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1.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 183: 113208, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33839535

RESUMO

Currently, there are no approved therapeutics for Dengue virus (DENV) infection, even though it can cause fatal complications. Understanding DENV infection and its propagation process in host cells is necessary to develop specific antiviral therapeutics. Here, we developed a graphene oxide-based fluorescent system (Graphene Oxide-based Viral RNA Analysis system, GOViRA) that enables sensitive and quantitative real-time monitoring of the intracellular viral RNA level in living cells. The GOViRA system consists of a fluorescent dye-labeled peptide nucleic acid (PNA) with a complementary sequence to the DENV genome and a dextran-coated reduced graphene oxide nanocolloid (DRGON). When the dye labeled PNA is adsorbed onto DRGON, the fluorescence of the dye is effectively quenched. The quenched fluorescence signal is recovered when the dye labeled PNA forms interaction with intracellular viral RNA in DENV infected host cells. We demonstrated the successful use of the GOViRA platform for high-throughput screening to discover novel antiviral compounds. Through a cell-based high-throughput screening of FDA-approved small-molecule drugs, we identified ulipristal, a selective progesterone receptor modulator (SPRM), as a potent inhibitor against DENV infection. The anti-DENV activity of ulipristal was confirmed both in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, we suggest that the mode of action of ulipristal is mediated by inhibiting viral entry into the host cells.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Vírus da Dengue , Dengue , Antivirais/farmacologia , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos , Grafite , Humanos , Replicação Viral
2.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 11(4)2021 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33810426

RESUMO

There have been few reports on the kinetics of hemodialyzed (HD) patients' immune responses in latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). Therefore, in the present study, messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression levels of nine immune markers were analyzed to discriminate between HD patients with LTBI and healthy individuals. Nine cytokines and chemokines were screened through relative mRNA expression levels in whole blood samples after stimulation with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB)-specific antigens from HD patients with LTBI (HD/LTBI), HD patients without LTBI, and healthy individuals, and results were compared with the QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT-GIT) test. We confirmed that the C-C motif chemokine 11 (CCL11) mRNA expression level of the HD/LTBI group was significantly higher than the other two groups. Especially, the CCL11 mRNA expression level of the >0.7 IU/mL group in the QFT-GIT test was significantly higher than the <0.2 IU/mL group in the QFT-GIT test and the 0.2-0.7 IU/mL group in the QFT-GIT test (p = 0.0043). The present study reveals that the relative mRNA expression of CCL11 was statistically different in LTBI based on the current cut-off value (i.e., ≥0.35 IU/mL) and in the >0.7 IU/mL group. These results suggest that CCL11 mRNA expression might be an alternative biomarker for LTBI diagnosis in HD patients.

3.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 7: 390, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32850901

RESUMO

Sepsis is one of the medical emergencies, and its early detection, within the first hours of development, and proper management improve outcomes. Molecular diagnostic assays using whole blood collected from patients with suspected sepsis have been developed, but the decision making is difficult because of the possibility of false positives, due to contamination. Here, we evaluated the performance of the reverse blot hybridization assay (REBA) Sepsis-ID test for the detection of sepsis-causing microorganisms using whole-blood samples. In addition, the concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP) and procalcitonin (PCT) were determined to evaluate whether these biomarkers can provide criteria for performing REBA Sepsis-ID in clinical settings. For this study, EDTA-anticoagulated whole blood was simultaneously collected for REBA Sepsis-ID and blood culture from 440 patients with suspected sepsis, from January to October 2015. In addition, CRP and PCT concentrations were measured in 227 patients. The overall positive rates of REBA Sepsis-ID and blood culture were 16.6% (73/440) and 13.9% (61/440), respectively. The pathogen-positive rates of REBA Sepsis-ID and blood culture were 9.8% (43/440) and 9.5% (42/440), respectively. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curves of PCT and CRP for predicting pathogen-positive results of REBA Sepsis-ID were 0.72 and 0.69, respectively. The PCT concentrations in the group of patients aged ≥50 years were significantly higher than those in the group aged <50 years. After adjusting for age, the PCT AUROC value was 0.77 for predicting pathogen-positive results of REBA Sepsis-ID. The optimal cutoff values of PCT concentrations for subsequent application of REBA Sepsis-ID were 0.12 ng/mL in all patients and 0.22 ng/mL in patients aged ≥50 years. Our observations showed that REBA Sepsis-ID using whole blood was advantageous for the early detection of sepsis-causing microorganisms, and the PCT concentration could be used to determine the necessity of using REBA Sepsis-ID in clinical settings. The application of REBA Sepsis-ID using whole blood, based on the PCT concentration, may contribute to a highly efficient detection of sepsis-causing microorganisms.

