Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 246
Filtrar
1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32396611

RESUMO

We aimed to examine the relationship between APOE*4 carriage on cognitive decline, and whether these associations were moderated by sex, baseline age, ethnicity, and vascular risk factors. Participants were 19,225 individuals aged 54-103 years from 15 longitudinal cohort studies with a mean follow up duration ranging between 1.2 and 10.7 years. Two-step individual participant data (IPD) meta-analysis was used to pool results of study-wise analyses predicting memory and general cognitive decline from carriage of one or two APOE*4 alleles, and moderation of these associations by age, sex, vascular risk factors and ethnicity. Separate pooled estimates were calculated in both men and women who were younger (i.e., 62 years) and older (i.e., 80 years) at baseline. Results showed that APOE*4 carriage was related to faster general cognitive decline in women, and faster memory decline in men. A stronger dose-dependent effect was observed in older men, with faster general cognitive and memory decline in those carrying two versus one APOE*4 allele. Vascular risk factors were related to an increased effect of APOE*4 on memory decline in younger women, but a weaker effect of APOE*4 on general cognitive decline in older men. The relationship between APOE*4 carriage and memory decline was larger in older-aged Asians than Whites. In sum, APOE*4 is related to cognitive decline in men and women, although these effects are enhanced by age and carriage of two APOE*4 alleles in men, a higher numbers of vascular risk factors during the early stages of late adulthood in women, and Asian ethnicity.

2.
Orthop Surg ; 2020 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32469158

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the intraoperative, radiological, and clinical short-term outcomes of cementless total hip arthroplasties (THA) using a short stem (SS) and a conventional femoral stem (CS) in a randomized prospective control study. METHODS: From June 2011 to October 2017, patients who underwent cementless THA for idiopathic osteonecrosis of the femoral head were recruited. Patients had a minimum 2 years of follow-up after the operation. The patients were divided into two groups: those who underwent THA using an SS and those who underwent THA using a CS. SS were used in 34 patients (41 hips) and CS were used in 41 patients (45 hips). In both groups, the same cup was used in all cases, and the mean follow-up periods were 63 (26-101) months in the SS and 64 (26-101) months in the CS groups. Intraoperative, clinical, and radiological evaluations were performed for the two groups. RESULTS: There was no difference in the demographics of the two groups. There was one patient with a proximal femoral crack in the SS group and one with a distal femoral crack in the CS group. Clinically, the mean Harris hip score was improved in both groups at 2-year follow-up. Radiographically endosteal osseointegrations were found in 40 of 41 cases in the SS group and in 44 of 45 cases in the CS group. There was one case of dislocation in each group. In the SS group, the acetabular cup was changed and repositioned 7 months after the initial operation. Stem loosening, infection, ceramic breakage, and varus/valgus change were not observed. There was a statistically significant lower stress shielding effect in the SS group. There were no differences in vertical/parallel offset and leg length discrepancy. CONCLUSION: The intraoperative, radiological, and clinical evaluations in both groups showed good outcomes and there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32282957

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Depressive mood consequent to hypothyroidism can be reversed with levothyroxine (LT4) replacement therapy. However, it is unclear whether increasing LT4 dose confers additional mood benefits. DESIGN AND PATIENTS: A single-blinded before-and-after study of 24 patients with hypothyroidism who were aged 65 years or older and undergoing LT4 replacement therapy with stable doses. MEASUREMENTS: Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-K) and Hyperthyroid Symptom Scale (HSS-K) were assessed at baseline, 3 months after increasing LT4 dose by an additional 12.5 µg/d, and finally 3 months after returning to the baseline dose. RESULTS: Serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) concentrations decreased at the higher LT4 dose (1.95 ± 2.16 vs 0.47 ± 1.09 mIU/L, P < .001) and recovered after returning to the baseline dose. Serum-free thyroxine levels and HSS-K scores were unchanged during the study period. GDS-K scores improved on the increased dose (9.5 ± 6.6 vs 7.5 ± 4.7, P = .029), and this improvement was maintained after returning to the baseline dose (9.5 ± 6.6 vs 7.4 ± 5.4, P = .010). Higher serum TSH was independently associated with both higher GDS-K and depression risk among those with depressive mood (GDS-K > 10) at baseline. CONCLUSIONS: Depressive mood improves with increased LT4 dose, without significant hyperthyroid symptoms or signs, in older adults undergoing thyroid hormone replacement. These findings suggest the potential for varying the treatment target for hypothyroidism based on mood status and that low-dose LT4 treatment might be an ancillary treatment for depression.

