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1.
N Engl J Med ; 2020 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32004427

RESUMO

An outbreak of novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) that began in Wuhan, China, has spread rapidly, with cases now confirmed in multiple countries. We report the first case of 2019-nCoV infection confirmed in the United States and describe the identification, diagnosis, clinical course, and management of the case, including the patient's initial mild symptoms at presentation with progression to pneumonia on day 9 of illness. This case highlights the importance of close coordination between clinicians and public health authorities at the local, state, and federal levels, as well as the need for rapid dissemination of clinical information related to the care of patients with this emerging infection.

2.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(2): 44-49, 2020 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31945038

RESUMO

CDC, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), state and local health departments, and public health and clinical stakeholders continue to investigate a nationwide outbreak of e-cigarette, or vaping, product use-associated lung injury (EVALI) (1). EVALI patients in Illinois, Utah, and Wisconsin acquired tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)-containing products primarily from informal sources (2,3). This report updates demographic characteristics and self-reported sources of THC- and nicotine-containing e-cigarette, or vaping, products derived from EVALI patient data reported to CDC by state health departments. As of January 7, 2020, among 1,979 (76%) patients with available data on substance use, a total of 1,620 (82%) reported using any THC-containing products, including 665 (34%) who reported exclusive THC-containing product use. Use of any nicotine-containing products was reported by 1,128 (57%) patients, including 264 (13%) who reported exclusive nicotine-containing product use. Among 809 (50%) patients reporting data on the source of THC-containing products, 131 (16%) reported acquiring their products from only commercial sources (i.e., recreational dispensaries, medical dispensaries, or both; vape or smoke shops; stores; and pop-up shops), 627 (78%) from only informal sources (i.e., friends, family, in-person or online dealers, or other sources), and 51 (6%) from both types of sources. Among 613 (54%) EVALI patients reporting nicotine-containing product use with available data on product source, 421 (69%) reported acquiring their products from only commercial sources, 103 (17%) from only informal sources, and 89 (15%) from both types of sources. Adolescents aged 13-17 years were more likely to acquire both THC- and nicotine-containing products from informal sources than were persons in older age groups. The high prevalence of acquisition of THC-containing products from informal sources by EVALI patients reinforces CDC's recommendation to not use e-cigarette, or vaping, products that contain THC, especially those acquired from informal sources. Although acquisition of nicotine-containing products through informal sources was not common overall, it was common among persons aged <18 years. While the investigation continues, CDC recommends that the best way for persons to ensure that they are not at risk is to consider refraining from the use of all e-cigarette, or vaping, products.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Lesão Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Vaping/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Dronabinol/efeitos adversos , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Feminino , Humanos , Lesão Pulmonar/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
3.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(3): 90-94, 2020 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31971931

RESUMO

Since August 2019, CDC, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), state and local health departments, and public health and clinical stakeholders have been investigating a nationwide outbreak of e-cigarette, or vaping, product use-associated lung injury (EVALI) (1). This report updates patient demographic characteristics, self-reported substance use, and hospitalization dates for EVALI patients reported to CDC by states, as well as the distribution of emergency department (ED) visits related to e-cigarette, or vaping, products analyzed through the National Syndromic Surveillance Program (NSSP). As of January 14, 2020, a total of 2,668 hospitalized EVALI cases had been reported to CDC. Median patient age was 24 years, and 66% were male. Overall, 82% of EVALI patients reported using any tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)-containing e-cigarette, or vaping, product (including 33% with exclusive THC-containing product use), and 57% of EVALI patients reported using any nicotine-containing product (including 14% with exclusive nicotine-containing product use). Syndromic surveillance indicates that ED visits related to e-cigarette, or vaping, products continue to decline after sharply increasing in August 2019 and peaking in September 2019. Clinicians and public health practitioners should remain vigilant for new EVALI cases. CDC recommends that persons not use THC-containing e-cigarette, or vaping, products, especially those acquired from informal sources such as friends, family members, or from in-person or online dealers. Vitamin E acetate is strongly linked to the EVALI outbreak and should not be added to any e-cigarette, or vaping, products (2). However, evidence is not sufficient to rule out the contribution of other chemicals of concern, including chemicals in either THC- or non-THC-containing products, in some reported EVALI cases.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Lesão Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Vaping/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Dronabinol/toxicidade , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lesão Pulmonar/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Vitamina E/toxicidade , Adulto Jovem
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31848614

