incidence of IPF in patients with IBD was 33.21 per 100 000 person-years. The overall risk of IPF was significantly higher in IBD patients than in non-IBD controls (hazard ratio [HR], 1.62; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20-2.20; P = 0.003). In patients with CD, the incidence (per 100 000 person-years) of IPF was 26.04; in controls, the incidence was 9.15 (HR, 2.89; 95% CI, 1.46-5.72; P = 0.002). The incidence of IPF in patients with UC tended to be higher than in controls (36.66 vs 26.54 per 100 000 person-years; 95% CI, 0.99-1.99; HR, 1.41; P = 0.066). The risk of developing IPF in patients with IBD was higher in male patients than in female patients (P = 0.093 in CD; P = 0.147 in UC by interaction analysis). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with IBD, especially CD, have an increased risk of developing IPF.

10.
Gut Liver ; 14(1): 89-99, 2020 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31158951

RESUMO

Background/Aims: We aimed to investigate the differences in direct healthcare costs between patients with and without inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and changes in direct healthcare costs before and after IBD diagnosis. Methods: This population-based study identified 34,167 patients with IBD (11,014 patients with Crohn's disease and 23,153 patients with ulcerative colitis) and 102,501 age-and sex-matched subjects without IBD (the control group) from the National Health Insurance database using the International Classification of Disease, 10th revision codes and the rare intractable disease registration program codes. The mean healthcare costs per patient were analyzed for 3 years before and after IBD diagnosis, with follow-up data available until 2015. Results: Total direct healthcare costs increased and peaked at $2,396 during the first year after IBD diagnosis, but subsequently dropped sharply to $1,478 during the second year after diagnosis. Total healthcare costs were higher for the IBD patients than for the control group, even in the third year before the diagnosis ($497 vs $402, p<0.001). The costs for biologics for the treatment of IBD increased steeply over time, rising from $720.8 in the first year after diagnosis to $1,249.6 in the third year after diagnosis (p<0.001). Conclusions: IBD patients incurred the highest direct healthcare costs during the first year after diagnosis. IBD patients had higher costs than the control group even before diagnosis. The cost of biologics increased steeply over time, and it can be assumed that biologics could be the main driver of costs during the early period after IBD diagnosis.

11.
Gut Liver ; 2020 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31887809

RESUMO

Background/Aims: Epigenetic change is one of the mechanisms that regulates the expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) and is known to play a role in Helicobacter pylori-associated gastric carcinogenesis. We aimed to evaluate the epigenetic changes of miR-200a/b in H. pylori-associated gastric carcinogenesis and restoration after eradication. Methods: The expression and methylation levels of miR-200a/b were evaluated in gastric cancer (GC) cell lines, human gastric mucosa of H. pylori-negative and -positive controls, and H. pylori-positive GC patients. Next, the changes in the expression and methylation levels of miR-200a/b were compared between H. pylori-eradication and H. pylori-persistence groups at 6 months. Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was conducted to investigate the miRNA expression levels, and MethyLight was performed to assess the methylation levels. Results: In the GC cell lines, the level of miR-200a/b methylation decreased and the level of expression increased after demethylation. In the human gastric mucosa, the miR-200a/b methylation levels increased in the following group order: H. pylori-negative control group, H. pylori-positive control group, and H. pylori-positive GC group. Conversely, the miR-200a/b expression levels decreased in the same order. In the H. pylori-persistence group, no significant changes were observed in the methylation and expression levels of miR-200a/b after 6 months, whereas the level of methylation decreased and the level of expression of miR-200a/b increased significantly 6 months in the H. pylori-eradication group. Conclusions: Epigenetic alterations of miR-200a/b may be implicated in H. pylori-induced gastric carcinogenesis. This field defect for cancerization is suggested to be improved by H. pylori eradication.

12.
Food Sci Biotechnol ; 28(6): 1881-1890, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31807362

RESUMO

Bacteria can survive and persist in food processing environments by attachment and biofilm formation and transfer to food products, causing serious foodborne illness. In this study, we investigated natural substances that belong to the family Brassicaceae to determine whether they have potential anti-attachment activities against Escherichia coli O157:H7. The inhibition of biofilm formation was evaluated by crystal violet and resazurin assays at different stages of biofilm formation (initial attachment, biofilm formation, and after biofilm development) of E. coli O157:H7. The sessile cells were reduced to a range of 13.8-31.3% by young radish, radish, radish sprout, red cabbage, and kale extracts, and the viability was reduced to between 5.83 and 51.5%. The radical scavenging activities and the presence of polyphenolic compounds were compared. The presence of phenolic compounds such as gallic acid, caffeic acid, and phenylethyl ITC in the Brassicaceae family verified the potential use as a natural anti-biofilm substituent against E. coli O157:H7.

