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1.
Integr Med Res ; 11(2): 100802, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34840949

RESUMO

Background: The first treatment option for major depressive disorder (MDD) is antidepressants, however, there is substantial demand for alternative therapies due to its low compliance and remission rates. This study was aimed to explore the effectiveness, safety, and feasibility of electroacupuncture plus moxibustion therapy for MDD. Methods: Thirty adults with MDD were randomly assigned to the treatment group (TG) or control group (CG). The TG was treated with electroacupuncture plus moxibustion, and the CG received sham interventions at non-acupoints for 8 weeks. The primary outcome measure was the intergroup difference of the mean change of total score of the Hamilton rating scale for depression (HRSD) between baseline and week 9. Secondary outcome measures were Beck's depression inventory, insomnia severity index, the state-trait anxiety inventory, the EuroQol-5 dimension index, the measure yourself medical outcome profile version 2, and frontal alpha asymmetry measured by electroencephalography. Adverse events (AEs) were monitored for safety assessment. Results: The primary outcome measure was not significantly different between the two groups (p=0.2641), although the scores of HRSD in both groups improved significantly after treatment. No significant difference was identified between groups in secondary outcome measures. The incidence of AE was not significantly different between the two groups (p=0.1067). Conclusion: A clinical trial using electroacupuncture plus moxibustion for MDD seems feasible. However, further studies with the larger size, adopting ideal controls are warranted to provide a confirmative conclusion to the efficacy and safety of electroacupuncture plus moxibustion for MDD. Trial registration: The protocol was registered at Korean Clinical Trial Registry (CRIS-KCT0001810).

2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21568, 2021 11 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34732751

RESUMO

We aimed to investigate the associations of previous influenza/URI with the susceptibility of COVID-19 patients compared to that of non-COVID-19 participants. A nationwide COVID-19 cohort database was collected by the Korea National Health Insurance Corporation. A total of 8,070 COVID-19 patients (1 January 2020 through 4 June 2020) were matched with 32,280 control participants. Severe COVID-19 morbidity was defined based on the treatment histories of the intensive care unit, invasive ventilation, and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and death. The susceptibility/morbidity/mortality associated with prior histories of 1-14, 1-30, 1-90, 15-45, 15-90, and 31-90 days before COVID-19 onset were analyzed using conditional/unconditional logistic regression. Prior influenza infection was related to increased susceptibility to COVID-19 (adjusted odds ratio [95% confidence interval] = 3.07 [1.61-5.85] for 1-14 days and 1.91 [1.54-2.37] for 1-90 days). Prior URI was also associated with increased susceptibility to COVID-19 (6.95 [6.38-7.58] for 1-14 days, 4.99 [4.64-5.37] for 1-30 days, and 2.70 [2.55-2.86] for 1-90 days). COVID-19 morbidity was positively associated with influenza (3.64 [1.55-9.21] and 3.59 [1.42-9.05]) and URI (1.40 [1.11-1.78] and 1.28 [1.02-1.61]) at 1-14 days and 1-30 days, respectively. Overall, previous influenza/URI did not show an association with COVID-19 mortality. Previous influenza/URI histories were associated with increased COVID-19 susceptibility and morbidity. Our findings indicate why controlling influenza/URI is important during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Morbidade , República da Coreia
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34831656

RESUMO

The relationship between statin use and osteoporosis is controversial; therefore, this study aimed to investigate this association. The ≥40-year-old population of the Korean National Health Insurance Service Health Screening Cohort was enrolled. The 68,592 osteoporosis patients were matched 1:1 with control participants for age, sex, income, and region of residence using propensity score matching. The histories of statin use for two years before the diagnosis of osteoporosis (index date) in the osteoporosis and control groups were compared using conditional/unconditional logistic regression. An increased number of days of statin use was not associated with osteoporosis (adjusted OR (aOR) = 0.97, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 0.94-1.00, p = 0.052). In the subgroup analyses, a large number of days of statin use was related to a reduced rate of osteoporosis in the <60-year-old female group, while the opposite was true in the ≥60-year-old female group. Both lipophilic and hydrophilic statins were related to a decreased rate of osteoporosis in the <60-year-old female group. Lipophilic statins, but not hydrophilic statins, were associated with an increased rate of osteoporosis in the ≥60-year-old female group. Statin use showed different associations in middle-aged and elderly women.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34831549

