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3.
Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 2020 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32433432

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Current occupational heat stress guidelines rely on time-weighted averaging to quantify the metabolic demands of variable-intensity work. However, variable-intensity work may be associated with impairments in whole-body total heat loss (dry+evaporative heat loss), especially in older workers, which exacerbate heat strain relative to constant-intensity work eliciting the same time-weighted average metabolic rate. We therefore used direct calorimetry to evaluate whether variable-intensity work would cause decrements in the average rate of whole-body total heat loss that augment body heat storage and core temperature compared to constant-intensity work in young and older men. METHODS: Eight young (19-31 years) and eight older (54-65 years) men completed four trials involving 90-min of work (cycling) eliciting an average metabolic heat production of ~200 W/m in dry-heat (40C, 20% relative humidity). One trial involved constant-intensity work (CON), while the others involved 10-min cycles of variable-intensity work: 5-min low- and 5-min high-intensity (VAR 5:5), 6-min low- and 4-min very high-intensity (VAR 6:4), and 7-min low- and 3-min very, very high-intensity (VAR 7:3). Metabolic heat production, total heat loss, body heat storage (heat production minus total heat loss) and core (rectal) temperature were measured throughout. RESULTS: When averaged over each 90-min work period, metabolic heat production, total heat loss, and heat storage were similar between groups and conditions (all p≥0.152). Peak core temperature (average of final 10-min) was also similar between groups and conditions (both p≥0.111). CONCLUSION: Whole-body total heat loss, heat storage and core temperature were not significantly influenced by the partitioning of work intensity in young or older men, indicating that time-weighted averaging appears to be appropriate for quantifying the metabolic demands of variable-intensity work to assess occupational heat stress.

4.
J Korean Med Sci ; 35(15): e130, 2020 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32301297

RESUMO

Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis (SJS/TEN) are the most severe cutaneous drug hypersensitivity reactions, which are unpredictable adverse drug reactions. SJS/TEN is associated with significant mortality and morbidity; however, effective treatment is difficult. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are well-known for their anti-inflammatory and tissue regeneration properties. The purpose of the present study was to verify whether MSCs could be applied for the treatment of SJS/TEN. We developed an SJS/TEN mouse model using peripheral blood mononuclear cells from a lamotrigine-induced SJS patient. MSCs were injected into the model to verify the treatment effect. In SJS model mice treated with MSCs, ocular damage rarely occurred, and apoptosis rate was significantly lower. We demonstrated a therapeutic effect of MSCs on SJS/TEN, with these cells presenting a potential novel therapy for the management of this disorder.

5.
Stem Cell Res ; 45: 101735, 2020 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32268246

RESUMO

Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) is a member of the toll-like receptor (TLR) family that is essential in the innate immune system. In this study, we established a heterozygous TLR7 knockout H9 cell line using CRISPR/Cas9. TLR7 knockout H9 cells maintained their pluripotency and exhibited the ability to differentiate into the three germ layers without any karyotype abnormalities.

6.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl ; 110: 110693, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32204007

RESUMO

The poor melt property and brittleness of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) cause difficulties in extrusion foaming and decrease product performance in industrial and research fields. In this paper, the rheological properties of PLA resin were improved using an epoxy chain extension reaction, which led to the improvement of pore properties such as morphology and foamability. Reinforced PLA was extruded in a porous filament, and a scaffold was fabricated with design freedom, one-step processing, and dual porosity by extrusion foaming and 3D printing. In addition, in vitro cell culture tests were performed to verify the cell biology assessment and confirm the potential of the scaffold for application as medical scaffolds.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32186179