4.
Nutrients ; 12(4)2020 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32331312

RESUMO

Previous evidence has suggested that vitamins might be beneficial for cognition. This systematic review aimed to investigate the efficacy of B vitamins, antioxidant vitamins, and vitamin D on the cognitive function of non-demented middle-aged or older people. Randomized or quasi-randomized controlled trials of individuals aged 40 years or older were included. PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Cochrane Library databases, and other grey literature sources were searched up to November 2019. Their methodological quality was evaluated using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool. Twenty-three studies on B vitamins (n = 22-1053; comprising folate, B6, and B12), nine on antioxidant vitamins (n = 185-20,469), and six on vitamin D (n = 55-4122) were included. Taking B vitamins for over 3 months was beneficial for global cognition (standardized mean difference (SMD) -0.18, 95% CI -0.30 to -0.06) and episodic memory (SMD -0.09, 95% CI -0.15 to -0.04). However, antioxidant vitamins (SMD -0.02, 95% CI -0.08 to 0.03) and vitamin D (SMD -0.06, 95% CI -0.36 to 0.23) were not. Antioxidant vitamins were beneficial for global cognition in sensitivity analyses using final measurement data as mean difference estimates (SMD, -0.04, 95% CI -0.08 to -0.01). Taking B vitamins and possibly antioxidant vitamins may be beneficial for the cognitive function of non-demented people.

5.
Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord ; : 1-8, 2020 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32259816

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Executive dysfunction is common in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). The pulvinar nucleus plays a role in executive control and synchronizes with cortical regions in the salience network that are vulnerable to Lewy pathology. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the pulvinar subregions in patients with mild DLB and their associations with executive function. METHODS: The sample consisted of 38 DLB patients and 38 age- and sex-matched normal controls. We evaluated cognitive function using the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Packet. We obtained four pulvinar nuclei using preprocessed T1-weighted magnetic resonance images. We compared volumes and textures of the DLB patients and the normal controls for each nucleus. We used a linear regression to determine the association of textures and neuropsychological test scores. RESULTS: The DLB patients showed comparable volumes to the normal controls in all pulvinar nuclei. However, the DLB patients showed different texture of the left medial pulvinar (PuM) from the normal controls. The entropy, contrast, and cluster shade were lower but autocorrelation of left PuM was higher in the DLB patients compared to the normal controls. These texture features of the left PuM were associated with the set-shifting performance measured by the Trail Making Test. CONCLUSIONS: In DLB, the left PuM may be altered from early stage, which may contribute to the development of executive dysfunction.

6.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 74(4): 1253-1260, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32176640

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Apolipoprotein E (APOE) ɛ4 allele carriers have an increased risk of late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, in the "Choosing Wisely" campaign for avoiding unnecessary medical tests, treatments, and procedures, APOE genetic testing is not recommended as a predictive test for AD. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the potential value of APOE genetic testing in a specific clinical context. METHODS: Subjects with poor performance in the Korean version of the Mini-Mental Status Examination for dementia screening (MMSE-DS) with a Z-score of less than -1.5 were recruited from the public health centers. All participants underwent APOE genetic testing. Family history of dementia (FHx) was confirmed if one or more first-degree relatives had dementia. RESULTS: Among 349 subjects, 162 (46.4%) were diagnosed with AD. APOEɛ4 allele carriers had a much higher risk of AD in the group with FHx than in the group without FHx (OR = 15.81, 95% CI = 2.74-91.21 versus OR = 1.82, 95% CI = 1.00-3.27, z = 2.293, p = 0.011). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value for the APOEɛ4 allele were 47.7%, 90.9%, 91.3%, and 46.5% in the group with FHx. CONCLUSION: It would be a wise choice to perform the APOE genetic testing for the diagnosis of AD in subjects with poor performance in a screening test and a family history of dementia.

