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1.
J Hazard Mater ; 416: 125956, 2021 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492873

RESUMO

Exposure to a single organochlorine pesticide (OCP) at high concentration and over a short period of exposure constrain our understanding of the contribution of chemical exposure to type 2 diabetes (T2D). A total of 450 male and female zebrafish was exposed to mixtures of five OCPs at 0, 0.05, 0.25, 2.5, and 25 µg/L for 12 weeks. T2D-related hematological parameters (i.e., glucose, insulin, free fatty acid, and triglycerides) and mitochondrial complex I to IV activities were assessed. Metabolomics, proteomics, and transcriptomics were analyzed in female livers, and their data-driven integration was performed. High fasting glucose and low insulin levels were observed only at 0.05 µg/L of the OCP mixture in females, indicating a nonlinear and sexually dependent response. We found that exposure to the OCP mixture inhibited the activities of mitochondrial complexes, especially III and IV. Combining individual and integrated omics analysis, T2D-linked metabolic pathways that regulate mitochondrial function, insulin signaling, and energy homeostasis were altered by the OCP mixture, which explains the observed phenotypic hematological effects. We demonstrated the cause-and-effect relationship between exposures to OCP mixture and T2D using zebrafish model. This study gives an insight into mechanistic research of metabolic diseases caused by chemical exposure using zebrafish.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados , Praguicidas , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/induzido quimicamente , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Feminino , Insulina , Masculino , Praguicidas/análise , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Peixe-Zebra
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34574462

RESUMO

Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are lipid-soluble toxins that are not easily degraded; therefore, they accumulate in the environment and the human body. Several studies have indicated a correlation between POPs and metabolic diseases; however, their effects on mitochondria as a central organelle in cellular metabolism and the usage of mitochondria as functional markers for metabolic disease are barely understood. In this study, a zebrafish model system was exposed to two subclasses of POPs, organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), under two different conditions (solitary OCPs or OCPs with PCBs (Aroclor 1254)), and changes in the oxidative stress marker levels and mitochondrial enzyme activities in the electron transport chain of the tail were measured to observe the correlation between POPs and representative biomarkers for metabolic disease. The results indicated different responses upon exposure to OCPs and OCPs with Aroclor 1254, and accelerated toxicity was observed following exposure to mixed POPs (OCPs with Aroclor 1254). Males were more sensitive to changes in the levels of oxidative stress markers induced by POP exposure, whereas females were more susceptible to the toxic effects of POPs on the levels of mitochondrial activity markers. These results demonstrate that the study reflects real environmental conditions, with low-dose and multiple-toxin exposure for a long period, and that POPs alter major mitochondrial enzymes' functions with an imbalance of redox homeostasis in a sex-dependent manner.

3.
Pediatr Hematol Oncol ; : 1-8, 2021 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34369269

RESUMO

Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a syndrome of pathologic immune activation. It occurs because of severe inflammation due to uncontrolled proliferation of activated lymphocytes and histiocytes, characterized by the production of excessive levels of cytokines. Virus-associated HLH is a well-known entity, and parvovirus B19 is one of the common causes. Parvovirus B19 can also affect blood cell lineages. Therefore, HLH may be accompanied by several diseases such as cytopenia, aplastic anemia, and myelodysplastic syndrome. Herein, we report the case of a patient with hereditary spherocytosis who was diagnosed with parvovirus B19-induced HLH and aplastic crisis. A 7-year-old girl presented to our hospital with fever, pleural effusion, pancytopenia, hepatosplenomegaly, and hypotension. A bone marrow biopsy was performed under the suspicion of HLH, which revealed hemophagocytes. The diagnostic criteria for HLH were met, and prompt chemoimmunotherapy was initiated considering the clinically unstable situation. Her health improved rapidly after initiating treatment. Further study revealed that she had hereditary spherocytosis, and parvovirus B19 had caused aplastic crisis and HLH. The patient's clinical progress was excellent, and chemoimmunotherapy was reduced and discontinued at an early stage. This case shows that aplastic crisis and HLH can coexist with parvovirus B19 infection in patients with hereditary spherocytosis. Although the prognosis was good in this case of HLH caused by parvovirus B19, early detection and active treatment are essential.