RESUMO

Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(4-styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) has demonstrated outstanding performance as a charge transport layer or an electrode in various electronic devices, including organic solar cells, organic light-emitting diodes, and organic field-effect transistors (OFETs). The electrical properties of these devices are affected by the contact properties at the PEDOT:PSS-semiconductor junction. In this research, we performed work function (WF) engineering of electrohydrodynamic (EHD)-jet-printed PEDOT:PSS and successfully used it as an electrode to fabricate high-performance OFETs and complementary logic circuits. Two types of PEDOT:PSS materials-one with a high WF (HWF, 5.28 eV) and the other with a low WF (LWF, 4.53 eV)-were synthesized and EHD-jet-printed. The WF of PEDOT:PSS was deterministically modulated by approximately 0.75 eV through simple mixing of the two synthesized PEDOT:PSS materials in various ratios. OFETs fabricated with HWF and LWF PEDOT:PSS electrodes showed excellent electrical properties, including the ON/OFF switching ratio higher than 107 and the highest carrier mobility greater than 1 cm2·V-1·s-1. Furthermore, the HWF and LWF PEDOT:PSS electrodes were integrated to fabricate complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) NOT, NOR, and NAND circuits.

8.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 3939, 2020 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32127560

RESUMO

Although human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) lines are karyotypically normal, they retain the potential for mutation in the genome. Accordingly, intensive and relevant quality controls for clinical-grade hiPSCs remain imperative. As a conceptual approach, we performed RNA-seq-based broad-range genetic quality tests on GMP-compliant human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-homozygous hiPSCs and their derivatives under postdistribution conditions to investigate whether sequencing data could provide a basis for future quality control. We found differences in the degree of single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) occurring in cells cultured at three collaborating institutes. However, the cells cultured at each centre showed similar trends, in which more SNPs occurred in late-passage hiPSCs than in early-passage hiPSCs after differentiation. In eSNP karyotyping analysis, none of the predicted copy number variations (CNVs) were identified, which confirmed the results of SNP chip-based CNV analysis. HLA genotyping analysis revealed that each cell line was homozygous for HLA-A, HLA-B, and DRB1 and heterozygous for HLA-DPB type. Gene expression profiling showed a similar differentiation ability of early- and late-passage hiPSCs into cardiomyocyte-like, hepatic-like, and neuronal cell types. However, time-course analysis identified five clusters showing different patterns of gene expression, which were mainly related to the immune response. In conclusion, RNA-seq analysis appears to offer an informative genetic quality testing approach for such cell types and allows the early screening of candidate hiPSC seed stocks for clinical use by facilitating safety and potential risk evaluation.

9.
BMC Nephrol ; 21(1): 91, 2020 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32156264

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nutritional factors are associated with high mortality and morbidity in dialysis patients, and protein-energy wasting is regarded as an important one. The modality of dialysis may affect patients' dietary behavior and nutritional status, but no study has compared the dietary behavior, nutrient intake, and nutritional adequacy of hemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. METHODS: From December 2016 to May 2017, a dietary behavior survey and Semi-quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire (Semi-FFQ) were conducted on 30 HD patients and 30 PD patients in Ewha Womans University Mokdong Hospital, and laboratory parameters were obtained. The results of prevalent HD and PD patients were then compared. RESULTS: The mean age of HD patients was higher than that of PD patients; HD: 58.5 ± 9.1 years, PD: 49.3 ± 9.7 years (p = 0.001). In the dietary behavior survey, HD patients showed more appropriate dietary behavior patterns overall than PD patients. In the dietary intake analysis with the Semi-FFQ, energy intake was significantly lower in the PD group than in the HD group due to the lower intake of carbohydrates, fat, and protein. A comparison of nutrient intake-to-recommended allowance ratio between the HD and PD groups revealed that the HD group showed higher nutrient intake than the PD group. Serum albumin and potassium levels were significantly higher in HD than in PD patients. CONCLUSION: According to this study, the dietary behavior and nutritional intake of prevalent PD patients were worse than those of HD patients.

