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1.
Nature ; 597(7877): 503-510, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34552257

RESUMO

Large, distributed collections of miniaturized, wireless electronic devices1,2 may form the basis of future systems for environmental monitoring3, population surveillance4, disease management5 and other applications that demand coverage over expansive spatial scales. Aerial schemes to distribute the components for such networks are required, and-inspired by wind-dispersed seeds6-we examined passive structures designed for controlled, unpowered flight across natural environments or city settings. Techniques in mechanically guided assembly of three-dimensional (3D) mesostructures7-9 provide access to miniature, 3D fliers optimized for such purposes, in processes that align with the most sophisticated production techniques for electronic, optoelectronic, microfluidic and microelectromechanical technologies. Here we demonstrate a range of 3D macro-, meso- and microscale fliers produced in this manner, including those that incorporate active electronic and colorimetric payloads. Analytical, computational and experimental studies of the aerodynamics of high-performance structures of this type establish a set of fundamental considerations in bio-inspired design, with a focus on 3D fliers that exhibit controlled rotational kinematics and low terminal velocities. An approach that represents these complex 3D structures as discrete numbers of blades captures the essential physics in simple, analytical scaling forms, validated by computational and experimental results. Battery-free, wireless devices and colorimetric sensors for environmental measurements provide simple examples of a wide spectrum of applications of these unusual concepts.

2.
Plant Dis ; 105(1): 134-143, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33197363

RESUMO

Burkholderia glumae, B. plantarii, and B. gladioli are responsible for serious diseases in rice crops and co-occurrence among them has been reported. In this study, in vitro assays revealed antagonistic activity among these organisms, with B. gladioli demonstrating strong inhibition of B. glumae and B. plantarii. Strains of B. glumae and B. plantarii that express green fluorescent protein were constructed and used for cocultivation assays with B. gladioli, which confirmed the strong inhibitory activity of B. gladioli. Cell-free supernatants from each species were tested against cultures of counterpart species to evaluate the potential to inhibit bacterial growth. To investigate the inhibitory activity of B. gladioli on B. glumae and B. plantarii in rice, rice plant assays were performed and quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays were developed for in planta bacterial quantification. The results indicated that coinoculation with B. gladioli leads to significantly reduced disease severity and colonization of rice tissues compared with single inoculation with B. glumae or B. plantarii. This study demonstrates the interactions among three rice-pathogenic Burkholderia species and strong antagonistic activity of B. gladioli in vitro and in planta. The qPCR assays developed here could be applied for accurate quantification of these organisms from in planta samples in future studies.


Assuntos
Burkholderia , Oryza
3.
Pathogens ; 9(12)2020 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33321732

RESUMO

Nodding syndrome is a pediatric epilepsy disorder associated with Onchocerca volvulus infection, but the mechanism driving this relationship is unclear. One hypothesis proposes that parasite-induced immune responses cross-react with human leiomodin-1 resulting in immune-mediated central nervous system (CNS) damage. However, as leiomodin-1 expression and epitope availability in human neurons remains uncharacterized, the relevance of leiomodin-1 autoimmunity is unknown. Leiomodin-1 transcript expression was assessed in silico using publicly available ribonucleic acid (RNA) sequencing databases and in tissue by in situ hybridization and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Abundance and subcellular localization were examined by cell fractionation and immunoblotting. Leiomodin-1 transcripts were expressed in cells of the CNS, including neurons and astrocytes. Protein was detectable from all brain regions examined as well as from representative cell lines and in vitro differentiated neurons and astrocytes. Leiomodin-1 was expressed on the membrane of newly formed neurons, but not neural progenitor cells or mature neurons. Importantly, leiomodin-1 antibodies were only toxic to cells expressing leiomodin-1 on the membrane. Our findings provide evidence that leiomodin-1 is expressed in human neurons and glia. Furthermore, we show membrane expression mediates leiomodin-1 antibody toxicity, suggesting these antibodies may play a role in pathogenesis.