4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(16)2020 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764455

RESUMO

miR-944 is located in an intron of the tumor protein p63 gene (TP63). miR-944 expression levels in cervical cancer tissues are significantly higher than in normal tissues and are associated with tumor size, International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage, lymph node metastasis, and survival. However, associations of miR-944 with its host gene, TP63, which encodes TAp63 and ΔNp63, in cervical cancer have not been fully investigated. A positive correlation between miR-944 and ΔNp63 mRNA expression was identified in cervical cancer tissues. Furthermore, when the expression of miR-944 and ΔNp63 was simultaneously inhibited, cell proliferation-, differentiation- epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-, transcription-, and virus-associated gene clusters were shown to be significantly more active according to functional annotation analysis. Cell viability and migration were more reduced upon simultaneous inhibition with anti-miR-944 or ΔNp63 siRNA than with inhibition with anti-miR-944 or ΔNp63 siRNA alone, or scramble. In addition, Western blot analysis showed that the simultaneous inhibition of miR-944 and ΔNp63 reduced EMT by increasing the expression of epithelial markers such as claudin and by decreasing mesenchymal markers such as N-cadherin and vimentin. Slug, an EMT transcription factor, was also decreased by the simultaneous inhibition of miR-944 and ΔNp63. Thus, associations between miR-944 and ΔNp63 in cervical cancer could help to elucidate the function of this intronic microRNA and its role in carcinogenesis.

5.
Chaos ; 30(7): 073131, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32752629

RESUMO

How the giant component of a network disappears under attacking nodes or links addresses a key aspect of network robustness, which can be framed into percolation problems. Various strategies to select the node to be deactivated have been studied in the literature, for instance, a simple random failure or high-degree adaptive (HDA) percolation. Recently, a new attack strategy based on a quantity called collective-influence (CI) has been proposed from the perspective of optimal percolation. By successively deactivating the node having the largest CI-centrality value, it was shown to be able to dismantle a network more quickly and abruptly than many of the existing methods. In this paper, we focus on the critical behaviors of the percolation processes following degree-based attack and CI-based attack on random networks. Through extensive Monte Carlo simulations assisted by numerical solutions, we estimate various critical exponents of the HDA percolation and those of the CI percolations. Our results show that these attack-type percolation processes, despite displaying apparently more abrupt collapse, nevertheless exhibit standard mean-field critical behaviors at the percolation transition point. We further discover an extensive degeneracy in top-centrality nodes in both processes, which may provide a hint for understanding the observed results.

6.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 56(7)2020 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32659906

RESUMO

Background and objectives: Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women worldwide. Early stage diagnosis is important for predicting increases in treatment success rates and decreases in patient mortality. Recently, circulating biomarkers such as circulating tumor cells, circulating tumor DNA, exosomes, and circulating microRNAs have been examined as blood-based markers for the diagnosis of breast cancer. Although miR-202 has been studied for its function or expression in breast cancer, its potential diagnostic value in a clinical setting remains elusive and miR-202 has not been investigated in South Korea. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the diagnostic utility of miR-202 in plasma samples of breast cancer patients in South Korea. Materials and Methods: We investigated miR-202 expression in the plasma of 30 breast cancer patients during diagnosis along with 30 healthy controls in South Korea by quantitative reverse transcription PCR. Results: The results showed that circulating miR-202 levels were significantly elevated in the breast cancer patients compared with those in healthy controls (p < 0.001). The sensitivity and specificity of circulating miR-202 were 90.0% and 93.0%, respectively. Additionally, circulating miR-202 showed high positivity at early stage. The positive rate of miR-202 was as follows: 100% (10/10) for stage I, 90% (9/10) for stage II, and 80% (8/10) for stage III. miR-202 was also a predictor of a 9.6-fold high risk for breast cancer (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Additional alternative molecular biomarkers for diagnosis and management of pre-cancer patients are needed. Circulating miR-202 might be potential diagnostic tool for detecting early stage breast cancer.