4.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(16)2021 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34451041

RESUMO

An indole-based fluorescent chemosensor IH-Sal was synthesized to detect Zn2+. IH-Sal displayed a marked fluorescence increment with Zn2+. The detection limit (0.41 µM) of IH-Sal for Zn2+ was greatly below that suggested by the World Health Organization. IH-Sal can quantify Zn2+ in real water samples. More significantly, IH-Sal could determine and depict the presence of Zn2+ in zebrafish. The detecting mechanism of IH-Sal toward Zn2+ was illustrated by fluorescence and UV-visible spectroscopy, DFT calculations, 1H NMR titration and ESI mass.


Assuntos
Peixe-Zebra , Zinco , Animais , Corantes Fluorescentes , Indóis , Espectrometria de Fluorescência , Água
5.
mBio ; 12(4): e0162021, 2021 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34425710

RESUMO

Colletotrichum scovillei, an ascomycete phytopathogenic fungus, is the main causal agent of serious yield losses of economic crops worldwide. The fungus causes anthracnose disease on several fruits, including peppers. However, little is known regarding the underlying molecular mechanisms involved in the development of anthracnose caused by this fungus. In an initial step toward understanding the development of anthracnose on pepper fruits, we retrieved 624 transcription factors (TFs) from the whole genome of C. scovillei and comparatively analyzed the entire repertoire of TFs among phytopathogenic fungi. Evolution and proliferation of members of the homeobox-like superfamily, including homeobox (HOX) TFs that regulate the development of eukaryotic organisms, were demonstrated in the genus Colletotrichum. C. scovillei was found to contain 10 HOX TF genes (CsHOX1 to CsHOX10), which were functionally characterized using deletion mutants of each CsHOX gene. Notably, CsHOX1 was identified as a pathogenicity factor required for the suppression of host defense mechanisms, which represents a new role for HOX TFs in pathogenic fungi. CsHOX2 and CsHOX7 were found to play essential roles in conidiation and appressorium development, respectively, in a stage-specific manner in C. scovillei. Our study provides a molecular basis for understanding the mechanisms associated with the development of anthracnose on fruits caused by C. scovillei, which will aid in the development of novel approaches for disease management. IMPORTANCE The ascomycete phytopathogenic fungus, Colletotrichum scovillei, causes serious yield loss on peppers. However, little is known about molecular mechanisms involved in the development of anthracnose caused by this fungus. We analyzed whole-genome sequences of C. scovillei and isolated 624 putative TFs, revealing the existence of 10 homeobox (HOX) transcription factor (TF) genes. We found that CsHOX1 is a pathogenicity factor required for the suppression of host defense mechanism, which represents a new role for HOX TFs in pathogenic fungi. We also found that CsHOX2 and CsHOX7 play essential roles in conidiation and appressorium development, respectively, in a stage-specific manner in C. scovillei. Our study contributes to understanding the mechanisms associated with the development of anthracnose on fruits caused by C. scovillei, which will aid for initiating novel approaches for disease management.

6.
Environ Int ; 157: 106802, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34358914

RESUMO

Limited studies on multi-omics have been conducted to comprehensively investigate the molecular mechanism underlying the developmental neurotoxicity of perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS). In this study, the locomotor behavior of zebrafish larvae was assessed under the exposure to 0.1-20 µM PFOS based on its reported neurobehavioral effect. After the number of zebrafish larvae was optimized for proteomics and metabolomics studies, three kinds of omics (i.e., transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics) were carried out with zebrafish larvae exposed to 0.1, 1, 5, and 10 µM PFOS. More importantly, a data-driven integration of multi-omics was performed to elucidate the toxicity mechanism involved in developmental neurotoxicity. In a concentration-dependent manner, exposure to PFOS provoked hyperactivity and hypoactivity under light and dark conditions, respectively. Individual omics revealed that PFOS exposure caused perturbations in the pathways of neurological function, oxidative stress, and energy metabolism. Integrated omics implied that there were decisive pathways for axonal deformation, neuroinflammatory stimulation, and dysregulation of calcium ion signaling, which are more clearly specified for neurotoxicity. Overall, our findings broaden the molecular understanding of the developmental neurotoxicity of PFOS, for which multi-omics and integrated omics analyses are efficient for discovering the significant molecular pathways related to developmental neurotoxicity in zebrafish.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Fluorcarbonetos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/toxicidade , Animais , Embrião não Mamífero , Fluorcarbonetos/toxicidade , Larva , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Peixe-Zebra
7.
Adv Mater ; : e2103079, 2021 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34338384