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate BMI changes following a temporomandibular joint disorder (TMJD) diagnosis. The Korean National Health Insurance Service-Health Screening Cohort from 2002 to 2015 was used. In Study I, 1808 patients with TMJD (TMJD I) were matched with 7232 participants in comparison group I. The change in BMI was compared between the TMJD I and comparison I groups for 1 year. In study II, 1621 patients with TMJD (TMJD II) were matched with 6484 participants in comparison group II participants. The change in BMI was compared between the TMJD II and comparison II groups for 2 years. In Study I, the BMI change was not associated with TMJD. In Study II, the BMI change was associated with TMJD in the interaction of the linear mixed model (p = 0.003). The estimated value (EV) of the linear mixed model was -0.082. The interaction was significant in women < 60 years old, women ≥ 60 years old, and the obese I category. TMJD was not associated with BMI changes after 1-2 years in the overall population. In women and obese patients, TMJD was associated with a decrease in BMI after 2 years.

5.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(46)2021 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34750249

RESUMO

The causes of the Mid-Pleistocene Transition, the shift from ∼41-ky to 100-ky interglacial-glacial cycles and more intense ice ages, remain intensely debated, as this fundamental change occurred between ∼1,250 and 650 ka without substantial changes in astronomical climate forcings. Recent studies disagree about the relative importance of events and processes in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, as well as whether the shift occurred gradually over several interglacial-glacial cycles or abruptly at ∼900 ka. We address these issues using a north-to-south reconstruction of the Atlantic arm of the global meridional overturning ocean circulation, a primary means for distributing heat around the globe, using neodymium (Nd) isotopes. Results reveal a period of intense erosion affecting the cratonic shields surrounding the North Atlantic between Marine Isotope Stages (MIS) 27 and 25 (∼980 and 950 ka), reflected by unusually low Nd isotope ratios in deep North Atlantic seawater. This episode preceded a major ocean circulation weakening between MIS 25 and 21 (950 and 860 ka) that coincided with the first ∼100-ky-long interglacial-glacial onset of Northern Hemisphere glaciation at around 2.4 to 2.8 Ma. The data point to a Northern Hemisphere-sourced initiation for the transition, possibly induced through regolith loss and increased exposure of the crystalline bedrock, which would lead to increased friction, enabling larger ice sheets that are characteristic of the 100-ky interglacial-glacial cycles.

6.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; : e2103331, 2021 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34747140

RESUMO

Nutrients play critical roles in maintaining core physiological functions and in preventing diseases. Technologies for delivering these nutrients and for monitoring their concentrations can help to ensure proper nutritional balance. Eccrine sweat is a potentially attractive class of biofluid for monitoring purposes due to the ability to capture sweat easily and noninvasively from nearly any region of the body using skin-integrated microfluidic technologies. Here, a miniaturized system of this type is presented that allows simple, rapid colorimetric assessments of the concentrations of multiple essential nutrients in sweat, simultaneously and without any supporting electronics - vitamin C, calcium, zinc, and iron. A transdermal patch integrated directly with the microfluidics supports passive, sustained delivery of these species to the body throughout a period of wear. Comparisons of measurement results to those from traditional lab analysis methods demonstrate the accuracy and reliability of this platform. On-body tests with human subjects reveal correlations between the time dynamics of concentrations of these nutrients in sweat and those of the corresponding concentrations in blood. Studies conducted before and after consuming certain foods and beverages highlight practical capabilities in monitoring nutritional balance, with strong potential to serve as a basis for guiding personalized dietary choices.