RESUMO

We surveyed clinical staff and on-site teachers working at pediatric long-term care facilities regarding prevention and control of acute respiratory infections and influenza in staff and residents. We uncovered knowledge gaps, particularly among teachers and clinical staff working <5 years at sites, thereby elucidating areas for targeted staff education.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31868913

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of hospitalizations in young children. We estimated the burden of community-onset RSV-associated hospitalizations among US children aged <2 years by extrapolating rates of RSV-confirmed hospitalizations in 4 surveillance states and using probabilistic multipliers to adjust for ascertainment biases. METHODS: From October 2014 through April 2015, clinician-ordered RSV tests identified laboratory-confirmed RSV hospitalizations among children aged <2 years at 4 influenza hospitalization surveillance network sites. Surveillance populations were used to estimate age-specific rates of RSV-associated hospitalization, after adjusting for detection probabilities. We extrapolated these rates using US census data. RESULTS: We identified 1554 RSV-associated hospitalizations in children aged <2 years. Of these, 27% were admitted to an intensive care unit, 6% needed mechanical ventilation, and 5 died. Most cases (1047/1554; 67%) had no underlying condition. Adjusted age-specific RSV hospitalization rates per 100 000 population were 1970 (95% confidence interval [CI],1787 to 2177), 897 (95% CI, 761 to 1073), 531 (95% CI, 459 to 624), and 358 (95% CI, 317 to 405) for ages 0-2, 3-5, 6-11, and 12-23 months, respectively. Extrapolating to the US population, an estimated 49 509-59 867 community-onset RSV-associated hospitalizations among children aged <2 years occurred during the 2014-2015 season. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings highlight the importance of RSV as a cause of hospitalization, especially among children aged <2 months. Our approach to estimating RSV-related hospitalizations could be used to provide a US baseline for assessing the impact of future interventions.

6.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; 40(11): 1309-1312, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31551105

RESUMO

We conducted active surveillance of acute respiratory viral infections (ARIs) among residents and healthcare personnel (HCP) at a long-term care facility during the 2015-2016 respiratory illness season. ARIs were observed among both HCP and patients, highlighting the importance of including HCP in surveillance programs.

7.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2019 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30959526

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Kenya introduced 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10) among children <1 year in 2011 with catch-up vaccination among children 1-4 years in some areas. We assessed changes in pneumococcal carriage and antibiotic susceptibility patterns in children <5 years and adults. METHODS: During 2009-13, we performed annual cross-sectional pneumococcal carriage surveys in two sites: Kibera (children <5 years) and Lwak (children <5 years, adults). Only Lwak had catch-up vaccination. Nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal (adults only) swabs underwent culture for pneumococci; isolates were serotyped. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed on isolates from 2009 and 2013; penicillin nonsusceptible pneumococci (PNSP) was defined as penicillin-intermediate or resistant. Changes in pneumococcal carriage by age (<1 year, 1-4 years, adults), site, and HIV status (adults only) were calculated using modified Poisson regression, with 2009-2010 as baseline. RESULTS: We enrolled 2,962 children (2,073 in Kibera, 889 in Lwak) and 2,590 adults (2,028 HIV-positive, 562 HIV-negative). In 2013, PCV10-type carriage was 10.3% (Lwak) to 14.6% (Kibera) in children <1 year, and 13.8% (Lwak) to 18.7% (Kibera) in children 1-4 years. This represents reductions of 60% and 63% among children <1 year, and 52% and 60% among children 1-4 years, in Kibera and Lwak, respectively. In adults, PCV10-type carriage decreased from 12.9% to 2.8% (HIV-positive) and from 11.8% to 0.7% (HIV-negative). Approximately 80% of isolates were PNSP, both in 2009 and 2013. CONCLUSIONS: PCV10-type carriage declined in children <5 years and adults post-PCV10 introduction. However, PCV10-type and PNSP carriage persisted in children regardless of catch-up vaccination.