7.
Sci Adv ; 6(22): eaaz8201, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32523995

RESUMO

Direct-acting agents against viral components are considered as the most promising candidates for the successful antiviral therapeutics. To date, no direct-acting drugs exist for the treatment against dengue virus (DV) infection, which can develop into life-threatening diseases. RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), an RNA virus-specific enzyme highly conserved among various viral families, has been known as the broad-range antiviral drug target. Here, we developed an RNA-based graphene biosensor system [RNA nano-graphene oxide system (RANGO)] to enable the fluorescence-based quantitative analysis of the RdRp enzyme activity. We used the RANGO system to a high-throughput chemical screening to identify novel direct-acting antiviral drug candidates targeting DV RdRp from the FDA-approved small-molecule library. RANGO accelerated the massive selection of drug candidates. We found that one of the selected hit compounds, montelukast, showed antiviral activity in vitro and in vivo by directly inhibiting replication of DV and thus relieved related symptoms.

8.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 3825, 2020 03 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32123207

RESUMO

Although tuberculosis (TB) is a severe health problem worldwide, the current diagnostic methods are far from optimal. Metabolomics is increasingly being used in the study of infectious diseases. We performed metabolome profiling to identify potential biomarkers in patients with active TB. Serum samples from 21 patients with active pulmonary TB, 20 subjects with latent TB infection (LTBI), and 28 healthy controls were analyzed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) followed by multivariate and univariate analyses. Metabolic profiles indicated higher serum levels of glutamate, sulfoxy methionine, and aspartate and lower serum levels of glutamine, methionine, and asparagine in active TB patients than in LTBI subjects or healthy controls. The ratios between metabolically related partners (glutamate/glutamine, sulfoxy methionine/methionine, and aspartate/asparagine) were also elevated in the active TB group. There was no significant difference in the serum concentration of these metabolites according to the disease extent or risk of relapse in active TB patients. Novel serum biomarkers such as glutamate, sulfoxy methionine, aspartate, glutamine, methionine, and asparagine are potentially useful for adjunctive, rapid, and noninvasive pulmonary TB diagnosis.


Assuntos
Metabolômica , Tuberculose Pulmonar/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Tuberculose Pulmonar/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
9.
Immune Netw ; 20(1): e4, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32158592

RESUMO

Tregs have a role in immunological tolerance and immune homeostasis by suppressing immune reactions, and its therapeutic potential is critical in autoimmune diseases and cancers. There have been multiple studies conducted on Tregs because of their roles in immune suppression and therapeutic potential. In tumor immunity, Tregs can promote the development and progression of tumors by preventing effective anti-tumor immune responses in tumor-bearing hosts. High infiltration of Tregs into tumor tissue results in poor survival in various types of cancer patients. Identifying factors specifically expressed in Tregs that affect the maintenance of stability and function of Tregs is important for understanding cancer pathogenesis and identifying therapeutic targets. Thus, manipulation of Tregs is a promising anticancer strategy, but finding markers for Treg-specific depletion and controlling these cells require fine-tuning and further research. Here, we discuss the role of Tregs in cancer and the development of Treg-targeted therapies to promote cancer immunotherapy.

10.
Nanoscale ; 12(11): 6385-6393, 2020 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32134425

RESUMO

Skin fibrosis occurs in a variety of human diseases but the current anti-fibrosis treatments are not sufficient. One major cause of fibrotic diseases shared across diverse organ fibrosis is uncontrolled overexpression of the connective tissue growth factor (CTGF, also known as CCN2). Here, we examine the anti-fibrotic activity of RNAi therapy utilizing siRNA against CTGF with a new drug delivery system (DDS), 'DegradaBALL', which is based on porous nanoparticles, for durable CTGF gene silencing. DegradaBALL is a modular DDS having many favorable properties for RNA delivery such as effective intracellular uptake, convenient drug loading, biocompatibility, sustained release profile and biodegradability. DegradaBALL loaded with siCTGF, named 'LEM-S401', showed highly durable and effective CTGF gene-silencing in TGF-ß induced lung fibrosis and skin fibrosis model cells, A549 and HaCaT, respectively. In addition, LEM-S401 induced knockdown of collagen types I and III, which are excess extracellular matrix components in fibrotic skin in addition to CTGF in the mouse wound healing model. Most importantly, we showed that LEM-S401 effectively inhibited the formation of hypertrophic scars in wound-associated dermal fibrosis mouse models, during both the epidermis recovery and tissue remodeling process. Our findings suggest that LEM-S401 could be a highly potent therapeutic option for skin fibrotic diseases.