8.
J Clin Med ; 10(20)2021 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34682749

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is controversial evidence of the associations of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) with the risk and outcomes of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). We aimed to evaluate the effects of asthma and COPD on the susceptibility to and severity of COVID-19. METHODS: Data from a nationwide COVID-19 cohort database by the Korea National Health Insurance Corporation were utilized. A total of 4066 COVID-19 patients (1 January 2020 through 4 June 2020) were 1:4 matched with 16,264 controls with regard to age, sex, and income. Asthma and COPD were defined as diagnostic codes (ICD-10) and medication claim codes. Conditional and unconditional multivariate logistic regression were applied to analyze the susceptibility to and severity of COVID-19 associated with asthma and COPD. RESULTS: The prevalence of mild and severe asthma/COPD did not differ between the COVID-19 and control patients in the multivariate analyses. Among the total 4066 COVID-19 patients, 343 (8.4%) had severe COVID-19, of whom 132 (3.2% of the total COVID-19 patients) died. Regarding the outcomes of COVID-19, neither mild nor severe asthma were associated with the severity or mortality of COVID-19 after adjusting for other variables. However, severe COPD was a significant risk factor for severe COVID-19 (odds ratio (OR) = 2.23, 95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.08-4.60, p = 0.030) and the mortality of COVID-19 in the multivariate analyses (OR = 3.06, 95% CI: 1.14-8.2, p = 0.026). CONCLUSIONS: In a Korean nationwide cohort, neither asthma nor COPD were associated with COVID-19, but severe COPD was associated with the severity and mortality of COVID-19.

9.
Front Psychol ; 12: 651649, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34630196

RESUMO

Objectives: Emerging studies found the potential effects of acupuncture for treating chronic pain and mental disorders, namely, depressive and anxiety disorders. Acupuncture is widely used for treating culture-related anger syndrome, Hwa-byung. This pilot trial aimed to investigate the feasibility of a clinical trial testing acupuncture for the psychosomatic symptoms of Hwa-byung. Methods: A total of 26 patients with Hwa-byung planned to be randomly assigned to the acupuncture or sham acupuncture groups. About 10 treatment sessions were applied over 4 weeks. The 100-mm visual analog scale was used to measure the six major Hwa-byung symptoms: stuffiness in the chest, heat sensations, pushing-up in the chest, feeling a mass in the throat, feelings of unfairness, and hard feelings. The criteria for assessing the success of this pilot trial were defined as improvement in three or more of the six Hwa-byung symptoms after treatment, with an effect size >0.2. Results: A total of 15 patients were finally included and randomly assigned to the acupuncture group (n = 7) or the sham acupuncture group (n = 8). After 10 treatment sessions, the Cohen's d effect sizes for acupuncture compared to sham acupuncture were >0.2 for each one of the six major Hwa-byung symptoms, which met our a priori criteria for success. Also, the effect size for the somatic symptoms of "stuffiness in the chest" was 0.81 (95% CI -0.40, 2.20), referring to a large effect size. Conclusions: Our results suggest that acupuncture treatment would be regarded as an acceptable intervention for a full-scale study of psychosomatic symptoms in patients with Hwa-byung. Trial Registration: cris.nih.go.kr, identifier: KCT0001732.

10.
Adv Mater ; 33(44): e2103974, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34510572

RESUMO

Continuous monitoring of vital signs is an essential aspect of operations in neonatal and pediatric intensive care units (NICUs and PICUs), of particular importance to extremely premature and/or critically ill patients. Current approaches require multiple sensors taped to the skin and connected via hard-wired interfaces to external data acquisition electronics. The adhesives can cause iatrogenic injuries to fragile, underdeveloped skin, and the wires can complicate even the most routine tasks in patient care. Here, materials strategies and design concepts are introduced that significantly improve these platforms through the use of optimized materials, open (i.e., "holey") layouts and precurved designs. These schemes 1) reduce the stresses at the skin interface, 2) facilitate release of interfacial moisture from transepidermal water loss, 3) allow visual inspection of the skin for rashes or other forms of irritation, 4) enable triggered reduction of adhesion to reduce the probability for injuries that can result from device removal. A combination of systematic benchtop testing and computational modeling identifies the essential mechanisms and key considerations. Demonstrations on adult volunteers and on a neonate in an operating NICUs illustrate a broad range of capabilities in continuous, clinical-grade monitoring of conventional vital signs, and unconventional indicators of health status.