10.
Exp Mol Med ; 52(1): 56-65, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31956269

RESUMO

The efficient and reproducible derivation and maturation of multipotent hematopoietic progenitors from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) requires the recapitulation of appropriate developmental stages and the microenvironment. Here, using serum-, xeno-, and feeder-free stepwise hematopoietic induction protocols, we showed that short-term and high-concentration treatment of hPSCs with bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) strongly promoted early mesoderm induction followed by increased hematopoietic commitment. This method reduced variations in hematopoietic differentiation among hPSC lines maintained under chemically defined Essential 8 medium compared to those maintained under less-defined mTeSR medium. We also found that perivascular niche cells (PVCs) significantly augmented the production of hematopoietic cells via paracrine signaling mechanisms only when they were present during the hematopoietic commitment phase. A protein array revealed 86 differentially expressed (>1.5-fold) secretion factors in PVC-conditioned medium compared with serum-free control medium, of which the transforming growth factor-ß inducible gene H3 significantly increased the number of hematopoietic colony-forming colonies. Our data suggest that BMP4 and PVCs promote the hematopoietic differentiation of hPSCs in a differentiation stage-specific manner. This will increase our understanding of hematopoietic development and expedite the development of hPSC-derived blood products for therapeutic use.

11.
Surg Endosc ; 34(3): 1124-1131, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31139995

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Endoscopic therapy of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) overcomes the "treatment gap" for patients with refractory GERD, who are not willing to go into surgery. We propose an easy and efficient technique that is referred to as anti-reflux mucosectomy (ARMS) using cap-assisted endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR-C) which could be called ARMS-C. This study aimed to investigate the short-term outcomes of ARMS-C in GERD patients. METHODS: From December 2016 to February 2018, we performed ARMS-C in 33 patients with pathologic reflux disease and esophageal hypersensitivity. ARMS-C involved endoscopic mucosal resection at the circumference of the esophagogastric junction (EGJ), resulting in narrowing of the hiatal opening after healing. The GERD symptoms, 24-h pH monitoring results, manometry, endoscopy, and EGJ distensibility were compared before and after the procedure. RESULTS: Six months after ARMS-C, 63% of patients discontinued the use of pump inhibitors (PPIs), while 30% patients reduced their PPI dose. The GERD questionnaire scores significantly decreased after ARMS-C, from 11.0 to 6.0 (P < 0.001). The median DeMeester score and acid exposure time based on pH monitoring also improved after ARMS-C. Furthermore, the median flap valve grade and EGJ distensibility decreased from 3.0 to 1.0 (P < 0.001) and from 19.0 to 13.9 (P < 0.001), respectively. Two patients were treated with balloon dilation due to stricture, but no other serious adverse events were encountered. CONCLUSION: ARMS-C may be an effective and safe treatment method for GERD in terms of short-term outcomes.

12.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 150: 110719, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31732177

RESUMO

We investigated the source, composition, and reactivity of particulate organic carbon (POC) in two contrasting Korean estuary systems, a closed estuary (Geum) (i.e., with an estuary dam at the river mouth) and an open (Seomjin) estuary. A dual isotope (δ13CPOC and Δ14CPOC) approach was applied to surface water samples collected along a salinity gradient in August 2016. Our results indicate that phytoplankton-derived POC was the main contributor to the total POC pool in the reservoir of the Geum estuary, while terrestrial-derived POC predominated the upper Seomjin estuary. A simple binary mixing model using Δ14CPOC revealed a higher modern POC contribution (87-90%) in the Geum estuary reservoir than that (77%) of the upper Seomjin estuary. Accordingly, it appears that an estuary dam can alter the source and reactivity of POC in a reservoir, which can be transferred to the adjacent coastal ecosystem.

13.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 17592, 2019 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31772218