7.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 421, 2020 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31949239

RESUMO

Coffee consumption is associated with cerebral hypoperfusion that may contribute to the development of cerebral white matter hyperintensities (WMH). We investigated the effect of lifetime coffee consumption on the volume of WMH (VWMH) in late life, and compared the effect between men and women since caffeine clearance may be different between sexes. We enrolled 492 community-dwelling cognitively normal elderly individuals (73.4 ± 6.7 years old on average) from the Korean Longitudinal Study on Cognitive Aging and Dementia. We evaluated their patterns and amounts of coffee consumption using a study-specific standardized interview and estimated cerebral VWMH by automatic segmentation of brain fluid-attenuated inversion recovery sequence magnetic resonance images. Higher cumulative lifetime coffee consumption was associated with higher logVWMH in both sexes (p = 0.030). The participants who consumed more than 2 cups of coffee per day on average in their lifetime showed higher logVWMH in late life than those who consumed less. When both sexes were analyzed separately, these coffee-logVWMH associations were found only in women, although the volumes of brain and white matter of women were smaller than those of men. Our findings suggest that prolonged high coffee consumption may be associated with the risk of WMH in late life.

8.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 73(4): 1313-1320, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31929161

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although tooth loss is known to increase the risk of cognitive impairment and dementia, few studies have investigated the association between functional teeth including rehabilitated lost teeth and cognitive functionObjective:We investigated the associations of the numbers of functional teeth and functional occlusal units with cognitive impairment and cognitive function in late life. METHODS: The current study was conducted as a part of the Korean Longitudinal Study on Cognitive Aging and Dementia (KLOSCAD), a community-based elderly cohort study. We analyzed 411 participants who have agreed with the additional dental exam. Geriatric psychiatrists and neuropsychologists administered the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's disease Assessment Packet Clinical and Neuropsychological Assessment Battery to all participants, and dentists examined their dental status. RESULTS: Higher number of functional teeth (OR = 0.955, 95% CI = 0.914-0.997, p = 0.037) and higher number of functional occlusal units (OR = 0.900, 95% CI = 0.813-0.996, p = 0.042) were associated with lower odds of cognitive impairment. When we analyzed these relationships separated by the location of teeth, only the numbers of functional teeth (OR = 0.566, 95% CI = 0.373-0.857, p = 0.007) and functional occlusal units (OR = 0.399, 95% CI = 0.213-0.748, p = 0.004) in the premolar area were associated with lower odds of cognitive impairment. CONCLUSION: Loss of functional teeth and functional occlusal units (especially in the premolar region) were associated with increased cognitive impairment.

9.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 12(1): 884-893, 2020 01 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31918412

RESUMO

We aimed to investigate the association of pineal gland volume with the risk of isolated rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD). We enrolled 245 community-dwelling cognitively normal elderly individuals without major psychiatric or neurological disorders at the baseline evaluation, of whom 146 completed the 2-year follow-up evaluation. We assessed RBD symptoms using the REM Sleep Behavior Disorder Screening Questionnaire (RBDSQ) and defined probable RBD (pRBD) as an RBDSQ score of ≥ 5. We manually segmented the pineal gland on 3T T1-weighted brain magnetic resonance imaging and estimated its volume. The smaller the baseline pineal gland volume, the more severe the RBD symptoms at baseline. The individuals with isolated pRBD showed smaller pineal gland volumes than those without isolated pRBD. The larger the baseline pineal gland volume, the lower the risks of prevalent isolated pRBD at the baseline evaluation and incident isolated pRBD at the 2-year follow-up evaluation. Pineal gland volume showed good diagnostic accuracy for prevalent isolated pRBD and predictive accuracy for incident isolated pRBD in the receiver operator characteristic analysis. Our findings suggest that pineal gland volume may be associated with the severity of RBD symptoms and the risk of isolated RBD in cognitively normal elderly individuals.