12.
Int J Stroke ; : 17474930211042118, 2021 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34427474

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Many epidemiological studies have observed the association of air pollutant exposure with the onset, progression, and mortality of stroke. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations of air pollutants, including SO2, NO2, O3, CO, and PM10, with stroke according to exposure duration. METHODS: Data from the Korean National Health Insurance Service-Health Screening Cohort from 2002 to 2015 were obtained. The 21,240 patients who were admitted for or died due to stroke were 1:4 matched for age, sex, income, and region of residence with 84,960 control participants. The meteorological factors of mean, highest, and lowest temperatures; relative humidity; ambient atmospheric pressure; and air pollutant concentrations (SO2, NO2, O3, CO, and PM10) were analyzed to determine their associations with stroke. The odds ratios for stroke after exposure to each meteorological factor and air pollutant at 7 and 30 days were calculated in the stroke and control groups. Subgroup analyses were conducted according to age, sex, income, and region of residence. RESULTS: The odds ratio associated with seven days of exposure to CO was 1.16 (95% CI = 1.04-1.31) in stroke patients. For 30 days of exposure, the odds ratio associated with CO was 1.16 (95% CI = 1.02-1.32) in stroke patients. Seven and 30 days of NO2 exposure were inversely associated with stroke. The odds ratio associated with seven days of exposure to O3 was 1.16 (95% CI = 1.01-1.32) in ischemic stroke patients. Both ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke had negative associations with 7 and 30 days of NO2 exposure. CONCLUSION: Both short- and long-term exposure to CO were related to stroke.

13.
Pharmaceuticals (Basel) ; 14(8)2021 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34451921

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate the effects of genetic variants and haplotypes in the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) on the risk of warfarin-induced bleeding complications at therapeutic international normalized ratios (INRs). METHODS: Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of AGT, two SNPs of REN, three SNPs of ACE, four SNPs of AGTR1, and one SNP of AGTR2, in addition to VKORC1 and CYP2C9 variants, were investigated. We utilized logistic regression and several machine learning methods for bleeding prediction. RESULTS: The study included 142 patients, among whom 21 experienced bleeding complications. We identified a haplotype, H2 (TCG), carrying three SNPs of ACE (rs1800764, rs4341, and rs4353), which showed a significant relation with bleeding complications. After adjusting covariates, patients with H2/H2 experienced a 0.12-fold (95% CI 0.02-0.99) higher risk of bleeding complications than the others. In addition, G allele carriers of AGT rs5050 and A allele carriers of AGTR1 rs2640543 had 5.0- (95% CI 1.8-14.1) and 3.2-fold (95% CI 1.1-8.9) increased risk of bleeding complications compared with the TT genotype and GG genotype carriers, respectively. The AUROC values (mean, 95% CI) across 10 random iterations using five-fold cross-validated multivariate logistic regression, elastic net, random forest, support vector machine (SVM)-linear kernel, and SVM-radial kernel models were 0.732 (0.694-0.771), 0.741 (0.612-0.870), 0.723 (0.589-0.857), 0.673 (0.517-0.828), and 0.680 (0.528-0.832), respectively. The highest quartile group (≥75th percentile) of weighted risk score had approximately 12.0 times (95% CI 3.1-46.7) increased risk of bleeding, compared to the 25-75th percentile group, respectively. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that RAS-related polymorphisms, including the H2 haplotype of the ACE gene, could affect bleeding complications during warfarin treatment for patients with mechanical heart valves. Our results could be used to develop individually tailored intervention strategies to prevent warfarin-induced bleeding.