RESUMO

Highly crystalline 2D/3D-mixed p-transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD)/n-Ga2 O3 heterojunction devices are fabricated by mechanical exfoliation of each p- and n-type material. N-type ß-Ga2 O3 and p-type TMD separately play as a channel for junction field effect transistors (JFETs) with each type of carriers as well as materials for a heterojunction PN diode. The work thus mainly focuses on such ambipolar channel transistors with two different types of channel in a single device architecture. For more extended applications, the transparency of high energy band gap ß-Ga2 O3 (Eg  ≈ 4.8 eV) is taken advantage of, firstly to measure the electrical energy gap of p-TMDs receiving visible or near infrared (NIR) photons through the ß-Ga2 O3 . Next, the p-TMD/n-Ga2 O3 JFETs are put to high speed photo-sensing which is achieved from the p-TMD channel under reverse bias voltages on n-Ga2 O3 . The photo-switching cutoff frequency appears to be ≈16 and 29 kHz for visible red and NIR illuminations, respectively, on the basis of -3 dB photoelectric power loss. Such a high switching speed of the JFET is attributed to the fast transport of photo-carriers in TMD channels. The 2D/3D-mixed ambipolar channel JFETs and their photo-sensing applications are regarded novel, promising, and practically easy to achieve.

8.
Spine J ; 2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34273568

RESUMO

BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) in the cervical spine is known as a rare, complex genetic disease, its complexity being partly because OPLL is diagnosed by radiological findings regardless of clinical or genetic evaluations. Although many genes associated with susceptibility have been reported, the exact causative genes are still unknown. PURPOSE: We performed an analysis using next-generation sequencing and including only patients with a clear involved phenotype. STUDY DESIGN/SETTING: This was a case control study. PATIENT SAMPLE: A total of 74 patients with severe OPLL and 26 healthy controls were included. OUTCOME MEASURES: Causal single-nucleotide variant (SNV), gene-wise variant burden (GVB), and related pathway METHOD: We consecutively included the severe OPLL patients with continuous-/mixed-type and an occupying ratio of ≥ 40%, and performed whole-exome sequencing (WES) and bioinformatic analysis. Then, a validation test was performed for candidate variations. Participants were divided into 4 groups (rapidly-growing OPLL, growing rate ≥ 2.5%/y; slow-growing, < 2.5%/y; uncertain; and control). RESULTS: WES was performed on samples from 74 patients with OPLL (rapidly-growing, 33 patients; slow-growing, 37; and uncertain, 4) with 26 healthy controls. Analysis of 100 participants identified a newly implicated SNV and 4candidate genes based on GVB. The GVB of CYP4B1 showed a more deleterious score in the OPLL than the control group. Comparison between the rapidly growing OPLL and control groups revealed seven newly identified SNVs. We found significant association for 2 rare missense variants; rs121502220 (odds ratio [OR] = infinite; minor allele frequency [MAF] = 0.034) in NLRP1 and rs13980628 (OR= infinite; MAF = 0.032) in SSH2. The 3 genes are associated with inflammation control and arthritis, and SSH2 and NLRP1 are also related to vitamin D modulation. CONCLUSIONS: Identification of unique variants in novel genes such as CYP4B1 gene may induce the development of OPLL. In subgroup analysis, NLRP1 and SSH2 genes coding inflammation molecules may related with rapidly-growing OPLL.