10.
Aust N Z J Psychiatry ; 54(2): 150-158, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31595770

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Subsyndromal depression is prevalent and associated with poor outcomes in late life, but its epidemiological characteristics have barely been investigated. The aim of this prospective cohort study is to compare the prevalence, incidence and risk factors of subsyndromal depression with those of syndromal depression including major and minor depressive disorders in community-dwelling elderly individuals. METHODS: In a nationwide community-based study of randomly sampled Korean elderly population aged 60 years or older (N = 6640), depression was assessed with standardized diagnostic interviews. At baseline and at 2-year and 4-year follow-ups, the authors diagnosed subsyndromal depression by the operational criteria and syndromal depression by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.) diagnostic criteria. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify the risk factors for incident depression. RESULTS: The age- and gender-adjusted prevalence rate of subsyndromal depression was 9.24% (95% confidence interval = [8.54, 9.93]), which was 2.4-fold higher than that of syndromal depression. The incidence rate of subsyndromal depression was 21.70 per 1000 person-years (95% confidence interval = [19.29, 24.12]), which was fivefold higher than that of syndromal depression. The prevalence to incidence ratio of subsyndromal depression was about half that of syndromal depression. The risk for subsyndromal depression was associated with female gender, low socioeconomic status, poor social support and poor sleep quality, while that of syndromal depression was associated with old age and less exercise. CONCLUSION: Subsyndromal depression should be validated as a clinical diagnostic entity, at least in late life, since it has epidemiological characteristics different from those of syndromal depression.

11.
J Psychiatry Neurosci ; 45(1): 7-14, 2020 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31228173

RESUMO

Background: Early identification of people at risk of imminent progression to dementia due to Alzheimer disease is crucial for timely intervention and treatment. We investigated whether the texture of MRI brain scans could predict the progression of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to Alzheimer disease earlier than volume. Methods: We constructed a development data set (121 people who were cognitively normal and 145 who had mild Alzheimer disease) and a validation data set (113 patients with stable MCI who did not progress to Alzheimer disease for 3 years; 40 with early MCI who progressed to Alzheimer disease after 12­36 months; and 41 with late MCI who progressed to Alzheimer disease within 12 months) from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative. We analyzed the texture of the hippocampus, precuneus and posterior cingulate cortex using a grey-level co-occurrence matrix. We constructed texture and volume indices from the development data set using logistic regression. Using area under the curve (AUC) of receiver operator characteristics, we compared the accuracy of hippocampal volume, hippocampal texture and the composite texture of the hippocampus, precuneus and posterior cingulate cortex in predicting conversion from MCI to Alzheimer disease in the validation data set. Results: Compared with hippocampal volume, hippocampal texture (0.790 v. 0.739, p = 0.047) and composite texture (0.811 v. 0.739, p = 0.007) showed larger AUCs for conversion to Alzheimer disease from both early and late MCI. Hippocampal texture showed a marginally larger AUC than hippocampal volume in early MCI (0.795 v. 0.726, p = 0.060). Composite texture showed a larger AUC for conversion to Alzheimer disease than hippocampal volume in both early (0.817 v. 0.726, p = 0.027) and late MCI (0.805 v. 0.753, p = 0.019). Limitations: This study was limited by the absence of histological data, and the pathology reflected by the texture measures remains to be validated. Conclusion: Textures of the hippocampus, precuneus and posterior cingulate cortex predicted conversion from MCI to Alzheimer disease at an earlier time point and with higher accuracy than hippocampal volume.

12.
J Affect Disord ; 260: 232-237, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31521861

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Changes in parasympathetic activity have been associated with depression; however, it is not well understood whether these changes are a result of depression, or represent a compensatory mechanism protecting against it. We examined the association of autonomic nervous system activity with the risk of depression in euthymic individuals and those with subsyndromal depression using heart rate variability (HRV) analysis. METHODS: From a community-based longitudinal cohort, 464 subjects from the baseline assessment and 253 who completed the 5-year follow-up visit were included in the cross-sectional and prospective analyses, respectively. Linear regression analysis was used to investigate the association of HRV measures with the current and future GDS scores. Logistic regression analysis examined the effect of HRV on future risk of SSD. RESULTS: Low-frequency power (LFN), high-frequency power (HFN), and the LFN/HFN ratio at the baseline assessment were associated with the GDS score at the 5-year follow-up assessment; however, they were not associated with the GDS score at the baseline assessment. High HFN indicated an increased risk of depression at the 5-year follow-up assessment in euthymic subjects (OR = 3.025, 95% CI = 1.184 - 7.726, p = 0.021). LIMITATIONS: HRV was not measured at the follow-up assessment and the interval between the assessments was comparatively long. Five-minute ECG recordings were used, and all participants were 65 years old or older. CONCLUSIONS: Parasympathetic predominance may precede the onset of depression in older adults.