9.
Vaccine ; 37(4): 565-570, 2019 01 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30598385

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Deaths attributable to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) among adults are estimated to exceed 11,000 annually, and annual adult hospitalizations for influenza and RSV may be comparable. RSV vaccines for older adults are in development. We assessed the following among primary care physicians (PCPs) who treat adults: (1) perception of RSV disease burden; (2) current RSV testing practices; and (3) anticipated barriers to adoption of an RSV vaccine. METHODS: We administered an Internet and mail survey from February to March 2017 to national networks of 930 PCPs. RESULTS: The response rate was 67% (620/930). Forty-nine percent of respondents (n = 303) were excluded from analysis as they reported never or rarely caring for an adult patient with possible RSV in the past year. Among respondents who reported taking care of RSV patients (n = 317), 73% and 57% responded that in patients ≥ 50 years, influenza is generally more severe than RSV and that they rarely consider RSV as a potential pathogen, respectively. Most (61%) agreed that they do not test for RSV because there is no treatment. The most commonly reported anticipated barriers to a RSV vaccine were potential out-of-pocket expenses for patients if the vaccine is not covered by insurance (93%) and lack of reimbursement for vaccination (74%). CONCLUSIONS: Physicians reported little experience with RSV disease in adults. They are generally not testing for it and the majority believe that influenza disease is more severe. Physicians will require more information about RSV disease burden in adults and the potential need for a vaccine in their adult patients.

10.
Clin Infect Dis ; 68(3): 409-418, 2019 01 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29905769

RESUMO

Background: Although there is evidence of person-to-person transmission of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in household and healthcare settings, more data are needed to describe and better understand the risk factors and transmission routes in both settings, as well as the extent to which disease severity affects transmission. Methods: A seroepidemiological investigation was conducted among MERS-CoV case patients (cases) and their household contacts to investigate transmission risk in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. Cases diagnosed between 1 January 2013 and 9 May 2014 and their household contacts were approached for enrollment. Demographic, clinical, and exposure history data were collected. Sera were screened by MERS-CoV nucleocapsid protein enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and indirect immunofluorescence, with results confirmed by microneutralization assay. Results: Thirty-one of 34 (91%) case patients were asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic and did not require oxygen during hospitalization. MERS-CoV antibodies were detected in 13 of 24 (54%) case patients with available sera, including 1 severely symptomatic, 9 mildly symptomatic, and 3 asymptomatic case patients. No serologic evidence of MERS-CoV transmission was found among 105 household contacts with available sera. Conclusions: Transmission of MERS-CoV was not documented in this investigation of mostly asymptomatic and mildly symptomatic cases and their household contacts. These results have implications for clinical management of cases and formulation of isolation policies to reduce the risk of transmission.

11.
BMC Infect Dis ; 18(1): 672, 2018 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30563483

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Benefits of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine programs have been linked to the vaccine's ability to disrupt nasopharyngeal carriage and transmission. The 10-valent pneumococcal vaccine (PCV10) was included in the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) in Sindh, Pakistan in February 2013. This study was carried out immediately before PCV10 introduction to establish baseline pneumococcal carriage and prevalent serotypes in young children and to determine if carriage differed in urban and rural communities. METHODS: Nasopharyngeal specimens were collected from a random sample of children 3-11 and 12-59 months of age in an urban community (Karachi) and children 3-11 months of age in a rural community (Matiari). Samples were processed in a research laboratory in Karachi. Samples were transported in STGG media, enriched in Todd Hewitt broth, rabbit serum and yeast extract, cultured on 5% sheep blood agar, and serotyped using the CDC standardized sequential multiplex PCR assay. Serotypes were categorized into PCV10-type and non-vaccine types. RESULTS: We enrolled 670 children. Pneumococci were detected in 73.6% and 79.5 % of children in the infant group in Karachi and Matiari, respectively, and 78.2% of children 12 to 59 months of age in Karachi. In infants, 38.9% and 33.5% of those carrying pneumococci in Karachi and Matiari, respectively, had PCV10 types. In the older age group in Karachi, the proportion was 30.7%, not significantly different from infants. The most common serotypes were 6A, 23F, 19A, 6B and 19F. CONCLUSION: We found that about 3 of 4 children carried pneumococci, and this figure did not vary with age group or urban or rural residence. Planned annual surveys in the same communities will inform change in carriage of PCV10 serotype pneumococci after the introduction and uptake of PCV10 in these communities.


Assuntos
Portador Sadio/epidemiologia , Nasofaringe/microbiologia , Infecções Pneumocócicas/epidemiologia , Streptococcus pneumoniae/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Portador Sadio/imunologia , Portador Sadio/microbiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Programas de Imunização , Lactente , Masculino , Nasofaringe/imunologia , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Infecções Pneumocócicas/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Pneumocócicas/uso terapêutico , Prevalência , Coelhos , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Streptococcus pneumoniae/imunologia , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos
12.
J Clin Virol ; 107: 48-51, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30189412