9.
Chemosphere ; 283: 131164, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34144291

RESUMO

Limited studies of quantitative toxicity-toxicity relationship (QTTR) modeling have been conducted to predict interspecies toxicity of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) between aquatic test species. A meta-analysis of 66 publications providing acute toxicity data of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) to daphnia and fish was performed, and the toxicity data, physicochemical properties, and experimental conditions were collected and curated. Based on Euclidean distance (ED) grouping, a meaningful correlation of logarithmic lethal concentrations between daphnia and fish was derived for bare (R2bare = 0.47) and coated AgNPs (R2coated = 0.48) when a distance of 10 was applied. The correlation of coated AgNPs was improved (R2coated = 0.55) by the inclusion of descriptors of the coating materials. The correlations were further improved by R2bare = 0.57 and R2coated = 0.81 after additionally considering particle size only, and by R2bare = 0.59 and R2coated = 0.92 after considering particle size and zeta potential simultaneously. The developed ED-based nano-QTTR model demonstrated that inclusion of the coating material descriptors and physicochemical properties improved the goodness-of-fit to predict interspecies aquatic toxicity of AgNPs between daphnia and fish. This study provides insight for future in silico research on QTTR model development in ENM toxicology.


Assuntos
Daphnia , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Animais , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Tamanho da Partícula , Prata/toxicidade , Nitrato de Prata
10.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 261: 120059, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34146823

RESUMO

Hypochlorite is used as a water disinfectant and it is also produced by biological organisms. Its detection and quantification is important and could lead to its mechanism of reactivity in cells. We have synthesized a new fluorescence sensor for hypochlorite based on bithiophene and furan-carbohydrazide. The sensor shows increased fluorescence as a function of hypochlorite and is selective for hypochlorite. Fluorescence enhancement due to hypochlorite is observed when the sensor is used in aqueous solutions at neutral pH values. Using the sensor, the detection limit for hypochlorite is 4.2 µM, making the sensor practical to determine hypochlorite in water. Applying the sensor to aide in the detection of hypochlorite in zebrafish, showed localization of ClO-/HClO in the air bladders and eyes of zebrafish.


Assuntos
Ácido Hipocloroso , Peixe-Zebra , Animais , Corantes Fluorescentes , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Água
11.
J Hazard Mater ; 414: 125437, 2021 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34030398

RESUMO

More realistic effects on glucose metabolic dysfunction can be evaluated by applying organochlorine (OCP) mixtures than individual OCPs. We formulated an equal ratio mixture of five OCPs (chlordane, heptachlor, p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, ß-hexachlorocyclohexane, and hexachlorobenzene) and treated L6 myotubes with this OCP mixture to investigate effects on glucose uptake and the underlying mechanism. Exposure to the OCP mixture reduced 2-NBDG staining, representing glucose uptake, and stimulated the excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Reduced 2-NBDG uptake and ROS overproduction were compensated by insulin treatment. The expression of proteins such as IRß, PI3K, and AKT was downregulated, indicating that ROS overproduction contributed to the inhibition of insulin-dependent glucose uptake. Reduction in mitochondria quantity and decreased expression levels of PGC-1α, PDH, and GLUT4 proteins were observed, suggesting that mitochondrial dysfunction played a causative role in the disruption of glucose uptake. The inhibition of glucose uptake and ROS overproduction caused by the OCP mixture were also found in zebrafish as an in vivo model. We demonstrated that exposure to the OCP mixture, even at the lowest concentration, perturbed glucose uptake, which was associated with mitochondrial dysfunction, suggesting that an OCP mixture could be a potential environmental factor in type 2 diabetes-related effects on skeletal muscles.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Praguicidas , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Insulina/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/metabolismo , Praguicidas/metabolismo , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Peixe-Zebra
12.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 242, 2021 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33827423