RESUMO

Several mud volcanoes are active in the Canadian Beaufort Sea. In this study, we investigated vertical variations in methanotrophic communities in sediments of the mud volcano MV420 (420 m water depth) by analyzing geochemical properties, microbial lipids, and nucleic acid signatures. Three push cores were collected with a remotely operated vehicle from visually discriminative habitats that were devoid of megafauna and/microbial mats (DM) to the naked eye, covered with bacterial mats (BM), or colonized by siboglinid tubeworms (ST). All MV420 sites showed the presence of aerobic methane oxidation (MOx)- and anaerobic methane oxidation (AOM)-related lipid biomarkers (4α-methyl sterols and sn-2-hydroxyarchaeol, respectively), which were distinctly different in comparison with a reference site at which these compounds were not detected. Lipid biomarker results were in close agreement with 16S rRNA analyses, which revealed the presence of MOx-related bacteria (Methylococcales) and AOM-related archaea (ANME-2 and ANME-3) at the MV420 sites. 4α-methyl sterols derived from Methylococcales predominated in the surface layer at the BM site, which showed a moderate methane flux (0.04 mmol cm-2 y-1), while their occurrence was limited at the DM (0.06 mmol cm-2 y-1) and ST (0.01 mmol cm-2 y-1) sites. On the other hand, 13C-depleted sn-2-hydroxyarchaeol potentially derived from ANME-2 and/or ANME-3 was abundant in down-core sediments at the ST site. Our study indicates that a niche diversification within this mud volcano system has shaped distinct methanotrophic communities due to availability of electron acceptors in association with varying degrees of methane flux and bioirrigation activity.

14.
Stem Cell Reports ; 13(6): 980-991, 2019 12 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31680058

RESUMO

A major limitation in anti-tuberculosis drug screening is the lack of reliable and scalable models for homogeneous human primary macrophage cells of non-cancer origin. Here we report a modified protocol for generating homogeneous populations of macrophage-like cells from human embryonic stem cells. The induced macrophages, referred to as iMACs, presented similar transcriptomic profiles and characteristic immunological features of classical macrophages and were permissive to viral and bacterial infection, in particular Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). More importantly, iMAC production was amenable to scale up. To evaluate iMAC efficiency in high-throughput anti-tuberculosis drug screening, we performed a phenotypic screening against intracellular Mtb, involving a library of 3,716 compounds that included FDA-approved drugs and other bioactive compounds. Our primary screen identified 120 hits, which were validated in a secondary screen by dose-intracellular and -extracellular Mtb assays. Our confirmatory studies identified a novel anti-Mtb compound, 10-DEBC, also showing activity against drug-resistant strains.

15.
Korean J Intern Med ; 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31722513

RESUMO

Background/Aims: Teicoplanin can be used as an alternative to vancomycin when treating beta-lactam-resistant gram-positive bacterial infections. Both vancomycin and teicoplanin are associated with relatively high rates of adverse drug reactions (ADRs), including hypersensitivity reactions. There is limited data on teicoplanin-vancomycin cross-reactivity. This study examined the incidence of teicoplanin ADRs and risk factors for cross-reactivity between vancomycin and teicoplanin. Methods: We analyzed the incidence of teicoplanin ADRs in a retrospective study of 304 newly teicoplanin-exposed, immunocompetent, hospitalized patients at a single Korean Medical Center between January 1, 2006 and December 31, 2015. Results: Among 304 patients, 238 (78.3%) experienced vancomycin-associated ADRs prior to their teicoplanin exposure and 58 (19.1%) experienced teicoplanin- associated ADRs, which were mostly hypersensitivity reactions without acute kidney injury. The incidence of teicoplanin ADRs was higher in patients who previously experienced vancomycin-related ADRs (23.1% vs. 5.3%, p < 0.001). History of drug allergy was a statistically significant risk factor of teicoplanin ADRs. The incidence of teicoplanin ADRs significantly increased in patients with multiple organ involvement in vancomycin hypersensitivity reactions. Conclusions: Teicoplanin should be administered with caution and clinicians must consider the risk factors of cross-reaction when prescribing teicoplanin to individuals with a history of vancomycin hypersensitivity.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31625551