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Laboratory tests to detect respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) vary in sensitivity and specificity. Diagnostic testing practices can impact RSV disease diagnosis and burden estimates. OBJECTIVES: We surveyed a sample of laboratories that participated in the National Respiratory and Enteric Virus Surveillance System (NREVSS) in 2015-2016 to understand RSV testing, diagnostic capabilities, and practices. STUDY DESIGN: We distributed surveys in fall 2016 to NREVSS laboratories using an internet survey platform. We conducted a descriptive analysis of survey responses and stratified results by self-identified children's hospital laboratories (CHL, i.e. laboratories affiliated with or in a children's hospital) or general hospital laboratories (GHL, i.e. laboratories that performed analysis on specimens from only adults or adults and children). RESULTS: We sampled 367 (82.5%) of 445 eligible NREVSS laboratories with a 35.7% response rate; 11.5% (n = 15) were CHLs. All CHLs had PCR-based assay capability to test for RSV compared to 48.7% of GHLs (p < 0.001), and it was the most frequent method used by CHLs (n = 9, 75.0%). GHLs used rapid antigen detection tests most frequently (n = 65, 60.2%) to detect RSV compared to CHLs (p = 0.02, n = 3, 25.0%). Almost half (n = 41, 48.2%) of GHLs reported specimen submission from adults ≥50 years for RADTs. CONCLUSIONS: Laboratory testing and diagnostic capabilities differed by whether laboratories self-identified as a CHL or GHL. Many GHLs reported use of RADTs in adults ≥50 years, a less sensitive diagnostic method for this population compared to PCR-based assays. RADT use in adults might miss RSV cases and affect diagnoses and disease burden estimates.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/estatística & dados numéricos , Vigilância da População , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/diagnóstico , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/epidemiologia , Vírus Sincicial Respiratório Humano/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , Adulto , Antígenos Virais/genética , Antígenos Virais/isolamento & purificação , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Vírus Sincicial Respiratório Humano/genética , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis ; 92(3): 206-209, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30177420
14.
BMJ Open ; 7(10): e017503, 2017 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29092901

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study was established to provide direct evidence on the incidence of laboratory-confirmed influenza virus and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections in older adults in two cities in Jiangsu Province, China, and the potential impact of acute respiratory infections on frailty. PARTICIPANTS: The cohort was enrolled in Suzhou and Yancheng, two cities in Jiangsu Province in Eastern China. Between November 2015 and March 2016, we enrolled 1532 adults who were 60-89 years of age, and collected blood samples along with baseline data on demographics, general health, chronic diseases, functional status and cognitive function through face-to-face interviews using a standardised questionnaire. Participants are being followed weekly throughout the year to identify acute respiratory illnesses. We schedule home visits to ill participants to collect mid-turbinate nasal and oropharyngeal swabs for laboratory testing and detailed symptom information for the acute illness. Regular follow-up including face-to-face interviews and further blood draws will take place every 6-12 months. FINDINGS TO DATE: As of 3 September 2016, we had identified 339 qualifying acute respiratory illness events and 1463 (95%) participants remained in the study. Laboratory testing is ongoing. FUTURE PLANS: We plan to conduct laboratory testing to estimate the incidence of influenza virus and RSV infections in older adults. We plan to investigate the impact of these infections on frailty and functional status to determine the association of pre-existing immune status with protection against influenza and RSV infection in unvaccinated older adults, and to assess the exposure to avian influenza viruses in this population.


Assuntos
Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Orthomyxoviridae , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/epidemiologia , Vírus Sinciciais Respiratórios , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Fragilidade , Humanos , Incidência , Influenza Humana/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nariz/virologia , Orofaringe/virologia , Orthomyxoviridae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estudos Prospectivos , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/virologia , Vírus Sinciciais Respiratórios/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , População Urbana
15.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; 38(12): 1449-1456, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29173225

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE To examine knowledge and attitudes about influenza vaccination and infection prevention practices among healthcare personnel (HCP) in a long-term-care (LTC) setting. DESIGN Knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) survey. SETTING An LTC facility in St Louis, Missouri. PARTICIPANTS All HCP working at the LTC facility were eligible to participate, regardless of department or position. Of 170 full- and part-time HCP working at the facility, 73 completed the survey, a 42.9% response rate. RESULTS Most HCP agreed that respiratory viral infections were serious and that hand hygiene and face mask use were protective. However, only 46% could describe the correct transmission-based precautions for an influenza patient. Correctly answering infection prevention knowledge questions did not vary by years of experience but did vary for HCP with more direct patient contact versus less patient contact. Furthermore, 42% of respondents reported working while sick, and 56% reported that their coworkers did. In addition, 54% reported that facility policies made staying home while ill difficult. Some respondents expressed concerns about the safety (22%) and effectiveness (27%) of the influenza vaccine, and 28% of respondents stated that they would not get the influenza vaccine if it was not required. CONCLUSIONS This survey of staff in an LTC facility identified several areas for policy improvement, particularly sick leave, as well as potential targets for interventions to improve infection prevention knowledge and to address HCP concerns about influenza vaccination to improve HCP vaccination rates in LTCs. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2017;38:1449-1456.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Vacinas contra Influenza/uso terapêutico , Assistência de Longa Duração , Masculino , Missouri , Inquéritos e Questionários , Vacinação
16.
Clin Infect Dis ; 65(6): 1020-1025, 2017 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28903503