11.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(2): 81, 2020 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31897611

RESUMO

Ecological quality (EcoQ) status of the Southwest and West coasts of South Korea was evaluated within the "National Investigation of Marine Ecosystems in Korea" in the 2015. In particular, the study dealt to assess the ecological quality of the sediments using free-living nematode communities. A total of 149 species were found in the study area, and Daptonema, Sabatieria, Parodontophora, Sphaerolaimus, and Viscosia were found as dominant genera. Statistical analysis of both environmental and faunal parameters showed an increasing human pressure from Western to Southern coasts. The community structure changed with the environmental features of the study area and allowed the detection of a suite of possible nematode indicators that might be used in monitoring studies. In particular, Dorylaimopsis spp. appeared heavy metal and organic matter resistant taxa, Sabatieria an eutrophication resistant genus, while Paracanthonchus and Neotonchus as heavy metal and organic matter sensitive genera. The principal component analysis (PCA) results showed a clear negative correlation between maturity index and both heavy metal and organic matter increasing, while diversity indices did not appear to be significantly influenced by them. Appling the thresholds of the synthetic nematode indices, the EcoQ of the study area was assessed as poor to moderate.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Nematoides/fisiologia , Poluição da Água/análise , Animais , Ecologia , Eutrofização , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Atividades Humanas , Metais Pesados , República da Coreia
12.
J Phys Condens Matter ; 32(13): 135601, 2020 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31791029

RESUMO

We present a study of resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS) spectra collected at the rare-earth L edges of divalent hexaborides YbB6 and EuB6. In both systems, RIXS-active features are observed at two distinct resonances separated by [Formula: see text] eV in incident energy, with angle-dependence suggestive of distinct photon scattering processes. RIXS spectra collected at the divalent absorption peak resemble the unoccupied 5d density of states calculated using density functional theory. We discuss possible origins of this correspondence including a scenario which changes the 4f  valence. In addition, anomalous resonant scattering is observed at higher incident energy, where no corresponding absorption feature is present. Our results demonstrate the potential for L-edge RIXS to assess the itinerant-state properties of f -electron materials.

13.
J Synchrotron Radiat ; 27(Pt 4): 963-969, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33566005

RESUMO

Resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) is increasingly playing a significant role in studying highly correlated systems, especially since it was proven capable of measuring low-energy magnetic excitations. However, despite high expectations for experimental evidence of novel magnetic phases at high pressure, unequivocal low-energy spectral signatures remain obscured by extrinsic scattering from material surrounding the sample in a diamond anvil cell (DAC): pressure media, Be gasket and the diamond anvils themselves. A scattered X-ray collimation based medium-energy resolution (∼100 meV) analyzer system for a RIXS spectrometer at the Ir L3-absorption edge has been designed and built to remediate these difficulties. Due to the confocal nature of the analyzer system, the majority of extrinsic scattering is rejected, yielding a clean low-energy excitation spectrum of an iridate Sr2IrO4 sample in a DAC cell. Furthermore, the energy resolution of different configurations of the collimating and analyzing optics are discussed.

14.
J Korean Neurosurg Soc ; 62(5): 603-609, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484235

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this retrospective study was to determine which of the proximal adjacent segment disease (ASD) and distal ASD was more prevalent and what parameters is more related to ASD in proximal levels and distal levels after more than 2 levels fusions. METHODS: The medical records were reviewed retrospectively for 856 cases. A total of 66 cases of ASD were enrolled. On preop magnetic resonance imaging, disc degeneration was measured at the upper and lower parts of surgically treated levels and confirmed by the commonly used Pfirrmann grade. Segmental flexibility in sagittal plane was embodied in segment range of motion (ROM) obtained through flexion and extension X-ray before surgery. Coronal angle was recorded as methods Cobb's angle including fusion levels preoperatively. For the comparison of categorical variables between two independent groups, the chi-square test and Fisher exact test were performed. RESULTS: Proximal ASD and distal ASD were 37/856 (4.32%) and 29/856 (3.39%), respectively. The incidence of proximal ASD was relatively high but insignificant differences. In comparison between ASD group and non ASD group, proximal Pfirmman was higher in proximal ASD and distal Pfirmman was higher in distal ASD group (p=0.005, p<0.008, respectively). However, in the ROM, proximal ROM was higher in proximal ASD, but distal ROM was not different between the two groups (p<0.0001, p=0.995, respectively). Coronal angle was not quite different in both groups (p=0.846). CONCLUSION: In spite of higher frequency in ASD in proximal level in spinal fusion, it is not clear that incidence of ASD in proximal level is not higher than that of distal ASD group in more than 2 level thoracolumbar fusions. Not only Pfirrmann grade but also proximal segmental ROM is risk factor for predicting the occurrence of ASD in patients more than 2 level of thoracolumbar spine fusion operation excluding L5S1.