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: There are limited data regarding extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support in immunocompromised patients, despite an increase in ECMO use in patients with respiratory failure. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical characteristics and outcomes of immunocompromised patients requiring ECMO support for severe acute respiratory failure. METHODS: Between January 2012 and December 2015, all consecutive adult patients with severe acute respiratory failure who underwent ECMO for respiratory support at 16 tertiary or university-affiliated hospitals in South Korea were enrolled retrospectively. The patients were divided into 2 groups based on the immunocompromised status at the time of ECMO initiation. In-hospital and 6-month mortalities were compared between the 2 groups. In addition, association of immunocompromised status with 6-month mortality was evaluated with logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Among 461 patients, 118 (25.6%) were immunocompromised. Immunocompromised patients were younger and had lower haemoglobin and platelet counts than immunocompetent patients. Ventilatory parameters and the use of adjunctive/rescue therapies were similar between the 2 groups, but prone positioning was more commonly used in immunocompetent patients. Successful weaning rates from ECMO (46.6% vs 58.9%; P = 0.021) was lower and hospital mortality (66.1% vs 59.8%; P = 0.22) was higher in immunocompromised patients. In addition, immunocompromised status was associated with higher 6-month mortality (74.6% vs 64.7%, adjusted odds ratio 2.10, 95% confidence interval 1.02-4.35; P = 0.045). CONCLUSIONS: Immunocompromised patients treated with ECMO support for severe acute respiratory failure had poorer short- and long-term prognoses than did immunocompetent patients.

17.
Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis ; 14: 2135-2144, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31571850

RESUMO

Purpose: We compared clinical characteristics of COPD patients according to symptom variability and evaluated the effect of symptom variability during the first year of enrollment on clinical outcomes of COPD. Methods: We analyzed COPD patients' data from the Korean Obstructive Lung Disease (KOLD) cohort. Symptom variability was defined based on the value of standard deviation (SD) of mMRC scores obtained every 3 months during the follow-up period of the first year. Patients were divided into 2 groups: the consistent (SD of mMRC scores =0) and variable (SD of mMRC scores >0) groups. Clinical characteristics and outcomes were compared in terms of symptom variability. Results: A total of 407 patients were included in the analysis. Patient age was 67.2 years and 97.8% of the subjects were male. Initial mMRC was 1.5 and the SD of mMRC scores during the first year was 0.5. There were 137 subjects (33.7%) in the consistent group and 270 (66.3%) in the variable group. The variable group showed a lower FEV1 (P=0.019) and a higher mMRC score (P=0.001). The annual incidence of acute exacerbation of COPD (AE-COPD) tended to be higher in the variable group (P=0.078) and that of severe AE-COPD was higher in the variable group than in the consistent group (P=0.002). The variable group showed a higher proportion of annual exacerbators (P=0.001) and frequent exacerbators (P=0.017). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, the variable group was significantly associated with annual exacerbators (OR =1.963, P=0.011) and frequent exacerbators (OR =2.090, P=0.055). Conclusion: COPD patients with symptom variability may have higher exacerbation risk as well as lower lung function and more severe respiratory symptoms.

18.
J Am Vet Med Assoc ; 255(6): 700-705, 2019 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31478811

RESUMO

CASE DESCRIPTION: 3 toy-breed dogs (a 5-year-old Pomeranian, a 12-year-old Pomeranian, and a 13-year-old Yorkshire Terrier) were evaluated because of a sudden onset of nonambulatory tetraparesis. CLINICAL FINDINGS: In all 3 dogs, MRI revealed a dorsal compressive atlantoaxial (AA) band as the cause of the neurologic deficits. Percentages of dorsal compression of the spinal cord were 28.6%, 31%, and 28.8%. TREATMENT AND OUTCOME: All 3 dogs underwent decompressive surgery via a dorsal approach. The AA band was removed, and a durotomy was performed, which resulted in spontaneous drainage of a copious amount of CSF. Grossly, the spinal cord parenchyma appeared normal, other than the dorsal compression. To alleviate the AA instability resulting from removal of the dorsal AA ligament, 2-0 polydioxanone was placed in the dorsal cervical muscles extending from the atlantooccipital joint to C2. Postoperatively, all 3 dogs regained normal ambulation between 18 and 30 days after surgery. No complications were reported, and clinical signs did not recur during follow-up times ranging from 4 to 19 months. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Findings suggested that surgical treatment may be an effective option in managing dogs with a dorsal compressive AA band causing nonambulatory tetraparesis. Notably, all of the dogs had other craniocervical abnormalities, but none of these abnormalities were considered severe enough to have caused tetraparesis.