13.
Gut Liver ; 2019 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31816671

RESUMO

Background/Aims: Ghrelin agonists are emerging prokinetic agents for treating gastroparesis. Although recent clinical trials have demonstrated their efficacy in patients with diabetic gastroparesis (DG), the impact of such agents on symptoms and gastric dysmotility remains unclear. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacy and safety of ghrelin agonists in patients with DG. Methods: A search of common electronic databases (MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials) was preformed, using keyword combinations that referenced ghrelin and DG and retrieving all eligible randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of ghrelin agonists versus placebo in patients with DG. The primary outcome measure was the change in patient-reported overall gastroparesis symptom scores. Secondary outcomes included the change in gastric emptying time, specific symptoms related to gastroparesis, and adverse events. A random-effects model was applied to all study outcomes. Heterogeneity among studies was determined by the chi-square test and I2 statistics. Results: We selected six RCTs of patients with DG (n=557) for meta-analysis. Ghrelin agonist administration (vs placebo) significantly improved overall gastroparesis symptoms (standardized mean difference, -0.34; 95% confidence interval, -0.56 to -0.13) and significantly improved symptoms related to gastroparesis, including nausea, vomiting, early satiety, and abdominal pain. Adverse events recorded for ghrelin agonists and placebo did not differ significantly. There was no significant heterogeneity among eligible studies. Conclusions: Compared with placebo, ghrelin agonists are effective and well-tolerated for the treatment of DG.

14.
Gut Liver ; 2019 12 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31816672

RESUMO

Background/Aims: The risk for colonoscopic postpolypectomy bleeding (PPB) in patients with chronic liver disease (CLD) remains unclear. We determined the incidence and risk factors for colonoscopic PPB in patients with CLD, especially those with liver cirrhosis. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients with CLD who underwent colonoscopic polypectomy at Seoul National University Hospital between 2011 and 2014. The study endpoints were immediate and delayed PPB. Results: A total of 1,267 consecutive patients with CLD were included in the study. Immediate PPB occurred significantly more often in the Child-Pugh (CP) B or C cirrhosis group (17.5%) than in the CP-A (6.3%) and chronic hepatitis (4.6%) groups (p<0.001). Moreover, the incidence of delayed PPB in the CP-B or C cirrhosis group (4.4%) was significantly higher than that in the CP-A (0.7%) and chronic hepatitis (0.2%) groups (p<0.001). The independent risk factors for immediate PPB were CP-B or C cirrhosis (p=0.011), a platelet count <50,000/µL (p<0.001), 3 or more polyps (p=0.017), endoscopic mucosal resection or submucosal dissection (p<0.001), and polypectomy performed by trainees (p<0.001). The independent risk factors for delayed PPB were CP-B or C cirrhosis (p=0.009), and polyps >10 mm in size (p=0.010). Conclusions: Patients with CP-B or C cirrhosis had an increased risk for bleeding following colonoscopic polypectomy.

15.
Gut ; 2019 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31822581

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: No population-based study has evaluated the natural course of UC over three decades in non-Caucasians. We aimed to assess the long-term natural course of Korean patients with UC in a population-based cohort. DESIGN: This Korean population-based, Songpa-Kangdong IBD cohort included all patients (n=1013) newly diagnosed with UC during 1986-2015. Disease outcomes and their predictors were evaluated. RESULTS: During the median follow-up of 105 months, the overall use of systemic corticosteroids, thiopurines and antitumour necrosis factor (anti-TNF) agents was 40.8%, 13.9% and 6.5%, respectively. Over time, the cumulative risk of commencing corticosteroids decreased, whereas that of commencing thiopurines and anti-TNF agents increased. During follow-up, 28.7% of 778 patients with proctitis or left-sided colitis at diagnosis experienced proximal disease extension. A total of 28 patients (2.8%) underwent colectomy, demonstrating cumulative risks of colectomy at 1, 5, 10, 20 and 30 years after diagnosis of 1.0%, 1.9%, 2.2%, 5.1% and 6.4%, respectively. Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that extensive colitis at diagnosis (HR 8.249, 95% CI 2.394 to 28.430), ever use of corticosteroids (HR 6.437, 95% CI 1.440 to 28.773) and diagnosis in the anti-TNF era (HR 0.224, 95% CI 0.057 to 0.886) were independent predictors of colectomy. The standardised mortality ratio in patients with UC was 0.725 (95% CI 0.508 to 1.004). CONCLUSION: Korean patients with UC may have a better clinical course than Western patients, as indicated by a lower colectomy rate. The overall colectomy rate has continued to decrease over the past three decades.