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Plant pathogenic isolates of Rhizoctonia solani anastomosis group 1-intraspecific group IA (AG1-IA) infect a wide range of crops causing diseases such as rice sheath blight (ShB). ShB has become a serious disease in rice production worldwide. Additional genome sequences of the rice-infecting R. solani isolates from different geographical regions will facilitate the identification of important pathogenicity-related genes in the fungus. RESULTS: Rice-infecting R. solani isolates B2 (USA), ADB (India), WGL (India), and YN-7 (China) were selected for whole-genome sequencing. Single-Molecule Real-Time (SMRT) and Illumina sequencing were used for de novo sequencing of the B2 genome. The genomes of the other three isolates were then sequenced with Illumina technology and assembled using the B2 genome as a reference. The four genomes ranged from 38.9 to 45.0 Mbp in size, contained 9715 to 11,505 protein-coding genes, and shared 5812 conserved orthogroups. The proportion of transposable elements (TEs) and average length of TE sequences in the B2 genome was nearly 3 times and 2 times greater, respectively, than those of ADB, WGL and YN-7. Although 818 to 888 putative secreted proteins were identified in the four isolates, only 30% of them were predicted to be small secreted proteins, which is a smaller proportion than what is usually found in the genomes of cereal necrotrophic fungi. Despite a lack of putative secondary metabolite biosynthesis gene clusters, the rice-infecting R. solani genomes were predicted to contain the most carbohydrate-active enzyme (CAZyme) genes among all 27 fungal genomes used in the comparative analysis. Specifically, extensive enrichment of pectin/homogalacturonan modification genes were found in all four rice-infecting R. solani genomes. CONCLUSION: Four R. solani genomes were sequenced, annotated, and compared to other fungal genomes to identify distinctive genomic features that may contribute to the pathogenicity of rice-infecting R. solani. Our analyses provided evidence that genomic conservation of R. solani genomes among neighboring AGs was more diversified than among AG1-IA isolates and the presence of numerous predicted pectin modification genes in the rice-infecting R. solani genomes that may contribute to the wide host range and virulence of this necrotrophic fungal pathogen.


Assuntos
Oryza , Rhizoctonia , China , Índia , Oryza/genética , Pectinas , Doenças das Plantas , Rhizoctonia/genética
13.
Environ Pollut ; 277: 115904, 2021 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33714130

RESUMO

Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) have been reported to cause mitochondrial dysfunction. However, most studies reported its mitochondrial toxicity with respect to a single form, which is far from the environmentally relevant conditions. In this study, we exposed zebrafish embryos to five OCPs: chlordane, heptachlor, p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p'-DDT), ß-hexachlorocyclohexane (ß-HCH), and hexachlorobenzene (HCB), as well as an equal ratio mixture of these OCPs. We evaluated mitochondrial function, including oxygen consumption, the activity of mitochondrial complexes, antioxidant reactions, and expression of genes involved in mitochondrial metabolism. Oxygen consumption rate was reduced by exposure to chlordane, and ß-HCH, linking to the increased activity of specific mitochondrial complex I and III, and decreased GSH level. We found that these mitochondrial dysfunctions were more significant in the exposure to the OCP mixture than the individual OCPs. On the mRNA transcription level, the individual OCPs mainly dysregulated the metabolic cycle (i.e., cs and acadm), whereas the OCP mixture disrupted the genes related to mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (i.e., sdha). Consequently, we demonstrate that the OCP mixture disrupts mitochondrial metabolism by a different molecular mechanism than the individual OCPs, which warrants further study to evaluate mitochondrial dysregulation by chronic exposure to the OCP mixture.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Clorados , Praguicidas , Animais , DDT/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/toxicidade , Mitocôndrias , Praguicidas/análise , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Peixe-Zebra
14.
Molecules ; 26(3)2021 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33494512

RESUMO

The expanding scope of chemical reactions applied to nucleic acids has diversified the design of nucleic acid-based technologies that are essential to medicinal chemistry and chemical biology. Among chemical reactions, visible light photochemical reaction is considered a promising tool that can be used for the manipulations of nucleic acids owing to its advantages, such as mild reaction conditions and ease of the reaction process. Of late, inspired by the development of visible light-absorbing molecules and photocatalysts, visible light-driven photochemical reactions have been used to conduct various molecular manipulations, such as the cleavage or ligation of nucleic acids and other molecules as well as the synthesis of functional molecules. In this review, we describe the recent developments (from 2010) in visible light photochemical reactions involving nucleic acids and their applications in the design of nucleic acid-based technologies including DNA photocleaving, DNA photoligation, nucleic acid sensors, the release of functional molecules, and DNA-encoded libraries.


