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1.
Materials (Basel) ; 14(21)2021 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34772115

RESUMO

Value creation through waste recycling is important for a sustainable society and future. In particular, biomass, which is based on crops, is a great recyclable resource that can be converted into useful materials. Black tea is one of the most cultivated agricultural products in the world and is mostly discarded after brewing. Herein, we report the application of black tea waste biomass as electrode material for supercapacitors through the activation of biomass hydrochar under various conditions. Raw black tea was converted into hydrochar via a hydrothermal carbonization process and then activated with potassium hydroxide (KOH) to provide a large surface area and porous structure. The activation temperature and ratio of KOH were controlled to synthesize the optimal black tea carbon (BTC) with a large surface area and porosity suitable for use as electrode material. This method suggests a direction in which the enormous amount of biomass, which is simply discarded, can be utilized in the energy storage system. The synthesized optimal BTC has a large surface area of 1062 m2 and specific capacitance up to 200 F∙g-1 at 1 mV∙s-1. Moreover, it has 98.8% retention of charge-discharge capacitance after 2000 cycles at the current density of 5 A∙g-1.

2.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; : e29434, 2021 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34766717

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We examined regression patterns in pediatric optic pathway gliomas (OPGs) after proton beam therapy (PBT) and evaluated local control and visual outcomes. METHODS: A total of 42 brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans from seven consecutive sporadic OPGs that were initially treated with chemotherapy and received PBT between June 2007 and September 2016 at the National Cancer Center, Korea were analyzed. Patients underwent brain MRI regularly before and after PBT. Total tumor, cystic lesion, and solid enhancing lesion area delineation and volume calculations were performed on gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted MRI using Eclipse version 13, Varian. RESULTS: The median follow-up period after PBT was 70 months (range 47-88). The median age at the time of PBT was 7 years (range 4-16) and the median duration of chemotherapy before referral to PBT center was 25 months (range 3-70). The median time to the greatest increase in cystic volume was 32 months (range 12-43) after PBT. Solid enhancing lesion volume gradually decreased throughout the follow-up period. On an individual basis, total volume change was varied. However, on average, it regressed, although at a slower rate than solid enhancing lesion volume did. The local control rate was 85.7% (5-year progression-free survival rate, 80%; 5-year overall survival rate, 100%) and the rate of vision preservation was 71.4% (five of seven patients). CONCLUSION: The regression patterns in pediatric OPGs after PBT involve significant cystic change. Therefore, total volume is not appropriate for evaluating response. Care by a multidisciplinary team is necessary to manage clinical symptoms related to radiologic changes.

3.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; : e29430, 2021 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34766721

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A high proportion of pediatric patients with brain tumors (BTs) are known to experience a decline in neurocognitive function after treatment. We prospectively examined neuropsychological functioning of patients with BTs of varying tumor types at different time points before, during, and after proton beam therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 98 patients with posterior fossa tumors (PFTs; n = 33), germ cell tumors (GCTs; n = 52), and other supratentorial tumors (STTs; n = 13) underwent baseline neuropsychological assessments and 57 patients underwent follow-up assessments. RESULTS: All groups displayed significantly lower performance intelligence quotient (PIQ) and processing speed (PS) scores than the normative means at baseline. The PFT group exhibited significantly lower scores for full-scale IQ, PIQ, PS, attention, and executive function. The GCT group displayed full-scale IQ scores within the normal range, but a significantly high proportion had memory deficits. In the STT group, all functions except for the PIQ and PS were intact. Longitudinal evaluations demonstrated stable global IQ scores over time in all groups. In the PFT group, verbal comprehension, attention, and PS improved over time. However, in the GCT group, verbal IQ scores declined significantly and psychological problems worsened over time, which were correlated with poorer neurocognitive function at 3-5 years after treatment. In the STT group, no significant changes were observed. CONCLUSION: Because patients with BTs exhibit various types of neurocognitive deficit before radiotherapy, early cognitive treatment tailored to the tumor type maybe beneficial. Interventions for psychological problems and memory function may be necessary, especially for patients with GCT.