14.
Korean J Intern Med ; 2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34412177

RESUMO

Background/Aims: Hypoxemia in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) leads to reduced ability to exercise, decreased quality of life, and, eventually, increased mortality. Home oxygen therapy in patients with severe COPD reduces distress symptoms and mortality rates. However, there have been few studies on physicians' prescription behavior toward home oxygen therapy. Therefore, we investigated the respiratory specialists' perspective on home oxygen therapy. Methods: In this cross-sectional, study, a questionnaire was completed by 30 pulmonary specialists who worked in tertiary hospitals and prescribed home oxygen therapy. The questionnaire consisted of 28 items, including 15 items on oxygen prescription for outpatients, four for inpatients, and nine on service improvement. Results: All physicians were prescribing less than 2 L/min of oxygen for either 24 (n = 10, 33.3%) or 15 hours (n = 9, 30.3%). All (n = 30) used pulse oximetry, 26 (86.7%) analyzed arterial blood gas. Thirteen physicians had imposed restrictions and recommended oxygen use only during exercise or sleep. Sixteen (53.3%) physicians were educating their patients about home oxygen therapy. Furthermore, physicians prescribed home oxygen to patients that did not fit the typical criteria for longterm oxygen therapy, with 30 prescribing it for acute relief and 17 for patients with borderline hypoxemia. Conclusions: This study identified the prescription pattern of home oxygen therapy in Korea. Respiratory physicians prescribe home oxygen therapy to hypoxemic COPD patients for at least 15 hours/day, and at a rate of less than 2 L/min. More research is needed to provide evidence for establishing policies on oxygen therapy in COPD patients.

15.
ACS Sens ; 6(8): 2787-2801, 2021 08 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34351759

RESUMO

Skin-interfaced wearable systems with integrated colorimetric assays, microfluidic channels, and electrochemical sensors offer powerful capabilities for noninvasive, real-time sweat analysis. This Perspective details recent progress in the development and translation of novel wearable sensors for personalized assessment of sweat dynamics and biomarkers, with precise sampling and real-time analysis. Sensor accuracy, system ruggedness, and large-scale deployment in remote environments represent key opportunity areas, enabling broad deployment in the context of field studies, clinical trials, and recent commercialization. On-body measurements in these contexts show good agreement compared to conventional laboratory-based sweat analysis approaches. These device demonstrations highlight the utility of biochemical sensing platforms for personalized assessment of performance, wellness, and health across a broad range of applications.


Assuntos
Suor , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Microfluídica , Pele
16.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(7)2021 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34356969

RESUMO

Background and Objectives: This study aimed to investigate whether initial symptoms of COVID-19 are associated with mortality and morbidity. Materials and Methods: The data of 5628 laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients were collected by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The maximum level of morbidity during hospital admission was classified as mild or severe, and patient mortality was recorded. Clinical symptoms were categorized as respiratory, gastrointestinal, general, and neurologic symptoms. The hazard ratios (HRs) for clinical symptoms associated with mortality were analyzed using the Cox proportional hazards model. The odds ratios (ORs) for clinical symptoms associated with morbidity were analyzed using the logistic regression model. Results: Of the included COVID-19 patients, 15.4% (808/5253) were classified as having severe morbidity. Morbidity was related to the clinical symptoms of cough, sputum, shortness of breath, vomiting/nausea, diarrhea, fever, and altered mental status or confusion. According to the symptom categories, respiratory and general symptoms were related to high morbidity (OR = 1.41, 95% CI = 1.30-1.53, p < 0.001 for respiratory symptom and OR = 1.37, 95% CI = 1.18-1.59, p < 0.001 for general symptom). Mortality was associated with the clinical symptoms of shortness of breath, fever, and altered mental status or confusion. Among the symptom categories, respiratory symptoms were associated with a 1.17-fold increased HR for mortality (95% CI = 1.04-1.32, p = 0.008). Conclusions: Initial respiratory symptoms were related to high morbidity and mortality in COVID-19 patients.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Humanos , Morbidade , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Estados Unidos
17.
Korean J Intern Med ; 36(5): 1157-1168, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399570