Assuntos
DNA/química , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Luz , Processos Fotoquímicos , Catálise
15.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 1165, 2021 01 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33441855

RESUMO

Due to their important phylogenetic position among extant vertebrates, sharks are an invaluable group in evolutionary developmental biology studies. A thorough understanding of shark anatomy is essential to facilitate these studies and documentation of this iconic taxon. With the increasing availability of cross-sectional imaging techniques, the complicated anatomy of both cartilaginous and soft tissues can be analyzed non-invasively, quickly, and accurately. The aim of this study is to provide a detailed anatomical description of the normal banded houndshark (Triakis scyllium) using computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) along with cryosection images. Three banded houndsharks were scanned using a 64-detector row spiral CT scanner and a 3 T MRI scanner. All images were digitally stored and assessed using open-source Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine viewer software in the transverse, sagittal, and dorsal dimensions. The banded houndshark cadavers were then cryosectioned at approximately 1-cm intervals. Corresponding transverse cryosection images were chosen to identify the best anatomical correlations for transverse CT and MRI images. The resulting images provided excellent detail of the major anatomical structures of the banded houndshark. The illustrations in the present study could be considered as a useful reference for interpretation of normal and pathological imaging studies of sharks.


Assuntos
Tubarões/anatomia & histologia , Anatomia Transversal/métodos , Animais , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Tomógrafos Computadorizados , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33189858

RESUMO

Age at onset has been considered a potential indicator of underlying genetic risk in depression research. However, the variants associated with earlier age at onset of depressive disorder have not been elucidated. To evaluate the genetic architecture of depression onset, whole-exome sequencing of samples from 1000 patients with depressive disorder was performed. Cox proportional hazard models with false discovery rate-adjusted P-values were used to estimate the hazard ratios; carriers and non-carriers of individual coding variants were compared in terms of age at onset of depression with adjustment for sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. The clinical relevance of the candidate variants was also examined. Whole-exome sequencing revealed four variants in the CCL14, FYB, GPRASP1, and CTNND2 genes associated with an increased risk of depressive disorder with earlier age at onset. Although no individual variant was associated with any clinical characteristic except AAO, together they were associated with younger AAO, younger age at visit for treatment, and recurrent and atypical depression. Our data suggest novel candidate genes for depressive disorder with earlier age at onset. These genes could serve as markers allowing early identification of patients at risk of depression, and thus earlier intervention.

17.
J Obstet Gynaecol Res ; 47(1): 119-127, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32830403

RESUMO

AIM: V-set and immunoglobulin domain-containing 4 (VSIG4) is a potent negative regulator of T-cell responses and is suggested to regulate antitumor immunity. This study investigates whether VSIG4 is significantly expressed in endometriosis patients and the association between VSIG4 levels and serum cancer antigen (CA)-125 levels, VSIG4 levels and endometriosis severity. METHODS: Tumor tissues and peripheral blood samples were obtained during surgery from 42 endometriotic cyst and 21 nonendometriotic tumor patients. The levels of VSIG4 mRNA, VSIG4 protein expression in tumor tissue and serum soluble VSIG4 concentration were compared between the two groups. After dividing the cohort using the optimized cut-off values obtained by receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, we examined the association between VSIG4 levels and serum CA-125 levels, VSIG4 levels and the factors indicating endometriosis severity. RESULTS: The expressions of VSIG4 mRNA, VSIG4 protein and serum VSIG4 concentration were significantly increased in the endometriotic cyst group compared with the control group (P = 0.001, 0.002 and 0.049, respectively). The optimized VSIG4 cut-off values for endometriosis prediction were 0.71, 0.32 and 144.37 pg/mL, respectively. After cohort division using these values, high VSIG4 levels group showed significantly elevated CA-125 compared with low VSIG4 level group (P = 0.010, 0.043 and 0.039, respectively). There was no association between VSIG4 levels and the factors indicating endometriosis severity. CONCLUSION: The expression of VSIG4 in endometriosis patients is increased compared with nonendometriotic tumor patients, and higher VSIG4 levels are significantly associated with higher serum CA-125 levels. VSIG4 may be importantly involved in the immunological alteration of endometriosis.