4.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 2021 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34788459

RESUMO

RNase H is involved in fundamental cellular processes and is responsible for removing the short stretch of RNA from Okazaki fragments and the long stretch of RNA from R-loops. Defects in RNase H lead to embryo lethality in mice and Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome in humans, suggesting the importance of RNase H. To date, RNase H is known to be a non-sequence-specific endonuclease, but it is not known whether it performs other functions on the structural variants of RNA:DNA hybrids. Here, we used Escherichia coli RNase H as a model, and examined its catalytic mechanism and its substrate recognition modes, using single-molecule FRET. We discovered that RNase H acts as a processive exoribonuclease on the 3' DNA overhang side but as a distributive non-sequence-specific endonuclease on the 5' DNA overhang side of RNA:DNA hybrids or on blunt-ended hybrids. The high affinity of previously unidentified double-stranded (ds) and single-stranded (ss) DNA junctions flanking RNA:DNA hybrids may help RNase H find the hybrid substrates in long genomic DNA. Our study provides new insights into the multifunctionality of RNase H, elucidating unprecedented roles of junctions and ssDNA overhang on RNA:DNA hybrids.

5.
Opt Express ; 29(19): 30625-30636, 2021 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34614783

RESUMO

In this work, we explore the use of machine learning for constructing the leakage radiation characteristics of the bright-field images of nanoislands from surface plasmon polariton based on the plasmonic random nanosubstrate. The leakage radiation refers to a leaky wave of surface plasmon polariton (SPP) modes through a dielectric substrate which has drawn interest due to its possibility of direct visualization and analysis of SPP propagation. A fast-learning two-layer neural network has been deployed to learn and predict the relationship between the leakage radiation characteristics and the bright-field images of nanoislands utilizing a limited number of training samples. The proposed learning framework is expected to significantly simplify the process of leaky radiation image construction without the need of sophisticated equipment. Moreover, a wide range of application extensions can be anticipated for the proposed image-to-image prediction.

6.
Gynecol Oncol ; 2021 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34696893

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to validate the performance of the Korean Gynecologic Oncologic Group (KGOG)-1024 risk model in predicting the risk of distant failure after chemoradiation in patients with locally advanced cervical cancer (LACC). METHODS: In a retrospective cohort of 297 patients who received concurrent chemoradiation for advanced cervical cancer, individual risk was calculated using the KGOG-1024 risk model. The cohort was categorized into three risk groups (low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups) according to the calculated risk. The means of the calculated and observed risks were compared within each group. RESULTS: The study population was classified into low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups according to the KGOG-1024 risk model (27.2%, 49.3%, and 23.5% of patients, respectively). The calculated and observed 5-year cumulative incidence rates were 12.4% vs. 16.4% in the low-risk group, 23.2% vs. 25.9% in the intermediate-risk group, and 50.7% vs. 36.3% in the high-risk group. Overall, the calculated and observed risk was 26.7% vs. 25.6%. CONCLUSIONS: The KGOG-1024 risk assessment model accurately predicted distant recurrence after chemoradiation in patients with LACC, especially in the low- and intermediate-risk groups. The model may be helpful for identifying patients for future trials assessing the possible benefit of adjuvant systemic treatment after chemoradiation.