4.
Mol Plant Pathol ; 21(8): 1055-1069, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32643866

RESUMO

In the environment, bacteria show close association, such as interspecies interaction, with other bacteria as well as host organisms. The type VI secretion system (T6SS) in gram-negative bacteria is involved in bacterial competition or virulence. The plant pathogen Burkholderia glumae BGR1, causing bacterial panicle blight in rice, has four T6SS gene clusters. The presence of at least one T6SS gene cluster in an organism indicates its distinct role, like in the bacterial and eukaryotic cell targeting system. In this study, deletion mutants targeting four tssD genes, which encode the main component of T6SS needle formation, were constructed to functionally dissect the four T6SSs in B. glumae BGR1. We found that both T6SS group_4 and group_5, belonging to the eukaryotic targeting system, act independently as bacterial virulence factors toward host plants. In contrast, T6SS group_1 is involved in bacterial competition by exerting antibacterial effects. The ΔtssD1 mutant lost the antibacterial effect of T6SS group_1. The ΔtssD1 mutant showed similar virulence as the wild-type BGR1 in rice because the ΔtssD1 mutant, like the wild-type BGR1, still has key virulence factors such as toxin production towards rice. However, metagenomic analysis showed different bacterial communities in rice infected with the ΔtssD1 mutant compared to wild-type BGR1. In particular, the T6SS group_1 controls endophytic plant-associated bacteria such as Luteibacter and Dyella in rice plants and may have an advantage in competing with endophytic plant-associated bacteria for settlement inside rice plants in the environment. Thus, B. glumae BGR1 causes disease using T6SSs with functionally distinct roles.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Secreção Bacterianos/metabolismo , Burkholderia/patogenicidade , Sistemas de Secreção Tipo VI/metabolismo , Sistemas de Secreção Bacterianos/genética , Burkholderia/genética , Metagenômica , Oryza/microbiologia , Sistemas de Secreção Tipo VI/genética , Virulência
5.
Plant Pathol J ; 35(5): 445-458, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31632220

RESUMO

The lipopolysaccharide (LPS) composed of lipid A, core, and O-antigen is the fundamental constituent of the outer membrane in gram-negative bacteria. This study was conducted to investigate the roles of LPS in Burkholderia glumae, the phytopathogen causing bacterial panicle blight and seedling rot in rice. To study the roles of the core oligosaccharide (OS) and the O-antigen region, mutant strains targeting the waaC and the wbiFGHI genes were generated. The LPS profile was greatly affected by disruption of the waaC gene and slight reductions were observed in the O-antigen region following wbiFGHI deletions. The results indicated that disruption in the core OS biosynthesis-related gene, waaC, was associated with increased sensitivity to environmental stress conditions including acidic, osmotic, saline, and detergent stress, and to polymyxin B. Moreover, significant impairment in the swimming and swarming motility and attenuation of bacterial virulence to rice were also observed in the waaC-defective mutant. The motility and virulence of O-antigen mutants defective in any gene of the wbiFGHI operon, were not significantly different from the wild-type except in slight decrease in swimming and swarming motility with wbiH deletion. Altogether, the results of present study indicated that the LPS, particularly the core OS region, is required for tolerance to environmental stress and full virulence in B. glumae. To our knowledge, this is the first functional study of LPS in a plant pathogenic Burkholderia sp. and presents a step forward toward full understanding of B. glumae pathogenesis.

6.
Ann Neurol ; 86(5): 695-703, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31461177

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the underlying etiology in a patient with progressive dementia with extrapyramidal signs and chronic inflammation referred to the National Institutes of Health Undiagnosed Diseases Program. METHODS: Extensive investigations included metabolic profile, autoantibody panel, infectious etiologies, genetic screening, whole exome sequencing, and the phage-display assay, VirScan, for viral immune responses. An etiological diagnosis was established postmortem. RESULTS: Using VirScan, enrichment of dengue viral antibodies was detected in cerebrospinal fluid as compared to serum. No virus was detected in serum or cerebrospinal fluid, but postmortem analysis confirmed dengue virus in the brain by immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and sequencing. Dengue virus was also detectable by polymerase chain reaction and sequencing from brain biopsy tissue collected 33 months antemortem, confirming a chronic infection despite a robust immune response directed against the virus. Immunoprofiling and whole exome sequencing of the patient did not reveal any immunodeficiency, and sequencing of the virus demonstrated wild-type dengue virus in the central nervous system. INTERPRETATION: Dengue virus is the most common arbovirus worldwide and represents a significant public health concern. Infections with dengue virus are usually self-limiting, and chronic dengue infections have not been previously reported. Our findings suggest that dengue virus infections may persist in the central nervous system causing a panencephalitis and should be considered in patients with progressive dementia with extrapyramidal features in endemic regions or with relevant travel history. Furthermore, this work highlights the utility of comprehensive antibody profiling assays to aid in the diagnosis of encephalitis of unknown etiology. ANN NEUROL 2019;86:695-703.