16.
Dig Dis Sci ; 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31732905

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To prevent colorectal cancer, high-quality colonoscopy is advocated, undertaken by endoscopists with high adenoma detection rates (ADRs). Despite reports that various factors may impact ADRs, the significance of such factors is still unclear. AIMS: The analysis was aimed at quality-oriented interventions for boosting ADRs. METHODS: Study enrollees were adults subjected to screening colonoscopy between September 2013 and August 2016 at the Gangnam Center of Seoul National University Hospital Healthcare System. The investigation entailed six periods (P1-6) of 6 months each, during which serial multidirectional quality improvement efforts were instituted. In particular, we sought to further educate endoscopists, provide feedback on individual ADRs, and introduce a split-dose regimen, gauging results via the Boston Bowel Preparation Score. Changes in polyp detection rates (PDRs) and ADRs were then analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 13,430 colonoscopies were undertaken by 15 experienced endoscopists. Overall, the ADR increased from 45.6% (P1) to 48.2% (P6, p < 0.001). The PDR, ADR, and advanced adenoma detection rate (AdvADR) showed the greatest increases between P3 and P4 [PDR 67.8% → 71.2% (p < 0.001); ADR 44.1% → 47.7% (p = 0.001); AdvADR 2.3% → 3.3% (p = 0.028)] in keeping with the introduction of a split-dose regimen. The sessile serrated adenoma detection rate (SSADR) increased substantially from 2.1% (P1) to 7.9% (P6, p < 0.001), with the largest gain between P1 and P2, just after education (p = 0.023). CONCLUSIONS: Successful quality improvement in colonoscopy was achieved through comprehensive multidirectional efforts in education, feedback, and enhanced bowel preparation. Achieving high-level bowel preparation was paramount in ADR improvement. The SSADR was improved through education.

17.
World J Gastroenterol ; 25(42): 6354-6364, 2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31754295

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a growing evidence regarding an increased risk of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) among patients with airway diseases. AIM: To investigate the influence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) on the risk of IBD. METHODS: A nationwide, population-based study was conducted using data from the National Health Insurance Service database. A total of 1303021 patients with COPD and 6515105 non-COPD controls were identified. The COPD group was divided into the severe and the mild COPD group according to diagnostic criteria. The risk of IBD in patients with COPD compared to controls was analyzed by Cox proportional hazard regression models. The cumulative incidences of IBD were compared between the groups. RESULTS: The COPD group had higher incidences of IBD compared to non-COPD controls (incidence rate, 9.98 vs 7.18 per 100000 person-years, P < 0.001). The risk of IBD in the COPD group was increased by 1.38 (adjusted hazard ratio (HR); 95%CI: 1.25-1.52). The incidence rate of IBD was higher in the severe COPD group than in the mild COPD group (12.39 vs 9.77 per 100000 person-year, P < 0.001). The severity of COPD was associated with an increased risk of IBD (adjusted HR 1.70 in severe COPD, 95%CI: 1.27-2.21 and adjusted HR 1.35 in mild COPD, 95%CI: 1.22-1.49). CONCLUSION: The incidences of IBD were significantly increased in COPD patients in South Korea and the risk of developing IBD also increased as the severity of COPD increased.