7.
J Virol ; : JVI0124121, 2021 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34705554

RESUMO

Coronaviruses are a major healthcare threat to humankind. Currently, the host factors that contribute to limit disease severity in healthy young patients are not well defined. Interferons are key antiviral molecules, especially type I and type III interferons. The role of these interferons during coronavirus disease is a subject of debate. Here using mice that are deficient in type I (IFNAR1-/-), type III (IFNLR1-/-) or both (IFNAR1/LR1-/-) interferon signaling pathways and murine adapted coronavirus (MHV-A59) administered through intranasal route, we define the role of interferons in coronavirus infection. We show that type I interferons play a major role in host survival in this model while a minimal role of type III interferons was manifested only in the absence of type I interferons or during a lethal dose of coronavirus. IFNAR1-/- and IFNAR1/LR1-/- mice had an uncontrolled viral burden in the airways and lung and increased viral dissemination to other organs. The absence of only type III interferon signaling had no measurable difference in the viral load. The increased viral load in IFNAR1-/- and IFNAR1/LR1-/- mice was associated with increased tissue injury, especially evident in the lung and liver. Type I but not type III interferon treatment was able to promote survival if treated during early disease. Further, we show that type I interferon signaling in macrophages contributes to the beneficial effects during coronavirus infection in mice. Importance: The antiviral and pathological potential of type I and type III interferons during coronavirus infection remains poorly defined and opposite findings have been reported. We report that both type I and type III interferons have anti-coronaviral activities, but their potency and organ specificity differ. Type I interferons deficiency rendered the mice susceptible to even a sublethal murine coronavirus infection, while the type III interferon deficiency impaired survival only during a lethal infection or during a sublethal infection in absence of type I interferon signaling. While treatment with both type I and III interferons promoted viral clearance in the airways and lung, only type I interferons promoted the viral clearance in the liver and improved host survival upon early treatment (12 hours post infection). This study demonstrates distinct roles and potency of type I and type III interferons and their therapeutic potential during coronavirus lung infection.

8.
Oncol Lett ; 22(4): 743, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34466155

RESUMO

Pioglitazone is an anti-diabetic agent used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes, which belongs to the thiazolidinediones (TZDs) group. TZDs target peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), which functions as a transcription factor of the nuclear hormone receptor. Pioglitazone has antitumor effects in several cancer types and could be a tool for drug therapy in various cancer treatments. Nevertheless, the molecular basis for pioglitazone-induced anticancer effects in renal cancer (RC) has not yet been elucidated. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the detailed signaling pathway underlying pioglitazone-induced apoptosis in Caki cells derived from human clear cell renal cell carcinoma. As a result, it was demonstrated by flow cytometry analysis and Annexin V-propidium iodide staining that pioglitazone treatment induced apoptotic cell death in a dose-dependent manner in Caki cells. The protein expression levels of cellular FLICE (FADD-like IL-1ß-converting enzyme)-inhibitory protein (c-FLIP)(L) and Bcl-2, which were determined by western blotting, decreased after pioglitazone treatment in Caki cells. Flow cytometry and western blot analyses demonstrated that pioglitazone-mediated apoptosis was blocked following pretreatment with the pan-caspase inhibitor, z-VAD-fmk, indicating that pioglitazone-induced apoptosis was mediated via a caspase-dependent signaling pathway. However, the reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger, N-acetylcysteine (NAC), did not affect pioglitazone-mediated apoptosis and degradation of c-FLIP(L) and Bcl-2 protein. Of note, it was found by western blot analysis that Bcl-2 protein expression was downregulated by the decreased protein stability of Bcl-2 in pioglitazone-treated Caki cells. In conclusion, these findings indicated that pioglitazone-induced apoptosis is regulated through caspase-mediated degradation of FLIP(L) and reduction of Bcl-2 protein stability, suggesting that pioglitazone is a feasible apoptotic agent that could be used in the treatment of human RC.