RESUMO

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes lower respiratory tract illness frequently. No effective antivirals or vaccines for RSV are approved for use in the United States; however, there are at least 50 vaccines and monoclonal antibody products in development, with those targeting older adults and pregnant women (to protect young infants) in phase 2 and 3 clinical trials. Unanswered questions regarding RSV epidemiology need to be identified and addressed prior to RSV vaccine introduction to guide the measurement of impact and future recommendations. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) convened a technical consultation to gather input from external subject matter experts on their individual perspectives regarding evidence gaps in current RSV epidemiology in the United States, potential studies and surveillance platforms needed to fill these gaps, and prioritizing efforts. Participants articulated their individual views, and CDC staff synthesized individuals' input into this report.


Assuntos
Vigilância da População , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/epidemiologia , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Vírus Sincicial Respiratório , Análise Custo-Benefício , Humanos , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/diagnóstico , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/mortalidade , Vacinas contra Vírus Sincicial Respiratório/efeitos adversos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
17.
BMC Infect Dis ; 17(1): 25, 2017 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28056828

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pneumococci are spread by persons with nasopharyngeal colonization, a necessary precursor to invasive disease. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines can prevent colonization with vaccine serotype strains. In 2011, Kenya became one of the first African countries to introduce the 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10) into its national immunization program. Serial cross-sectional colonization surveys were conducted to assess baseline pneumococcal colonization, antibiotic resistance patterns, and factors associated with resistance. METHODS: Annual surveys were conducted in one urban and one rural site during 2009 and 2010 among children aged <5 years. To reflect differences in vaccine target population, recruitment was age-stratified in Kibera, whereas a simple random sample of children was drawn in Lwak. Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from eligible children. Pneumococci were isolated and serotyped. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed using the 2009 isolates. Antibiotic nonsusceptibility was defined as intermediate susceptibility or resistance to ≥1 antibiotics (i.e., penicillin, chloramphenicol, levofloxacin, erythromycin, tetracycline, cotrimoxazole, and clindamycin); multidrug resistance (MDR) was defined as nonsusceptibility to ≥3 antibiotics. Weighted analysis was conducted when appropriate. Modified Poisson regression was used to calculate factors associated with antibiotic nonsusceptibility. RESULTS: Of 1,087 enrolled (Kibera: 740, Lwak: 347), 90.0% of these were colonized with pneumococci, and 37.3% were colonized with PCV10 serotypes. There were no differences by survey site or year. Of 657 (of 730; 90%) isolates tested for antibiotic susceptibility, nonsusceptibility to cotrimoxazole and penicillin was found in 98.6 and 81.9% of isolates, respectively. MDR was found in 15.9% of isolates and most often involved nonsusceptibility to cotrimoxazole and penicillin; 40.4% of MDR isolates were PCV10 serotypes. In the multivariable model, PCV10 serotypes were independently associated with penicillin nonsusceptibility (Prevalence Ratio: 1.2, 95% CI 1.1-1.3), but not with MDR. CONCLUSIONS: Before PCV10 introduction, nearly all Kenyan children aged <5 years were colonized with pneumococci, and PCV10 serotype colonization was common. PCV10 serotypes were associated with penicillin nonsusceptibility. Given that colonization with PCV10 serotypes is associated with greater risk for invasive disease than colonization with other serotypes, successful PCV10 introduction in Kenya is likely to have a substantial impact in reducing vaccine-type pneumococcal disease and drug-resistant pneumococcal infection.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Infecções Pneumocócicas/microbiologia , Streptococcus pneumoniae/efeitos dos fármacos , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Programas de Imunização , Lactente , Quênia , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Nasofaringe/microbiologia , Infecções Pneumocócicas/epidemiologia , Vacinas Pneumocócicas/uso terapêutico , População Rural , Sorogrupo , Streptococcus pneumoniae/isolamento & purificação , Inquéritos e Questionários , População Urbana
18.
BMC Public Health ; 16(1): 1233, 2016 12 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27927201