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Studies on the effectiveness of public health measures to prevent respiratory virus transmission in real-world settings are lacking. We investigated the effectiveness of universal mask use and adherence to other personal preventive measures on the changing viral respiratory infection patterns during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. METHODS: Data were extracted from the South Korean National Respiratory Virus Sentinel Surveillance System. During the COVID-19 pandemic, a cross-sectional survey on adherence to personal preventive measures was conducted. Additionally, the number of subway passengers was analyzed to estimate physical distancing compliance. RESULTS: During the pandemic, adherence to personal preventive measures significantly increased, particularly indoors and on public transportation. Respiratory virus trends were compared based on laboratory surveillance data of 47,675 patients with acute respiratory infections (2016 to 2020). The 2019 to 2020 influenza epidemic ended within 3 weeks, from the epidemic peak to the epidemic end, quickly ending the inf luenza season; with a 1.8- to 2.5-fold faster decline than in previous seasons. Previously, the overall respiratory virus positivity rate remained high after the influenza seasons had ended (47.7% to 69.9%). During the COVID-19 pandemic, this positive rate, 26.5%, was significantly lower than those in previous years. Hospital-based surveillance showed a decreased number of hospitalized patients with acute viral respiratory illnesses. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that high compliance to the use of personal preventive measures in public might reduce the incidence of all respiratory virus infections and its hospitalization rates, with no additional quarantine, isolation, or contact screening.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Viroses , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Saúde Pública , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Children (Basel) ; 8(6)2021 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34204551

RESUMO

This study was designed to establish safe guidelines for pediatric dental practice regarding temporomandibular joint (TMJ) range of motion (ROM) and mouth area (MA). A total of 438 children aged 3-15 years old of homogenous ethnicity participated in the study; the distribution of participants was approximately equal (sex; n = 15; age, n = 30). Maximum mouth opening (MMO), body height, weight, and age of each participant were recorded, and the TMJ ROM including anterior and lateral movements, MA, and mouth width were documented. Males showed higher mouth width, MMO, and MA values than females. MMO and MA increased with age, height, and weight in a statistically significant manner. MMO of 40 mm is reached by the age of 5.2 years, at a height of 105.9 cm and a weight of 18.6 kg. MMO showed a moderate correlation with age, height, weight, and mouth width, and MA moderately correlated with mouth width. Anterior and lateral movements did not show any close relation to these aforementioned factors. The findings of this study suggest that forcible mouth opening over 40 mm should be more cautiously considered, especially in children shorter than 105 cm, lighter than 18 kg and in children under 5 years old.

20.
Integr Med Res ; 10(3): 100727, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34307020

RESUMO

Background: The first treatment option for major depressive disorder (MDD) is antidepressants, however, there is substantial demand for alternative therapies due to its low compliance and remission rates. This study was aimed to explore the effectiveness, safety, and feasibility of electroacupuncture plus moxibustion therapy for MDD. Methods: Thirty adults with MDD were randomly assigned to the treatment group (TG) or control group (CG). The TG was treated with electroacupuncture plus moxibustion, and the CG received sham interventions at non-acupoints for 8 weeks. The primary outcome measure was the intergroup difference of the mean change of total score of the Hamilton rating scale for depression (HRSD) between baseline and week 9. Secondary outcome measures were Beck's depression inventory, insomnia severity index, the state-trait anxiety inventory, the EuroQol-5 dimension index, the measure yourself medical outcome profile version 2, and frontal alpha asymmetry measured by electroencephalography. Adverse events (AEs) were monitored for safety assessment. Results: The primary outcome measure was not significantly different between the two groups (p=0.2641), although the scores of HRSD in both groups improved significantly after treatment. No significant difference was identified between groups in secondary outcome measures. The incidence of AE was not significantly different between the two groups (p=0.1067). Conclusion: A clinical trial using electroacupuncture plus moxibustion for MDD seems feasible. However, further studies with the larger size, adopting ideal controls are warranted to provide a confirmative conclusion to the efficacy and safety of electroacupuncture plus moxibustion for MDD.

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