10.
Forensic Sci Int Genet ; 55: 102581, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34517229

RESUMO

Opium poppy, a member of the Papaveraceae family, is an ancient herbaceous plant and well-known medical resource in the pharmaceutical industry. However, opium poppies are grown worldwide for producing illicit drugs, significantly increasing the incidence of narcotic drug abuse. Since the narcotic poppy has not yet been genetically investigated, we characterized a novel variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) marker of forensically important poppy species based on the genetic analysis of 164 samples collected from two locations spanning the Jeolla province and Jeju island of South Korea. Comparing analysis of the chloroplast (cp) genome sequences for four representative species of Papaver (Papaver somniferum, Papaver somniferum subs. setigerum, Papaver orientale, and Papaver rhoeas) revealed a unique region with 1-3 repeats for 16 nucleotide motifs in the genome inverted repeat A (IRA, positions 128,651 to 128,698) region. For 16 nucleotide motifs, 3 repeats were found in P. somniferum, and 2 repeats were found in P. somniferum subs. setigerum. Therefore, 10 known and the 133 unknown, seized Papaver species were compared to determine whether the species could be identified via variations in the repeat units. The sizes of a novel VNTR ranged from 181 to 252 bp between the species. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that a novel VNTR, which we named Pscp1, could clearly distinguish between the narcotic and non-narcotic types of Papaver species based on the patterns of sequence variation. Interestingly, we found that Pscp1 could also distinguish between P. somniferum and P. somniferum subs. setigerum. The regions of eight non-narcotic species displayed similar patterns and also differences were found due to the nucleotide substitution and deletion events. The structural differences of Pscp1 were observed within the two narcotic species or between the narcotic and non-narcotic species, suggesting that these variations may act as a genetic marker. We, therefore, developed a new Pscp1 PCR-capillary electrophoresis (CE) method that can reliably identify the narcotic type of Papaver species. Taken together, our findings suggest that the newly developed Pscp1 can be used as an identification marker of opium poppy, and establish that the Pscp1 genotyping method by PCR-CE is an effective primary screening tool that can also contribute to species discrimination in the field of forensic diagnosis and applications.


Assuntos
Papaver , Marcadores Genéticos , Humanos , Repetições Minissatélites , Papaver/genética , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase
11.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(15)2021 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34359603

RESUMO

To compare the oncologic outcomes between chemoradiotherapy (CRT) and radical hysterectomy followed by tailored adjuvant therapy in patients with early cervical cancer presenting with pelvic lymph node metastasis. We retrospectively analyzed the medical records of women with early cervical cancer presenting with positive pelvic nodes identified on pretreatment imaging assessment. Propensity score matching was employed to control for the heterogeneity between two groups according to confounding factors. Overall survival, disease-free survival, and pattern of failure were compared between the two groups. A total of 262 patients were identified; among them, 67 received definitive CRT (group A), and 195 received hysterectomy (group B). Adjuvant therapy was administered to 88.7% of group B. There were no significant differences between group A and group B regarding the 5-year overall survival rates (89.2% vs. 89.0%) as well as disease-free survival rates (80.6% vs. 82.7%), and patterns of failure. Distant metastasis was the major failure pattern identified in both groups. In multivariate analysis, non-squamous histology was significantly associated with poorer overall survival. As there are no significant differences in 5-year OS, DFS, and patterns of failure, definitive CRT could avoid the combined modality therapy without compromising oncologic outcomes.

12.
Neuron ; 109(17): 2717-2726.e3, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34363751

RESUMO

Successful adaptation to the environment requires an accurate response to external threats by recalling specific memories. Memory formation and recall require engram cell activity and synaptic strengthening among activated neuronal ensembles. However, elucidation of the underlying neural substrates of associative fear memory has remained limited without a direct interrogation of extinction-induced changes of specific synapses that encode a specific auditory fear memory. Using dual-eGRASP (enhanced green fluorescent protein reconstitution across synaptic partners), we found that synapses among activated neuronal ensembles or activated synaptic ensembles showed a significantly larger spine morphology at auditory cortex (AC)-to-lateral amygdala (LA) projections after auditory fear conditioning in mice. Fear extinction reversed these enhanced synaptic ensemble spines, whereas re-conditioning with the same tone and shock restored the spine size of the synaptic ensemble. We suggest that synaptic ensembles encode and represent different fear memory states.