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pneumonia is the leading infectious cause of morbidity and mortality in young children in Bangladesh. We present the epidemiology of pneumonia in Bangladeshi children <5 years before 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine introduction and investigate factors associated with disease severity and mortality. METHODS: Children aged 2-59 months admitted to three Bangladeshi hospitals with pneumonia (i.e., cough or difficulty breathing and age-specific tachypnea without danger signs) or severe pneumonia (i.e., cough or difficulty breathing and ≥1 danger signs) were included. Demographic, clinical, laboratory, and vaccine history data were collected. We assessed associations between characteristics and pneumonia severity and mortality using multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: Among 3639 Bangladeshi children with pneumonia, 61% had severe disease, and 2% died. Factors independently associated with severe pneumonia included ages 2-5 months (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.60 [95% CI: 1.26-2.01]) and 6-11 months (aOR 1.31 [1.10-1.56]) relative to 12-59 months, low weight for age (aOR 1.22 [1.04-1.42]), unsafe drinking water source (aOR 2.00 [1.50-2.69]), higher paternal education (aOR 1.34 [1.15-1.57]), higher maternal education (aOR 0.74 [0.64-0.87]), and being fully vaccinated for age with pentavalent vaccination (aOR 0.64 [0.51-0.82]). Increased risk of pneumonia mortality was associated with age <12 months, low weight for age, unsafe drinking water source, lower paternal education, disease severity, and having ≥1 co-morbid condition. CONCLUSIONS: Modifiable factors for severe pneumonia and mortality included low weight for age and access to safe drinking water. Improving vaccination status could decrease disease severity.


Assuntos
Vacinas Pneumocócicas/administração & dosagem , Pneumonia Pneumocócica/mortalidade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Etários , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Comorbidade , Água Potável/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Pneumonia Pneumocócica/etiologia , Pneumonia Pneumocócica/prevenção & controle , Fatores de Risco
19.
PLoS One ; 11(7): e0159317, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27442440

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adherence to tuberculosis (TB) treatment and antiretroviral therapy (ART) reduces morbidity and mortality among persons co-infected with TB/HIV. We measured adherence and determined factors associated with non-adherence to concurrent TB treatment and ART among co-infected persons in two provinces in South Africa. METHODS: A convenience sample of 35 clinics providing integrated TB/HIV care was included due to financial and logistic considerations. Retrospective chart reviews were conducted among persons who received concurrent TB treatment and ART and who had a TB treatment outcome recorded during 1 January 2008-31 December 2010. Adherence to concurrent TB and HIV treatment was defined as: (1) taking ≥80% of TB prescribed doses by directly observed therapy (DOT) as noted in the patient card; and (2) taking >90% ART doses as documented in the ART medical record during the concurrent treatment period (period of time when the patient was prescribed both TB treatment and ART). Risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to identify factors associated with non-adherence. RESULTS: Of the 1,252 persons receiving concurrent treatment, 138 (11.0%) were not adherent. Non-adherent persons were more likely to have extrapulmonary TB (RR: 1.71, 95% CI: 1.12 to 2.60) and had not disclosed their HIV status (RR: 1.96, 95% CI: 1.96 to 3.76). CONCLUSIONS: The majority of persons with TB/HIV were adherent to concurrent treatment. Close monitoring and support of persons with extrapulmonary TB and for persons who have not disclosed their HIV status may further improve adherence to concurrent TB and antiretroviral treatment.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Coinfecção/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Adesão à Medicação , Tuberculose/complicações , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Demografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , África do Sul
20.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 22(7): 1162-8, 2016 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27314227

RESUMO

In January 2013, several months after Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) was first identified in Saudi Arabia, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates, began surveillance for MERS-CoV. We analyzed medical chart and laboratory data collected by the Health Authority-Abu Dhabi during January 2013-May 2014. Using real-time reverse transcription PCR, we tested respiratory tract samples for MERS-CoV and identified 65 case-patients. Of these patients, 23 (35%) were asymptomatic at the time of testing, and 4 (6%) showed positive test results for >3 weeks (1 had severe symptoms and 3 had mild symptoms). We also identified 6 clusters of MERS-CoV cases. This report highlights the potential for virus shedding by mildly ill and asymptomatic case-patients. These findings will be useful for MERS-CoV management and infection prevention strategies.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio , Adulto , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Emirados Árabes Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
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