15.
Opt Express ; 27(16): A1261-A1286, 2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31510555

RESUMO

We propose a generalized Poynting vector model (GPVM) that can simultaneously calculate the spatial and spectral distributions of the electric field intensity, optical power flow, and optical absorption as well as the power dissipation spectrum for all optical modes of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). The theoretical formulation of the GPVM with respect to the dipole orientation and light polarization is derived by combining the dipole source term and transfer matrix method as a function of the normalized in-plane wave vector u. In the GPVM, the theoretical expression of the spectral power density, derived from the time-averaged Poynting vector at the emission layer, proves to be identical to that presented by the currently-used point dipole model. In a bottom-emitting OLED, the electric field profiles of the waveguide (WG) and surface plasmon polariton (SPP) modes obtained by the GPVM are nearly same as those calculated by the boundary eigenvalue solver except the slight difference at the position of the dipole emitter, which only occurs in the case that the excitation efficiency of a WG or SPP mode is relatively small. Finally, two-dimensional plots of the internal optical power flow and optical absorption, providing physical and intuitive information on the internal emission process as well as the absorption loss of all the optical modes, are calculated as a function of the longitudinal position and normalized in-plane wave vector. Compared with the currently-used electromagnetic methods of the Green's function, dipole radiation, and point dipole models, the proposed GPVM has the advantage that it can provide all the spatial and spectral calculation results of the electric field intensity, optical power flow, and optical absorption with respect to the dipole orientation and light polarization, which are essential in the optical modeling and analysis of OLEDs.

16.
FEBS J ; 286(22): 4443-4472, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31155838

RESUMO

Certain bone and soft tissue (BST) tumours harbour a chromosomal translocation [t(6;22)(p21;q12)], which fuses the Ewing's sarcoma (EWS) gene at 22q12 with the octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (Oct-4) gene at 6p21, resulting in the chimeric EWS-Oct-4 protein that possesses high transactivation ability. Although abnormal activation of signalling pathways can lead to human cancer development, the pathways underlying these processes in human BST tumours remain poorly explored. Here, we investigated the functional significance of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signalling in human BST tumours. To identify the gene(s) involved in the FGF signalling pathway and potentially regulated by EWS-Oct-4 (also called EWS-POU5F1), we performed RNA-Seq analysis, electrophoretic mobility shift assays, chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, and xenograft assays. Treating GBS6 or ZHBTc4 cells-expressing EWS-Oct-4 with the small molecule FGF receptor (FGFR) inhibitors PD173074, NVPBGJ398, ponatinib, and dovitinib suppressed cellular proliferation. Gene expression analysis revealed that, among 22 Fgf and four Fgfr family members, Fgf-4 showed the highest upregulation (by 145-fold) in ZHBTc4 cells-expressing EWS-Oct-4. Computer-assisted analysis identified a putative EWS-Oct-4-binding site at +3017/+3024, suggesting that EWS-Oct-4 regulates Fgf-4 expression in human BST tumours. Fgf-4 enhancer constructs showed that EWS-Oct-4 transactivated the Fgf-4 gene reporter in vitro, and that overexpression of EWS-Oct-4 stimulated endogenous Fgf-4 gene expression in vivo. Finally, PD173074 significantly decreased tumour volume in mice. Taken together, these data suggest that FGF-4 signalling is involved in EWS-Oct-4-mediated tumorigenesis, and that its inhibition impairs tumour growth in vivo significantly.


Assuntos
Carcinogênese/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células , Fator 4 de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Fator 3 de Transcrição de Octâmero/genética , Proteínas de Fusão Oncogênica/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles/metabolismo , Animais , Benzimidazóis/farmacologia , Sítios de Ligação , Carcinogênese/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Fator 4 de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/genética , Humanos , Imidazóis/farmacologia , Camundongos , Fator 3 de Transcrição de Octâmero/metabolismo , Proteínas de Fusão Oncogênica/química , Proteínas de Fusão Oncogênica/genética , Ligação Proteica , Piridazinas/farmacologia , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Quinolonas/farmacologia , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/antagonistas & inibidores , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles/genética
17.
Front Psychol ; 10: 1020, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31156496