Assuntos
Tonsila do Cerebelo/fisiologia , Medo , Memória , Sinapses/fisiologia , Tonsila do Cerebelo/citologia , Animais , Espinhas Dendríticas/fisiologia , Extinção Psicológica , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34203286

RESUMO

Creatine and sodium bicarbonate are both ergogenic aids for athletic performance. However, research on the combined creatine and sodium bicarbonate (CSB) supplementation in soccer is limited. This study investigated the changes in soccer-specific performance in elite soccer players after supplementing with CSB. Twenty well-trained elite soccer players participated in the study (age: 20.70 ± 1.08 years; height: 173.95 ± 2.81 cm; body weight: 70.09 ± 3.96 kg; soccer experience: 8 years; average training hours per week: 20 h). The participants were randomly allocated into CSB groups (CSB, n = 10) and placebo groups (PLA, n = 10). The CSB group took creatine (20 g/day) and sodium bicarbonate (0.3 g/kg/day); these two supplements were taken four times a day (morning, afternoon, evening, and before sleep) for seven days. Soccer-specific performance was assessed via 10- and 30-m sprint, coordination, arrowhead agility, and Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 1 tests. Compared to the PLA group, the CSB group performed better in the 30-m sprint (CSB: -3.6% vs. PLA: -0.6%, p = 0.007, effect size (ES): 2.3) and both right and left arrowhead agility (right: CSB: -7.3% vs. PLA: -0.7%, p < 0.001, ES: 2.8; left: CSB: -5.5% vs. PLA: -1.2%, p = 0.001, ES: 2.1) tests. However, there were no differences in 10 m sprints, coordination, and Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 1 tests between the two groups (p > 0.05). In conclusion, CSB supplementation improved sprint and agility in elite soccer players. However, it is still unclear whether such effect is synergistic effect of two supplements or the result of either one of them. Therefore, caution should be taken when interpreting the results, and the limitations should be examined further in future studies.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Futebol , Adulto , Creatina , Suplementos Nutricionais , Teste de Esforço , Humanos , Bicarbonato de Sódio , Adulto Jovem
14.
Genes Genomics ; 43(10): 1199-1207, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34302634

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lactucin, a naturally occurring active sesquiterpene lactone, is abundantly found in chicory and romaine lettuce. A recent study reported that lactucin could induce apoptosis in leukemia cells. However, its cytotoxicity and potential molecular mechanisms underlying cancer cell death remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: Therefore, in this study, we aimed to investigate the direct effect and underlying mechanism of action of lactucin on renal cancer cells. METHODS: MTT assay and flow cytometry were performed to evaluate the rate of cell proliferation and apoptosis, respectively. Western blotting, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, and protein stability analyses were performed to analyze the effect of lactucin on the expression of apoptosis-related proteins such as B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL-2) and CFLAR (CASP8 and FADD like apoptosis regulator) long isoform (CFLARL) in Caki-1 human renal cancer cells. In addition, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was evaluated using flow cytometry. RESULTS: Lactucin treatment induced apoptosis in Caki-1 cells in a dose-dependent manner via activation of the caspase pathway. It downregulated BCL-2 and CFLARL expression levels by suppressing BCL-2 transcription and CFLARL protein stability, respectively. Pretreatment with N-acetyl-1-cysteine, a ROS scavenger, attenuated the lactucin-induced apoptosis and restored the BCL-2 and CFLARL expression to basal levels. Lactucin-facilitated BCL-2 downregulation was regulated at the transcriptional level through the inactivation of the NF-κB pathway. CONCLUSIONS: Our study is the first to demonstrate that lactucin-induced apoptosis is mediated by ROS production, which in turn activates the caspase-dependent apoptotic pathway by inhibiting BCL-2 and CFLARL expression in Caki-1 cells.