Assuntos
Endometriose , Feminino , Humanos , Domínios de Imunoglobulina , Receptores de Complemento , Linfócitos T
18.
J Hazard Mater ; 401: 123389, 2021 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32763690

RESUMO

Many toxicological studies have utilized zebrafish embryos to investigate the developmental toxicity of organophosphate esters (OPEs). However, in respect of the presence or absence of the chorion, a consistent experimental methodology has yet to be developed. In this study, we used a fixed exposure scheme to compare the developmental toxicities of six major OPEs in chorionated and dechorionated zebrafish embryos. Removal of the chorion increased sensitivity to OPEs: we found higher incidence of mortality and malformation in dechorionated embryos. In a behavioral assay, the locomotive activity of zebrafish larvae was consistently inhibited by OPEs except tris (1-chloropropyl) phosphate regardless of chorion presence. However, at the molecular level, the expression of ZHE1 and mmp9 was affected by the presence of the chorion in zebrafish embryos exposed to tributyl phosphate and triphenyl phosphate (TPHP), respectively. Furthermore, in zebrafish embryos exposed to TPHP, the increased expression of miR-137 and miR-141 was abolished by the presence of the chorion. Our results demonstrate for the first time that the presence of the chorion influences phenotypic morbidity, organismal behavior, and gene expression in zebrafish embryos exposed to chemicals; thus, we suggest that dechorionation is desirable for exploring the toxicity mechanisms that underlie effects of chemical exposure.


Assuntos
Retardadores de Chama , Peixe-Zebra , Animais , Córion , Ésteres/toxicidade , Larva , Organofosfatos/toxicidade
19.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5845, 2020 11 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33203871

RESUMO

Pathogens utilize multiple types of effectors to modulate plant immunity. Although many apoplastic and cytoplasmic effectors have been reported, nuclear effectors have not been well characterized in fungal pathogens. Here, we characterize two nuclear effectors of the rice blast pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae. Both nuclear effectors are secreted via the biotrophic interfacial complex, translocated into the nuclei of initially penetrated and surrounding cells, and reprogram the expression of immunity-associated genes by binding on effector binding elements in rice. Their expression in transgenic rice causes ambivalent immunity: increased susceptibility to M. oryzae and Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, hemibiotrophic pathogens, but enhanced resistance to Cochliobolus miyabeanus, a necrotrophic pathogen. Our findings help remedy a significant knowledge deficiency in the mechanism of M. oryzae-rice interactions and underscore how effector-mediated manipulation of plant immunity by one pathogen may also affect the disease severity by other pathogens.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos/patogenicidade , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Oryza/imunologia , Oryza/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Ascomicetos/genética , Sítios de Ligação , Bipolaris/patogenicidade , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Oryza/genética , Doenças das Plantas/imunologia , Imunidade Vegetal/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/imunologia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Virulência , Xanthomonas/patogenicidade
20.
Toxicol Rep ; 7: 995-1000, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32874922

RESUMO

Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models have been applied to predict a variety of toxicity endpoints. Their performance needs to be validated, in a variety of cases, to increase their applicability to chemical regulation. Using the data set of substances of very high concern (SVHCs), the performance of QSAR models were evaluated to predict the persistence and bioaccumulation of PBT, and the carcinogenicity and mutagenicity of CMR. BIOWIN and Toxtree showed higher sensitivity than other QSAR models - the former for persistence and bioaccumulation, the latter for carcinogenicity. In terms of mutagenicity, the sensitivities of QSAR models were underestimated, Toxtree was more accurate and specific than lazy structure-activity relationships (LAZARs) and Computer Assisted Evaluation of industrial chemical Substances According to Regulations (CAESAR). Using the weight of evidence (WoE) approach, which integrates results of individual QSAR models, enhanced the sensitivity of each toxicity endpoint. On the basis of obtained results, in particular the prediction of persistence and bioaccumulation by KOWWIN, a conservative criterion is recommended of log Kow greater than 4.5 in K-REACH, without an upper limit. This study suggests that reliable production of toxicity data by QSAR models is facilitated by a better understanding of the performance of these models.

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