RESUMO

In neuropsychological assessment, semantic fluency is a widely accepted measure of executive function and access to semantic memory. While fluency scores are typically reported as the number of unique words produced, several alternative manual scoring methods have been proposed that provide additional insights into performance, such as clusters of semantically related items. Many automatic scoring methods yield metrics that are difficult to relate to the theories behind manual scoring methods, and most require manually-curated linguistic ontologies or large corpus infrastructure. In this paper, we propose a novel automatic scoring method based on Wikipedia, Backlink-VSM, which is easily adaptable to any of the 61 languages with more than 100k Wikipedia entries, can account for cultural differences in semantic relatedness, and covers a wide range of item categories. Our Backlink-VSM method combines relational knowledge as represented by links between Wikipedia entries (Backlink model) with a semantic proximity metric derived from distributional representations (vector space model; VSM). Backlink-VSM yields measures that approximate manual clustering and switching analyses, providing a straightforward link to the substantial literature that uses these metrics. We illustrate our approach with examples from two languages (English and Korean), and two commonly used categories of items (animals and fruits). For both Korean and English, we show that the measures generated by our automatic scoring procedure correlate well with manual annotations. We also successfully replicate findings that older adults produce significantly fewer switches compared to younger adults. Furthermore, our automatic scoring procedure outperforms the manual scoring method and a WordNet-based model in separating younger and older participants measured by binary classification accuracy for both English and Korean datasets. Our method also generalizes to a different category (fruit), demonstrating its adaptability.

18.
Food Sci Anim Resour ; 39(2): 240-254, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31149666

RESUMO

This study investigated the effect of storage state (chilled state on sous-vide, CS; frozen state without thawing on sous-vide, FS; and frozen/thawed states on sous-vide, TS) and sous-vide cooking temperature (65°C and 72°C) on the longissimus dorsi muscle quality of pork. FS showed a higher moisture content than that of CS and TS (p<0.001), whereas both FS and CS showed higher expressible moisture loss than that of TS (p<0.001). FS showed a lower cooking loss (p<0.001) than that of CS and TS. FS and TS exhibited significantly higher lipid oxidation than that of CS. Carbonyl and sulfhydryl content were not significantly affected by the storage treatment. FS and TS exhibited lower shear force than that of CS (p<0.001). FS and TS showed higher springiness than that of CS (p<0.001), FS exhibited lower gumminess than that of CS and TS (p<0.01). Sous-vide treatment at 65°C exhibited significantly higher moisture content and lower expressible moisture loss, cooking loss, and total and sarcoplasmic protein than those at 72°C. Shear force and springiness of 65°C-treated groups were lower than those of 72°C-treated groups (p<0.01). Cooking temperature significantly influenced overall acceptability, whereas the storage state did not affect the overall acceptability. These results indicated that meat quality might be improved upon cooking from the frozen or frozen/thawed state using sous-vide when compared with traditional processing.

19.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0216968, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31071170

RESUMO

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0214867.].

20.
Front Immunol ; 10: 896, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31105706

RESUMO

Background: It is important to understand the ability to inhibit mycobacterial growth in healthy adults who would have been Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccinated in childhood as this group will be the potential target population for novel booster TB vaccine trials. In this study we investigated not only the long-term immunity induced by childhood BCG vaccination but also protective immunity in terms of the ability to inhibit mycobacterial growth in those who were BCG vaccinated in childhood, with evidence of recent or remote TB infection. Methods: We measured the baseline immune response using a functional mycobacterial growth inhibition assay (MGIA) as a novel approach and an intracellular cytokine staining (ICS) assay as a reference approach in healthy adults, with different status of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection. Results: Based on MGIA responses in historically BCG-vaccinated healthy adults, demographical characteristics including age, and gender did not affect mycobacterial growth inhibition in PBMC. However, the uninfected healthy control (HC) group showed a greater ability to inhibit mycobacterial growth compared with the latent TB infection (LTBI) group (P = 0.0005). In terms of the M. tuberculosis antigen-specific T-cell immune response in diluted whole blood quantitated using an ICS assay, the LTBI group had a higher frequency of polyfunctional CD 4+ T cells compared with the HC group (P = 0.0002), although there was no correlation between ICS and the MGIA assay. Conclusion: The Mtb infection status had a significant impact on mycobacterial growth inhibition in PBMC from healthy adults in South Korea, a country with an intermediate burden of tuberculosis, with healthy controls showing the greatest mycobacterial growth inhibition.


Assuntos
Vacina BCG/imunologia , Tuberculose Latente/imunologia , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vacinas contra a Tuberculose/imunologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/imunologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Estudos Transversais , Citocinas/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mycobacterium bovis/imunologia , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/imunologia , República da Coreia , Vacinação
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