18.
J Cancer Prev ; 24(3): 173-182, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31624723

RESUMO

Background: Gut microbiota is closely associated with development and exacerbation of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). The aim of this study was to investigate differences in gut microbiota depending on sex and changes of gut microbiota during IBD developments. Methods: 16s rRNA metagenomic sequencing was performed for fecal materials from 8-week-old wild type (WT) and interleukin 10 (IL-10) knockout (KO) C57BL/6 mice of both sexes. Diversity indices, relative abundance of microbiota, and linear discriminant analysis effect size were examined to compare microbial communities between groups. Clustering of groups was performed by principal coordinates analysis (PCoA) and unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA). Functional capabilities of microbiota were estimated using phylogenetic investigation of communities by reconstruction of unobserved states (PICRUSt) based on Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes database. Results: PCoA and UPGMA tree analysis of beta-diversity demonstrated significant differences in gut microbiota between male and female groups of WT mice, but not of IL-10 KO mice. Firmicutes to Bacteroides ratio was higher in male group than that in female group in both WT mice and IL-10 KO mice. Phylum Proteobacteria significantly increased in female IL-10 KO mice than that in female WT mice. At species level, Lactobacillus murinus, Bacteroides acidifaciens, and Helicobacter hepaticus significantly increased in IL-10 KO mice than in WT mice. The relative abundance of beta-glucuronidase (K01195) was higher in female IL-10 KO mice than that in female WT mice by PICRUSt. Conclusions: Our results suggest that microbiota-host interactions might differ between sexes during development of IBD.

19.
Gut Liver ; 2019 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31530736

RESUMO

Background/Aims: Little is known about the national colonoscopy volume in Asian countries. This study aimed to assess the national colonoscopy volume in Korea over a 12-year period on the basis of a nationwide population-based database. Methods: We conducted a population-based study for colonoscopy claims (14,511,158 colonoscopies performed on 13,219,781 patients) on the basis of the Korean National Health Insurance Service database from 2002 to 2013. The 12-year national colonoscopy burden was analyzed according to patient age, patient sex, and healthcare facility type. Results: The overall volume of colonoscopy increased 8-fold over the 12-year period. The annual colonoscopic polypectomy rate significantly increased in all patient sex and age groups over the 12-years period (all p<0.001). The yearly colonoscopic polypectomy rate for men was significantly increased compared with that for women (2.3% vs 1.7%, p<0.001) and for the screening-age group compared with that for the young-age group (2.0% vs 1.6%, p<0.001). The yearly colonoscopic polypectomy rate relative to the total colonoscopy volume significantly increased in primary, secondary, and tertiary facilities by 2.4%, 1.9%, and 1.4% during the 12-year period (all p<0.001). In addition, the annual colonoscopy volume covered by high-volume facilities significantly increased by 1.8% in primary healthcare facilities over the 12-year period (p<0.001). Conclusions: Healthcare resources should be prioritized to allow adequate colonoscopic capacity, especially for men, individuals in the screening-age group, and at primary healthcare facilities. Cost-effective strategies to improve the quality of colonoscopy may focus on primary healthcare facilities and high-volume facilities in Korea.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31522456

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Epithelioid granuloma is one hallmark used to histologically diagnose Crohn's disease (CD). However, the clinical significance of granulomas in CD is unclear. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to compare the clinical features with CD according to the presence of granulomas. METHODS: A literature search in PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases was performed on manuscripts published until October 2018. We included studies that met the following inclusion criteria: (i) patient: patients with CD; (ii) exposure: granulomas on the pathology; (iii) comparator: no granulomas; and (iv) outcomes: disease location, disease behavior, perianal disease, disease activity, use of biologics, and CD-associated hospitalization, surgery. RESULTS: Nineteen studies met our inclusion criteria. Granulomas in CD patients were associated with a higher proportion of ileocolonic disease (odds ratio [OR]: 1.49, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.21-1.83), a higher proportion of upper gastrointestinal disease (OR: 2.25, 95% CI: 1.28-3.95), a higher proportion of penetrating behavior (OR: 1.48, 95% CI: 1.09-2.01), a higher prevalence of perianal disease (OR: 2.15, 95% CI: 1.48-3.11), and a higher severity index at presentation (standardized mean difference: 0.20, 95% CI: 0.09-0.32). In addition, the use of biologics was significantly higher in CD patients with granulomas compared with without granulomas (OR: 1.66, 95% CI: 1.07-2.59). The presence of granulomas was significantly associated with CD-associated hospitalization (OR: 3.88, 95% CI: 1.44-10.49), but not with CD-associated surgery. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical features in CD patients were significantly different according to the presence of granulomas. It may indicate a more aggressive phenotype of CD.

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