15.
Phys Act Nutr ; 25(2): 20-25, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34315203

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of this review was to discuss the effects of vitamin D on physical performance and musculoskeletal injuries in athletes and provide information on the field applications of vitamin D. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted to identify studies on vitamin D in athletes that assessed serum vitamin D levels, vitamin D and physical performance, vitamin D and musculoskeletal injuries, and practical guidelines for supplementation of vitamin D. RESULTS: Several studies reported that a high proportion of athletes had vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency. Low serum levels of vitamin D in athletes were more pronounced in winter than in other seasons, and indoor athletes had lower serum vitamin D levels than outdoor athletes. Low vitamin D levels have been demonstrated to have negative effects on muscle strength, power, and endurance; increase stress fractures and other musculoskeletal injuries; and affect acute muscle injuries and inflammation following high-intensity exercises. Therefore, periodic assessment and monitoring of vitamin D levels are necessary in athletes; the recommended serum level of 25(OH)D is > 32 ng/mL and the preferred level is > 40 ng/mL (-1). In those with low levels of vitamin D, exposure to sunlight and an improved diet or supplements may be helpful. Particularly, 2000-6000 IU of supplemental vitamin D3 can be consumed daily. CONCLUSION: Vitamin D is a potential nutritional factor that can significantly affect physical performance and musculoskeletal injuries in athletes. The importance and role of vitamin D in athletes should be emphasized, and the current levels of vitamin D should be assessed. Therefore, it is essential to periodically evaluate and monitor serum vitamin D levels in athletes.

16.
Gynecol Oncol ; 163(1): 105-109, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34294413

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The majority of uterine cervical cancer is known to be related to human papillomavirus (HPV), and HPV-related tumors are known to be radio-sensitive. In the management of HPV-related oropharyngeal cancer, de-intensification of treatment has been attempted; however, no such attempt is performed in the management of cervical cancer. The aim of this study was to identify a group of patients who can safely be treated by de-escalated treatment intensity. METHODS: From the Asian international multi-institutional retrospective study involving 13 Japanese, one Thailand, and one Korean institutions based on 469 patients, squamous cell carcinoma (Scc), tumor reduction ratio ≥29%, tumor size before brachytherapy ≤4 cm, and total treatment time (TTT) <9 weeks were identified as factors having an influence on local control. Based on these findings, low-risk patients having these four factors were extracted, and treatment outcomes categorized in 10 Gy increment of CTVHR D90 were compared. RESULTS: Among 469 patients, 162 patients (34.5%) met the criteria of low-risk group, and 63, 41, 43, and 15 patients were categorized in CTVHR D90 50-60 Gy, 60-70 Gy, 70-80 Gy, and >80 Gy, respectively. While 4-y progression-free survival ranged from 66 to 80%, 4-y local control was consistently over 90% in every dose group. Rectum and bladder D2cc and incidence of late adverse events decreased as CTVHR D90 decreased. CONCLUSIONS: The low-risk patients achieved favorable local control with CTVHR D90 <80 Gy. A personalized treatment strategy based on tumor response could also be adopted for cervical cancer.

17.
J Forensic Sci ; 66(6): 2362-2368, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34296771

RESUMO

Dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) are among the most common companion animals in the Republic of Korea. Recently, there have been many criminal cases of dog cruelty, injury, and theft, among others. This has increased the importance of dog-related biological evidence at crime scenes. The National Forensic Service of the Republic of Korea conducts short tandem repeat (STR) analysis using the Thermo Scientific Canine Genotypes™ Panel 2.1 Kit (Canine Kit) to identify individual dogs through forensic analysis. The Canine Kit was developed as a forensic STR kit for the identification of individual dogs. However, an allelic ladder was neither developed nor included in the commercial kit, leaving an issue of accurate genotyping. Primer details for the 18 markers used in the Canine Kit are proprietary information, and thus, unavailable to end-users. In this study, an allelic ladder was constructed with 160 fragments by combining 158 fragments of STR alleles obtained by nested PCR and two fragments artificially obtained from the sex-determination marker. By including the new allelic ladder in analysis of samples amplified with the Canine Kit, the accuracy and reliability of data analysis were improved. Application of this allelic ladder would be helpful for interlaboratory data sharing and standardization of canine genotype databases.