13.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0227075, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31877181

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although walking speed is associated with important clinical outcomes and designated as the sixth vital sign of the elderly, few walking-speed estimation algorithms using an inertial measurement unit (IMU) have been derived and tested in the older adults, especially in the elderly with slow speed. We aimed to develop a walking-speed estimation algorithm for older adults based on an IMU. METHODS: We used data from 659 of 785 elderly enrolled from the cohort study. We measured gait using an IMU attached on the lower back while participants walked around a 28 m long round walkway thrice at comfortable paces. Best-fit linear regression models were developed using selected demographic, anthropometric, and IMU features to estimate the walking speed. The accuracy of the algorithm was verified using mean absolute error (MAE) and root mean square error (RMSE) in an independent validation set. Additionally, we verified concurrent validity with GAITRite using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs). RESULTS: The proposed algorithm incorporates the age, sex, foot length, vertical displacement, cadence, and step-time variability obtained from an IMU sensor. It exhibited high estimation accuracy for the walking speed of the elderly and remarkable concurrent validity compared to the GAITRite (MAE = 4.70%, RMSE = 6.81 𝑐𝑚/𝑠, concurrent validity (ICC (3,1)) = 0.937). Moreover, it achieved high estimation accuracy even for slow walking by applying a slow-speed-specific regression model sequentially after estimation by a general regression model. The accuracy was higher than those obtained with models based on the human gait model with or without calibration to fit the population. CONCLUSIONS: The developed inertial-sensor-based walking-speed estimation algorithm can accurately estimate the walking speed of older adults.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Velocidade de Caminhada , Idoso , Algoritmos , Feminino , Marcha , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Monitorização Ambulatorial/instrumentação , Caminhada
14.
J Korean Med Sci ; 34(44): e293, 2019 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31726496

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There has been no study on the time trends of dementia incidence in Korea. We report the 5-year incidence and its correlates of all-cause and Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia, and compared our results with those of a 12-year-prior cohort study conducted in the same area. METHODS: A total of 751 community-dwelling older adults were followed up for a mean duration of 5.4 years. The age-, gender-, and educational attainment-specific incidence of all-cause and AD dementia were reported as cases per 1,000 person-years. We performed univariate and multivariate cox proportional hazard regression analyses to determine whether baseline sociodemographic, lifestyle, and clinical variables were associated with the risk of all-cause and AD dementia. A 12-year-prior cohort study was used for descriptive comparison to indicate the time trends of dementia incidence. RESULTS: The incidence rates were 16.2 and 13.0 cases per 1,000 person-years for all-cause and AD dementia, respectively. The baseline diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment increased the 5-year incidence of all-cause dementia by more than 4-fold. Old age and low baseline global cognitive function were noted as risk factors for both all-cause and AD dementia. CONCLUSION: Upon comparing the results with those from the earlier cohort study in Yeoncheon, the incidence of all-cause and AD dementia decreased by approximately 40% over 12 years; it has been mainly driven by the increase in the educational level of older adults. The declining time trends of incidence should be taken into account for estimating the future prevalence of dementia in Korea.

15.
Korean J Intern Med ; 34(6): 1363-1371, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31610633

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Depression and allergic diseases, including asthma, are frequently reported as comorbid conditions. However, their associations have been rarely examined in community-based elderly populations. METHODS: The analyses were performed using the baseline data set of the Korean Longitudinal Study of Health and Aging, which consists of 1,000 elderly participants (aged > 65 years) randomly recruited from an urban community. Depression was assessed using the Geriatric Depression Scale, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, and Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression. Major and minor depressive disorders were diagnosed by psychiatrists. Allergic conditions were assessed using structured questionnaires, lung function, and skin prick test. Quality of life and comorbidities were assessed using structured questionnaires. RESULTS: Prevalence of asthma and major depressive disorder were 5.4% and 5.3%, respectively. The rate of depression was not significantly different between the non-asthmatic and asthmatic groups. No correlation was observed between the scores obtained using the depression scales and self-reported asthma. However, chronic, frequent, and nocturnal cough were significantly associated with depression and scores obtained using the depression scales, which remained significant in multivariate logistic regression analyses (chronic cough: odds ratio [OR], 3.23; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.57 to 12.74; p = 0.04). Rhinitis was independently associated with high Mini-Mental State Examination scores (OR, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.05 to 1.17; p < 0.001) and low 36-item short-form (OR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.80 to 0.98; p = 0.002). CONCLUSION: Depression may not be significantly associated with asthma and allergic diseases in elderly populations, but cough is a significant factor affecting depression.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31403162