19.
Infect Immun ; 87(12)2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31548327

RESUMO

Upon microbial infection, host immune cells recognize bacterial cell envelope components through cognate receptors. Although bacterial cell envelope components function as innate immune molecules, the role of the physical state of the bacterial cell envelope (i.e., particulate versus soluble) in host immune activation has not been clearly defined. Here, using two different forms of the staphylococcal cell envelope of Staphylococcus aureus RN4220 and USA300 LAC strains, we provide biochemical and immunological evidence that the particulate state is required for the effective activation of host innate immune responses. In a murine model of peritoneal infection, the particulate form of the staphylococcal cell envelope (PCE) induced the production of chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 (CXCL1) and CC chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2), the chemotactic cytokines for neutrophils and monocytes, respectively, resulting in a strong influx of the phagocytes into the peritoneal cavity. In contrast, compared with PCE, the soluble form of cell envelope (SCE), which was derived from PCE by treatment with cell wall-hydrolyzing enzymes, showed minimal activity. PCE also induced the secretion of calprotectin (myeloid-related protein 8/14 [MRP8/14] complex), a phagocyte-derived antimicrobial protein, into the peritoneal cavity at a much higher level than did SCE. The injected PCE particles were phagocytosed by the infiltrated neutrophils and monocytes and then delivered to mediastinal draining lymph nodes. More importantly, intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected PCE efficiently protected mice from S. aureus infection, which was abolished by the depletion of either monocytes/macrophages or neutrophils. This study demonstrated that the physical state of bacterial cells is a critical factor for efficient host immune activation and the protection of hosts from staphylococcal infections.


Assuntos
Parede Celular/imunologia , Monócitos/imunologia , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/imunologia , Staphylococcus aureus/imunologia , Animais , Quimiocina CCL2/metabolismo , Quimiocina CXCL1/metabolismo , Feminino , Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Complexo Antígeno L1 Leucocitário/metabolismo , Macrófagos/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Fagocitose/imunologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia
20.
Environ Int ; 133(Pt A): 105126, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31518934

RESUMO

In this study, surface water samples were collected at sites located in the lowest reaches of closed (Geum) (i.e. with an estuary dam at the river mouth) and open (Seomjin) estuary systems between May 2016 and May 2018. We analyzed concentrations and stable isotopes of particulate organic carbon (POC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) to assess OC sources, to estimate fluxes of riverine OC, and to assess some of the factors driving OC exports in these two contrasting Korean estuary systems. Our geochemical results suggest that the contribution of the phytoplankton-derived POC to the total POC pool was larger in the Geum River than in the Seomjin River. Notably, a heavy riverine algae bloom occurred in the Geum River in August 2016, resulting in a high carbon isotopic composition (-19.4‰) together with low POC/PN ratio (<10) and POC/Chl-a ratio (<100). In contrast, potential DOC sources in both the Geum River and the Seomjin River were a mixture of C3-derived forest soils and cropland organic matter. During the study period, the catchment area-normalized fluxes of POC and DOC were 0.40 × 10-3 tC/km2/yr and 6.5 × 10-2 tC/km2/yr in the Geum River and 5.2 × 10-4 tC/km2/yr and 8.6 × 10-4 tC/km2/yr in the Seomjin River, respectively. It appears that the POC flux was more weakly associated with the water discharge in the Geum River than in the Seomjin River, but the DOC fluxes were in general controlled by the water discharges in both rivers. Accordingly, the estuary dam of the Geum River might be one of the most strongly influencing factors on seasonal patterns in POC fluxes into the adjacent coastal seas, strongly modifying water residence times and thus biogeochemical processes.


Assuntos
Rios/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Carbono/análise , Isótopos de Carbono , Monitoramento Ambiental , Estuários , Eutrofização , Fitoplâncton , República da Coreia
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