Assuntos
Alelos , Cães/genética , Genótipo , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Animais , Impressões Digitais de DNA , Genética Forense/métodos , Repetições de Microssatélites , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
18.
Sci Adv ; 7(23)2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34088675

RESUMO

Skin-like health care patches (SHPs) are next-generation health care gadgets that will enable seamless monitoring of biological signals in daily life. Skin-conformable sensors and a stretchable display are critical for the development of standalone SHPs that provide real-time information while alleviating privacy concerns related to wireless data transmission. However, the production of stretchable wearable displays with sufficient pixels to display this information remains challenging. Here, we report a standalone organic SHP that provides real-time heart rate information. The 15-µm-thick SHP comprises a stretchable organic light-emitting diode display and stretchable organic photoplethysmography (PPG) heart rate sensor on all-elastomer substrate and operates stably under 30% strain using a combination of stress relief layers and deformable micro-cracked interconnects that reduce the mechanical stress on the active optoelectronic components. This approach provides a rational strategy for high-resolution stretchable displays, enabling the production of ideal platforms for next-generation wearable health care electronics.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34060174

RESUMO

People diagnosed with schizophrenia (PDS) will find seamlessly coordinated services and care in their communities if they are delivered with a high level of continuity of care (COC). Most studies of COC were conducted in Western countries that initiated deinstitutionalisation several decades ago. Limited studies highlight experiences of COC among PDS who live in societies still heavily relying on institutionalised care, such as prolonged hospitalisation, like South Korea where PDS stay in psychiatric hospitals over 100 days on average. This qualitative study explored COC that PDS experienced in South Korea. We focused on cross-boundary COC, which refers to service coordination at a given moment, and longitudinal COC, which refers to care over a period of time. Twenty-one PDS completed in-depth interviews from June to August 2017. Fifteen participants were male (71.4%), and ages ranged from 26 to 71. We used grounded theory techniques for data analysis, including initial open coding, in vivo coding, constant comparison and axial coding. Findings include that PDS experienced poor longitudinal COC when discharge planning during hospitalisation was absent, which undermined their ability to live independently. Poor employment support effectively undermined recovery even if PDS worked hard to attain economic self-sufficiency. As for cross-boundary COC, poor communication between psychiatrists and providers offering psychiatric rehabilitation services was a barrier. PDS in general had difficulties locating needed psychiatric rehabilitation services in the community. The lack of COC appeared to arise from particular sociocultural contexts, including poor self-determination in consumer-provider relationships, families' lack of knowledge and support, and discrimination and prejudice. Despite experiences with discrimination, no participants appeared to have internalised messages that they are 'less than' those without mental illnesses. Findings highlight the significance of multi-pronged approaches to increase COC, which can effectively link PDS, families, psychiatrists and psychiatric rehabilitation service providers.

20.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 10940, 2021 05 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34035418

RESUMO

Adaptive radiation is a phenomenon in which various organs are diversified morphologically or functionally as animals adapt to environmental inputs. Leeches exhibit a variety of ingestion behaviors and morphologically diverse ingestion organs. In this study, we investigated the correlation between behavioral pattern and feeding organ structure of leech species. Among them, we found that Alboglossiphonia sp. swallows prey whole using its proboscis, whereas other leeches exhibit typical fluid-sucking behavior. To address whether the different feeding behaviors are intrinsic, we investigated the behavioral patterns and muscle arrangements in the earlier developmental stage of glossiphoniid leeches. Juvenile Glossiphoniidae including the Alboglossiphonia sp. exhibit the fluid ingestion behavior and have the proboscis with the compartmentalized muscle layers. This study provides the characteristics of leeches with specific ingestion behaviors, and a comparison of structural differences that serves as the first evidence of the proboscis diversification.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Comportamento Alimentar , Trato Gastrointestinal , Sanguessugas/anatomia & histologia , Sanguessugas/fisiologia , Animais , Carnivoridade , Sanguessugas/genética
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