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite strong evidence that emotional support has a protective effect on cognitive decline, the neural basis for how an individual's emotional support is associated with cognition is unknown. We investigated if the hippocampus mediates the relationship between emotional support and cognition in older adults. METHODS: Four hundred ten non-demented Korean older adults were classified into two groups according to their Medical Outcomes Study-Social Support Survey emotional support scores: the poor emotional support (score ≤ 25th percentile of entire sample) and normal emotional support (score > 25th percentile of entire sample) groups. Cognitive function was assessed using the Verbal Memory Score (VMS) and Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Packet Neuropsychological Assessment Battery total score (CERAD-TS). Left and right hippocampal volume (HPV) were obtained using 3T T1-weighted magnetic resonance images. Mediation analyses were conducted. RESULTS: In the association of emotional support with VMS, left HPV played a mediating role (indirect effect = 0.40, standard error [SE] = 0.21, bias-corrected 95% CI = 0.04, 0.86). In the association of emotional support with CERAD-TS, both left (indirect effect = 0.82, standard error [SE] = 0.45, bias-corrected 95% CI = 0.09, 1.83) and right (indirect effect = 0.51, standard error [SE] = 0.32, bias-corrected 95% CI = 0.02, 1.24) HPVs played mediating roles. CONCLUSIONS: The hippocampus may mediate the association between emotional support and cognition. Higher levels of emotional support may be associated with better verbal memory and global cognition via larger HPV.

17.
J Clin Med ; 8(8)2019 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426376

RESUMO

Variants in the APOE gene region may explain ethnic differences in the association of Alzheimer's disease (AD) with ε4. Ethnic differences in allele frequencies for three APOE region SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms) were identified and tested for association in 19,398 East Asians (EastA), including Koreans and Japanese, 15,836 European ancestry (EuroA) individuals, and 4985 African Americans, and with brain imaging measures of cortical atrophy in sub-samples of Koreans and EuroAs. Among ε4/ε4 individuals, AD risk increased substantially in a dose-dependent manner with the number of APOE promoter SNP rs405509 T alleles in EastAs (TT: OR (odds ratio) = 27.02, p = 8.80 × 10-94; GT: OR = 15.87, p = 2.62 × 10-9) and EuroAs (TT: OR = 18.13, p = 2.69 × 10-108; GT: OR = 12.63, p = 3.44 × 10-64), and rs405509-T homozygotes had a younger onset and more severe cortical atrophy than those with G-allele. Functional experiments using APOE promoter fragments demonstrated that TT lowered APOE expression in human brain and serum. The modifying effect of rs405509 genotype explained much of the ethnic variability in the AD/ε4 association, and increasing APOE expression might lower AD risk among ε4 homozygotes.

18.
Psychiatry Investig ; 16(8): 575-580, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31446685

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We investigated the impact of depressed mood (dysphoria) and loss of interest or pleasure (anhedonia)on the risk of dementia in cognitively-normal elderly individuals. METHODS: This study included 2,685 cognitively-normal elderly individuals who completed the baseline and 4-year follow-up assessments of the Korean Longitudinal Study on Cognitive Aging and Dementia. We ascertained the presence of dysphoria and anhedonia using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Inventory. We defined subjective cognitive decline as the presence of subjective cognitive complaints without objective cognitive impairments. We analyzed the association of dysphoria and anhedonia with the risk of cognitive disorders using multinomial logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, sex, education, Cumulative Illness Rating Scale score, Apolipoprotein E genotype, and neuropsychological test performance. RESULTS: During the 4-year follow-up period, anhedonia was associated with an approximately twofold higher risk of mild cognitive impairment (OR=2.09, 95% CI=1.20-3.64, p=0.008) and fivefold higher risk of dementia (OR=5.07, 95% CI=1.44-17.92, p=0.012) but was not associated with the risk of subjective cognitive decline. In contrast, dysphoria was associated with an approximately twofold higher risk of subjective cognitive decline (OR=2.06, 95% CI=1.33-3.19, p=0.001) and 1.7-fold higher risk of mild cognitive impairment (OR=1.75, 95% CI=1.00-3.05, p=0.048) but was not associated with the risk of dementia. CONCLUSION: Anhedonia, but not dysphoria, is a risk factor of dementia in cognitively-normal elderly individuals.