Assuntos
Dengue/complicações , Dengue/patologia , Encefalite Viral/etiologia , Encefalite Viral/patologia , Doença Crônica , Demência , Vírus da Dengue , Evolução Fatal , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
7.
Plant Pathol J ; 35(3): 280-286, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31244573

RESUMO

In this study, PVF11 was selected among 20 candidate pathogenesis-related genes in Burkholderia glumae based on its effect on virulence to rice. PVF11 was found to interact with several plant defense-related WRKY proteins as evidenced through yeast-two hybrid analysis (Y2H). Moreover, PVF11 showed interactions with abiotic and biotic stress response-related rice proteins, as shown by genome-wide Y2H screening employing PVF11 and a cDNA library from B. glumae-infected rice. To confirm the effect of PVF11 on B. glumae virulence, in planta assays were conducted at different stages of rice growth. As a result, a PVF11-defective mutant showed reduced virulence in rice seedlings and stems but not in rice panicles, indicating that PVF11 involvement in B. glumae virulence in rice is stage-dependent.

8.
Plant Pathol J ; 34(6): 490-498, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30588222

RESUMO

Panicle blight and seed rot disease caused mainly by Burkholderia glumae and Burkholderia gladioli is threatening rice cultivation worldwide. The bacteria have been reported as seed-borne pathogens from rice. Accurate detection of both pathogens on the seeds is very important for limiting the disease dissemination. Novel primer pairs targeting specific molecular markers were developed for the robust detection of B. glumae and B. gladioli. The designed primers were specific in detecting the target species with no apparent crossreactions with other related Burkholderia species at the expected product size. Both primer pairs displayed a high degree of sensitivity for detection of B. glumae and B. gladioli separately in monoplex PCR or simultaneously in duplex PCR from both extracted gDNA and directly preheated bacterial cell suspensions. Limit of detection was as low as 0.1 ng of gDNA of both species and 3.86 × 102 cells for B. glumae and 5.85 × 102 cells for B. gladioli. On inoculated rice seeds, the designed primers could separately or simultaneously detect B. glumae and B. gladioli with a detection limit as low as 1.86 × 103 cells per rice seed for B. glumae and 1.04 × 104 cells per rice seed of B. gladioli. The novel primers maybe valuable as a more sensitive, specific, and robust tool for the efficient simultaneous detection of B. glumae and B. gladioli on rice seeds, which is important in combating rice panicle blight and seed rot by early detection and confirmation of the dissemination of pathogen-free rice seeds.

9.
Nanoscale ; 10(41): 19383-19389, 2018 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30307003

RESUMO

We fabricated a functional pentacene/CH3NH3PbI3-xClx perovskite interface where optical gating and field assisted charge retention occur. Using a pentacene/perovskite field effect transistor (FET) test platform, we investigated the interfacial charge transfer associated with optical gating through threshold voltage measurements under illumination. Importantly, bistable electrical conduction in pentacene/perovskite FET devices was achieved as a result of field-induced charge retention at the interface and the origin is discussed to be associated with interfacial charging at the pentacene/perovskite interface. Interfacial contact modification associated with ion migration and other possible effects in the perovskite layer plays a crucial role in forming a functional interface involving organic semiconducting materials.

10.
Plant Pathol J ; 34(5): 412-425, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30369851

RESUMO

The Hfq protein is a global small RNA chaperone that interacts with regulatory bacterial small RNAs (sRNA) and plays a role in the post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. The roles of Hfq in the virulence and pathogenicity of several infectious bacteria have been reported. This study was conducted to elucidate the functions of two hfq genes in Burkholderia glumae, a causal agent of rice grain rot. Therefore, mutant strains of the rice-pathogenic B. glumae BGR1, targeting each of the two hfq genes, as well as the double defective mutant were constructed and tested for several phenotypic characteristics. Bacterial swarming motility, toxoflavin production, virulence in rice, siderophore production, sensitivity to H2O2, and lipase production assays were conducted to compare the mutant strains with the wild-type B. glumae BGR1 and complementation strains. The hfq1 gene showed more influence on bacterial motility and toxoflavin production than the hfq2 gene. Both genes were involved in the full virulence of B. glumae in rice plants. Other biochemical characteristics such as siderophore production and sensitivity to H2O2 induced oxidative stress were also found to be regulated by the hfq1 gene. However, lipase activity was shown to be unassociated with both tested genes. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to elucidate the functions of two hfq genes in B. glumae. Identification of virulence-related factors in B. glumae will facilitate the development of efficient control measures.

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