19.
Psychiatry Investig ; 16(7): 532-538, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31352735

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine the association between normal-but-low folate levels and cognitive function in the elderly population using a prospective cohort study. METHODS: We analyzed 3,910 participants whose serum folate levels were within the normal reference range (1.5-16.9 ng/mL) at baseline evaluation in the population-based prospective cohort study named the "Korean Longitudinal Study on Cognitive Aging and Dementia." The association between baseline folate quartile categories and baseline cognitive disorders [mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or dementia] was examined using binary logistic regression analysis adjusting for confounding variables. The risks of incident MCI and dementia associated with the decline of serum folate level during a 4-year follow-up period were examined using multinomial logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: The lowest quartile group of serum folate (≥1.5, ≤5.9 ng/mL) showed a higher risk of cognitive disorders than did the highest quartile group at baseline evaluation (odds ratio 1.314, p=0.012). Over the 4 years of follow-up, the risk of incident dementia was 2.364 times higher among subjects whose serum folate levels declined from the 2nd-4th quartile group to the 1st quartile than among those for whom it did not (p=0.031). CONCLUSION: Normal-but-low serum folate levels were associated with the risk of cognitive disorders in the elderly population, and a decline to normal-but-low serum folate levels was associated with incident dementia. Maintaining serum folate concentration above 5.9 ng/mL may be beneficial for cognitive status.

20.
PLoS Med ; 16(7): e1002853, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31335910

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With no effective treatments for cognitive decline or dementia, improving the evidence base for modifiable risk factors is a research priority. This study investigated associations between risk factors and late-life cognitive decline on a global scale, including comparisons between ethno-regional groups. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We harmonized longitudinal data from 20 population-based cohorts from 15 countries over 5 continents, including 48,522 individuals (58.4% women) aged 54-105 (mean = 72.7) years and without dementia at baseline. Studies had 2-15 years of follow-up. The risk factors investigated were age, sex, education, alcohol consumption, anxiety, apolipoprotein E ε4 allele (APOE*4) status, atrial fibrillation, blood pressure and pulse pressure, body mass index, cardiovascular disease, depression, diabetes, self-rated health, high cholesterol, hypertension, peripheral vascular disease, physical activity, smoking, and history of stroke. Associations with risk factors were determined for a global cognitive composite outcome (memory, language, processing speed, and executive functioning tests) and Mini-Mental State Examination score. Individual participant data meta-analyses of multivariable linear mixed model results pooled across cohorts revealed that for at least 1 cognitive outcome, age (B = -0.1, SE = 0.01), APOE*4 carriage (B = -0.31, SE = 0.11), depression (B = -0.11, SE = 0.06), diabetes (B = -0.23, SE = 0.10), current smoking (B = -0.20, SE = 0.08), and history of stroke (B = -0.22, SE = 0.09) were independently associated with poorer cognitive performance (p < 0.05 for all), and higher levels of education (B = 0.12, SE = 0.02) and vigorous physical activity (B = 0.17, SE = 0.06) were associated with better performance (p < 0.01 for both). Age (B = -0.07, SE = 0.01), APOE*4 carriage (B = -0.41, SE = 0.18), and diabetes (B = -0.18, SE = 0.10) were independently associated with faster cognitive decline (p < 0.05 for all). Different effects between Asian people and white people included stronger associations for Asian people between ever smoking and poorer cognition (group by risk factor interaction: B = -0.24, SE = 0.12), and between diabetes and cognitive decline (B = -0.66, SE = 0.27; p < 0.05 for both). Limitations of our study include a loss or distortion of risk factor data with harmonization, and not investigating factors at midlife. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that education, smoking, physical activity, diabetes, and stroke are all modifiable factors associated with cognitive decline. If these factors are determined to be causal, controlling them could minimize worldwide levels of cognitive decline. However, any global prevention strategy may need to consider ethno-regional differences.


Assuntos
Cognição , Disfunção Cognitiva/etnologia , Grupos Étnicos/psicologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Comorbidade , Diabetes Mellitus/etnologia , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Educação em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/etnologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etnologia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA