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1.
J Int Med Res ; 49(9): 3000605211042996, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34510962

RESUMO

Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO) is a rare condition characterized by chronic relapsing noninfectious bone inflammation of unknown etiology. Although CRMO is considered an extraintestinal manifestation in patients with inflammatory bowel disease, most cases of CRMO are associated with Crohn's disease; very few are associated with ulcerative colitis (UC). We herein describe a 21-year-old patient with UC who developed recurrent left thigh pain. The patient was diagnosed with CRMO associated with UC, which was well controlled with azathioprine treatment.


Assuntos
Colite Ulcerativa , Doença de Crohn , Osteomielite , Colite Ulcerativa/complicações , Colite Ulcerativa/tratamento farmacológico , Fêmur/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Osteomielite/complicações , Osteomielite/diagnóstico por imagem , Osteomielite/tratamento farmacológico , Recidiva , Adulto Jovem
2.
Pharmaceuticals (Basel) ; 14(7)2021 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34358068

RESUMO

Insulin resistance, which occurs when insulin levels are sufficiently high over a prolonged period, causing the cells to fail to respond normally to the hormone. As a system for insulin resistance and diabetes drug development, insulin-resistant rodent models have been clearly established, but there is a limitation to high-throughput drug screening. Recently, zebrafish have been identified as an excellent system for drug discovery and identification of therapeutic targets, but studies on insulin resistance models have not been extensively performed. Therefore, we aimed to make a rapid insulin-resistant zebrafish model that complements the existing rodent models. To establish this model, zebrafish were treated with 10 µM insulin for 48 h. This model showed characteristics of insulin-resistant disease such as damaged pancreatic islets. Then we confirmed the recovery of the pancreatic islets after pioglitazone treatment. In addition, it was found that insulin-resistant drugs have as significant an effect in zebrafish as in humans, and these results proved the value of the zebrafish insulin resistance model for drug selection. In addition, RNA sequencing was performed to elucidate the mechanism involved. KEGG pathway enrichment analysis of differentially expressed genes showed that insulin resistance altered gene expression due to the MAPK signaling and calcium signaling pathways. This model demonstrates the utility of the zebrafish model for drug testing and drug discovery in insulin resistance and diabetes.

3.
J Med Food ; 24(8): 883-893, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34406877

RESUMO

During constipation, indigestible foods, such as probiotics, prebiotics, and dietary fiber, may improve the bowel environment and activity. In this randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled study, the effects of ID-HWS1000, composed of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species, xylooligosaccharide, and dietary fiber, were evaluated to determine whether it improves the perception of bowel activity or cause changes in the gut microbiome. Thirty Korean adults with "functional constipation" according to the Rome III criteria were randomly assigned to the following groups: 20 in the ID-HWS1000 group and 10 in the placebo group. ID-HWS1000 or the placebo was consumed by the participants for 4 weeks. To assess the changes in the perception of bowel activity, clinical data and gut microbiome analyses were conducted before and after the experiment. There were significant differences between the groups in the response to 9 of the 12 survey questions (the number and duration of bowel movements, amount of feces, number of irritant bowel movements, number of times bowel movements felt incomplete, shape of the feces, amount of gas in the gut, discomfort after defecation, and discomfort owing to constipation) (P < .05). There was a decrease in the proportion of Firmicutes (Ruminococcaceae and Lachnospiraceae) and an increase in Bacteroidetes (Bacteroidaceae) (P < .05). Moreover, ID-HWS1000 directly improved the discomfort associated with bowel movements, decreased the proportion of Lachnospiraceae, and increased the proportion of Bacteroidaceae. These results confirmed that ID-HWS1000 improves the perception of bowel activity and exerts positive changes in individuals with functional constipation.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Probióticos , Adulto , Constipação Intestinal , Defecação , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Percepção , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
Gut Liver ; 2021 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34238769

RESUMO

Background/Aims: This study aimed to investigate the perceptions and behaviors of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) during the early coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in the major epidemic area in Korea. Methods: Between April and May 2020, a cross-sectional survey was performed at two tertiary hospitals in Daegu, South Korea, on patients' experiences, coping strategies and perceptions. Results: Most of the 544 patients participating in the survey strictly adhered to personal protection guidance against COVID-19. In the early COVID-19 crisis, many patients canceled or postponed hospital visits (57.5%) and rescheduled biologics administrations (26.4%). Although 13.6% utilized telemedicine, the frequency of individuals leaving their homes remained unchanged. Although 50.4% were concerned about their susceptibility to COVID-19, 72.2% adhered to their treatment for IBD. In patients taking biologics or Janus kinase inhibitors, 86.8% disagreed that they should discontinue their medication as a preventative measure against COVID- 19, but 21.9% actually discontinued their medications. Of those with discordance between the perception of IBD drug adherence and active behaviors, 5.4% of all and 39.4% of biologics or Janus kinase inhibitors withheld drugs specifically due to fear of COVID-19. Only 7% of all patients discussed drug safety with their physicians. The level of concern for COVID-19 depended on the type of drug used. Conclusions: Patients with IBD showed concerns about the increased risk of COVID-19 due to IBD or their medications, and a considerable number of patients withheld their medications without consulting medical staff. Enhanced active communications with patients with IBD and appropriate health-related education should be provided.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34014068

RESUMO

As the demand for wireless sensors and equipment is unprecedentedly increasing, the interest in electromagnetic interference (EMI)-shielding materials that can effectively block accompanying electromagnetic interference is also constantly increasing. In particular, flexible and lightweight EMI-shielding materials that exhibit high EMI-shielding effectiveness (SE) have been more actively investigated as they are applicable to various applications. In this work, we reported the fabrication and performance of conducting polymer nanofiber EMI-shielding material, which was realized using electrospun polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) core-shell nanofiber membranes with highly conductive shells. Using the chemical polymerization method, core-shell nanofibers with highly conductive shells were employed without compositing with conductive fillers, resulting in shell-conductive lightweight EMI-shielding material without impairing the original properties of the nanofiber. In particular, thanks to the nanofiber structure, the EMI-shielding material exhibits superb flexibility, and the EMI SE was also improved through the enhanced absorption of EM waves and multireflections by the porous nanofiber film structure. Specifically, the developed EMI-shielding material in this work exhibited a SE of ∼40 dB in the X-band, which corresponds to an absolute shielding effectiveness (SSEt) of 16,230 dB·cm2/g at a thickness of 14 µm. Moreover, the high durability and hydrophobicity of the PVDF nanofibers with poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT)-polymerized shell can also be useful in practical applications.

6.
J Phys Chem Lett ; : 4490-4495, 2021 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33956453

RESUMO

Nonelectrochemical hydrogen peroxide direct synthesis (HPDS) under ambient conditions is an environmentally benign and energy-efficient process that produces a green oxidizer, yet the reaction mechanism of HPDS is still controversial. Inspired by the recently suggested heterolytic mechanism that involves electron and proton transfer at Pd catalysts, we propose a new electrochemical density functional theory (DFT) model that combines the Butler-Volmer equation and constant-potential DFT with hybrid explicit-implicit solvent treatment. Application of this model to Pd surfaces showed that the heterolytic mechanism has a lower barrier for the protonation steps for H2O2 production than for the nonelectrochemical hydrogenation steps, leading to advantageous kinetics for H2O2 production over H2O production, while the conventionally accepted Langmuir-Hinshelwood mechanism fails to explain the experimental kinetics. This work resolves the unanswered discrepancies between previous experimental and DFT results, and we expect that these results will readily help the systematic development of improved catalysts for HPDS.

7.
J Org Chem ; 86(16): 11140-11148, 2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33844925

RESUMO

The chemical examination of two undescribed marine actinobacteria has yielded three rare merosesterterpenoids, marinoterpins A-C (1-3, respectively). These compounds were isolated from the culture broth extracts of two marine-derived actinomycetes associated with the family Streptomycetaceae, (our strains were CNQ-253 and AJS-327). The structures of the new compounds were determined by extensive interpretation of 1D and 2D NMR, MS, and combined spectroscopic data. These compounds represent new chemical motifs, combining quinoline-N-oxides with a linear sesterterpenoid side chain. Additionally, consistent in all three metabolites is the rare occurrence of two five-ring ethers, which were derived from an apparent cyclization of methyl group carbons to adjacent hydroxy-bearing methylene groups in the sesterterpenoid side chain. Genome scanning of AJS-327 allowed for the identification of the marinoterpin (mrt) biosynthetic cluster, which consists of 16 open-reading frames that code for a sesterterpene pyrophosphate synthase, prenyltransferase, type II polyketide synthase, anthranilate:CoA-ligase, and several tailoring enzymes apparently responsible for installing the N-oxide and bis-tetrahydrofuran ring motifs.

8.
J Am Chem Soc ; 143(10): 3682-3686, 2021 03 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33656337

RESUMO

Ortho-quinone methides (o-QMs) are reactive intermediates in biosynthesis that give rise to a variety of intra- and intermolecular cyclization/addition products in bacteria, fungi, and plants. Herein, we report a new metabolic deviation of an o-QM intermediate in a benzylic dehydrogenation reaction that links the newly described marine bacterial natural products dihydrotetrachlorizine and tetrachlorizine. We discovered these novel dichloropyrrole-containing compounds from actinomycete strain AJS-327 that unexpectedly harbors in its genome a biosynthetic gene cluster (BGC) of striking similarity to that of chlorizidine, another marine alkaloid bearing a different carbon skeleton. Heterologous expression of the homologous flavin-dependent oxidoreductase enzymes Tcz9 and Clz9 revealed their native functions in tetrachlorizine and chlorizidine biosynthesis, respectively, supporting divergent oxidative dehydrogenation and pyrrolizine-forming reactions. Swapping these berberine bridge enzyme-like oxidoreductases, we produced cyclized and dehydrogenated analogs of tetrachlorizine and chlorizidine, including a dearomatized chlorizidine analog that stabilizes an o-QM via conjugation with a 3H-pyrrolizine ring.


Assuntos
Indolquinonas/química , Actinobacteria/genética , Actinobacteria/metabolismo , Ciclização , Genes Fúngicos , Hidrogênio/química , Oxirredução
10.
Neuromolecular Med ; 23(3): 428-443, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33432492

RESUMO

The 20% ethanol extract of Polygala tenuifolia, Angelica tenuissima, and Dimocarpus longan (WIN-1001X) was derived from a modified version of Korean traditional herbal formula 'Chungsimyeolda-tang' which has been used for the treatment of cerebrovascular disorders. The Parkinson's disease presents with impaired motor functions and loss of dopaminergic neurons. However, the treatment for Parkinson's disease is not established until now. This study aims to elucidate the therapeutic advantages of WIN-1001X on animal models of Parkinson's disease. WIN-1001X administration successfully relieved the Parkinsonism symptoms in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced Parkinson's disease mice tested by rota-rod and pole tests. The loss of tyrosine hydroxylase activities in substantia nigra and striatum was also attenuated by administration of WIN-1001X. In mice with sub-chronical MPTP injections, autophagy-related proteins, such as LC3, beclin-1, mTOR, and p62, were measured using the immunoblot assay. The results were favorable to induction of autophagy after the WIN-1001X administration. WIN-1001X treatment on 6-hydroxydopamine-injected rats also exhibited protective effects against striatal neuronal damage and loss of dopaminergic cells. Such protection is expected to be due to the positive regulation of autophagy by administration of WIN-1001X with confirmation both in vivo and in vitro. In addition, an active compound, onjisaponin B was isolated and identified from WIN-1001X. Onjisaponin B also showed significant autophagosome-inducing effect in human neuroblastoma cell line. Our study suggests that relief of Parkinsonism symptoms and rescue of tyrosine hydroxylase activity in dopaminergic neurons are affected by autophagy enhancing effect of WIN-1001X which the onjisaponin B is one of the major components of activity.

11.
Appl Biochem Biotechnol ; 193(2): 319-334, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32954483

RESUMO

The feasibility of surfactants for enhancement of extraction efficiencies in wet oil extraction through an acidic hydrothermal process was evaluated. Three different types of surfactants were tested: anionic (SDBS and SDS), cationic (CTAB and MBC), and non-ionic (IGEPAL CA-210 and Tween 60). The total fatty acid content of Chlorella vulgaris was 291.0 mg/g cell. Under the no-surfactant condition, the oil-extraction yield of the acidic hydrothermal extraction was 75.5%. The addition of SDBS and MBC at the 0.4% concentration showed enhanced oil-extraction performance, 85.4 and 85.7% yields, respectively. CTAB and Tween 60 showed low extraction yields, less than 43.0%. SDS and IGEPAL CA-210 showed high oil-extraction yields, higher, in fact, than the initial fatty acid content, due to surfactant partitioning into microalgal oil. With increasing surfactant concentration, the oil-extraction yields of CTAB decreased, those of IGEPAL CA-210 gradually increased, and those of SDBS increased and then decreased again. The best performance, an oil-extraction yield of 95.6%, was observed under the 0.2% SDBS, 120 °C, 1 h condition. Although IGEPAL CA-210 showed the high net oil-extraction yield of 98.3% at the 0.6% surfactant concentration, 61.2% of surfactant was partitioned into oil. Graphical abstract.


Assuntos
Biocombustíveis , Chlorella vulgaris/química , Ácidos Graxos , Tensoativos/química , Ácidos Graxos/química , Ácidos Graxos/isolamento & purificação , Temperatura Alta
12.
Mar Drugs ; 18(11)2020 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33167356

RESUMO

A new cytotoxic thiodepsipeptide, verrucosamide (1), was isolated along with the known, related cyclic peptide thiocoraline, from the extract of a marine-derived actinomycete, a Verrucosispora sp., our strain CNX-026. The new peptide, which is composed of two rare seven-membered 1,4-thiazepane rings, was elucidated by a combination of spectral methods and the absolute configuration was determined by a single X-ray diffraction study. Verrucosamide (1) showed moderate cytotoxicity and selectivity in the NCI 60 cell line bioassay. The most susceptible cell lines were MDA-MB-468 breast carcinoma with an LD50 of 1.26 µM, and COLO 205 colon adenocarcinoma with an LD50 of 1.4 µM. Also isolated along with verrucosamide were three small 3-hydroxy(alkoxy)-quinaldic acid derivatives that appear to be products of the same biosynthetic pathway.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Toxinas Marinhas/farmacologia , Micromonosporaceae/metabolismo , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Antineoplásicos/isolamento & purificação , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Toxinas Marinhas/isolamento & purificação , Estrutura Molecular , Neoplasias/patologia , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
13.
Sensors (Basel) ; 20(20)2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33050155

RESUMO

Recently an active locomotive capsule endoscope (CE) for diagnosis and treatment in the digestive system has been widely studied. However, real-time localization to achieve precise feedback control and record suspicious positioning in the intestine is still challenging owing to the limitation of capsule size, relatively large diagnostic volume, and compatibility of other devices in clinical site. To address this issue, we present a novel robotic localization sensing methodology based on the kinematics of a planar cable driven parallel robot (CDPR) and measurements of the quasistatic magnetic field of a Hall effect sensor (HES) array. The arrangement of HES and the Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) algorithm are applied to estimate the position of the permanent magnet (PM) in the CE, and the planar CDPR is incorporated to follow the PM in the CE. By tracking control of the planar CDPR, the position of PM in any arbitrary position can be obtained through robot forward kinematics with respect to the global coordinates at the bedside. The experimental results show that the root mean square error (RMSE) for the estimated position value of PM was less than 1.13 mm in the X, Y, and Z directions and less than 1.14° in the θ and φ orientation, where the sensing space could be extended to ±70 mm for the given 34 × 34 mm2 HES array and the average moving distance in the Z-direction is 40 ± 2.42 mm. The proposed method of the robotic sensing with HES and CDPR may advance the sensing space expansion technology by utilizing the provided single sensor module of limited sensible volume.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos , Robótica , Cápsulas Endoscópicas , Desenho de Equipamento , Magnetismo
14.
Yonsei Med J ; 61(10): 860-867, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32975060

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is independently associated with the development of atrial fibrillation (AF). However, the association of AF with advanced liver fibrosis, which is related to all-cause, cardiovascular, and liver-related mortality, has not been established in NAFLD patients. We aimed to investigate the association between AF and advanced liver fibrosis in NAFLD patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Out of 53704 adults who participated in the health check-up program, 6293 subjects aged 35 years and older were diagnosed as NAFLD using ultrasound. The stage of liver fibrosis was assessed based on the newly adjusted NAFLD fibrosis score (NFS) and Fibrosis-4 (Fib-4) Index, which were used to determine the low and high cut-off values (COVs). RESULTS: Of 6293 patients with NAFLD, 59 (0.9%) were diagnosed with AF. Patients with AF were older (52.0 vs. 64.6 years, p<0.001), had higher body mass index (25.2 vs. 26.6 kg/m², p<0.001), and had bigger waist circumference (84.0 vs. 89.9 cm, p<0.001) than those without AF. In NAFLD patients, AF was independently associated with advanced liver fibrosis, assessed using both COVs of NFS [low-COV group: final adjusted odds ratios (aORs)=2.85, p=0.004; high-COV group: ORs=12.29, p<0.001). AF was independently associated with advanced liver fibrosis, assessed using both COVs of Fib-4 (low-COV group: aORs=2.49, p<0.001; high-COV group: aORs=3.84, p=0.016). CONCLUSION: AF is independently associated with advanced liver fibrosis in patients with NAFLD.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/etiologia , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
15.
Korean J Intern Med ; 35(6): 1261-1269, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32872734

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can reportedly cause gastrointestinal symptoms. Therefore, we investigated the clinical characteristics of COVID-19 patients with diarrhea. METHODS: We included 118 COVID-19 patients admitted to a single hospital from February 20 to March 31, 2020. Medical records with clinical characteristics, laboratory data, treatment course, and clinical outcomes were compared based on the presence or absence of diarrhea. Prognostic factors for disease severity and mortality in COVID-19 were also assessed. RESULTS: Among patients, 54 (45.8%) had diarrhea, whereas seven (5.9%) had only diarrhea. The median age of patients with diarrhea was 59 years (44 to 64), and 22 (40.7%) were male. Systemic steroid use, intensive care unit admission, septic shock, and acute respiratory distress syndrome were less frequent in the diarrhea group than in the non-diarrhea group. No significant differences were observed in total hospital stay and mortality between groups. On multivariate analysis, age (odds ratio [OR], 1.06; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01 to 1.12; p = 0.044), diabetes (OR, 3.00; 95% CI, 1.25 to 20.47; p = 0.042), and dyspnea (OR, 41.19; 95% CI, 6.60 to 823.16; p < 0.001) were independent risk factors for septic shock. On Cox regression analysis, diabetes (hazard ratio [HR], 4.82; 95% CI, 0.89 to 26.03; p = 0.043) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (HR, 16.58; 95% CI, 3.10 to 88.70; p = 0.044) were risk factors for mortality. CONCLUSION: Diarrhea was present in 45.8% of patients and was a common symptom of COVID-19. Although patients with diarrhea showed less severe clinical features, diarrhea was not associated with disease severity or mortality.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Diarreia/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19 , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Prevalência , Radiografia Torácica , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Choque Séptico/virologia
16.
Thorac Cancer ; 11(11): 3379-3382, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32915519

RESUMO

Here, we report a case of acute intestinal obstruction as the initial presentation of primary lung cancer in a male patient. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) showed multiple polypoid masses and regional lymphadenopathy with small bowel obstruction. The patient underwent emergency surgery for multiple luminal malignancy with mesenteric masses. According to the various clinicopathological features, the tumor was confirmed to be metastatic large cell carcinoma originating from the lung. Large masses in the left lower lobe of the lung were identified on the chest CT after emergency surgery, and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), not otherwise specified (NOS), was finally diagnosed on biopsy through bronchoscopy.

17.
ACS Chem Biol ; 15(9): 2507-2515, 2020 09 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32852937

RESUMO

A new linear type-1 polyketide, ionostatin (1), has been fully defined using a combined genomic and bioinformatics approach coupled with confirmatory chemical analyses. The 41 carbon-containing polyether is the product of the 101 kbp ion biosynthetic cluster containing seven modular type-1 polyketide synthases. Ionostatin is composed of 15 chiral centers that were proposed using the stereospecificities installed by the different classes of ketoreductases and enoylreductases and confirmed by rigorous NMR analyses. Incorporated into the structure are two tetrahydrofuran rings that appear to be the product of stereospecific epoxidation, followed by stereospecific ring opening and cyclization. These transformations are proposed to be catalyzed by conserved enzymes analogous to those found in other bacterial-derived polyether biosynthetic clusters. Ionostatin shows moderate cancer cell cytotoxicity against U87 glioblastoma and SKOV3 ovarian carcinoma at 7.4 µg/mL.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/química , Policetídeos/química , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Antineoplásicos/isolamento & purificação , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Biologia Computacional , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Genômica , Humanos , Família Multigênica , Policetídeo Sintases/química , Policetídeo Sintases/genética , Policetídeos/isolamento & purificação , Policetídeos/farmacologia , Domínios Proteicos , Estereoisomerismo , Streptomycetaceae/química
18.
Nano Converg ; 7(1): 24, 2020 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32661786

RESUMO

We have developed the low-temperature conformal ZnO nanowire fabrication on flexible plastic substrates by utilizing the solution-processible metal seed-assisted hydrothermal ZnO crystallization. Structural evolution of ZnO nanowires controlled by major parameters involving growth temperature, growth time, and seed coating condition, has been systematically investigated towards uniform and large-area growth of conformal ZnO nanowires. Direct ZnO nanowire growth on flexible plastics without undergoing the high-temperature seed sintering has been realized by developing the low-temperature Ag-seeded hydrothermal ZnO nanowire growth. The nanoporous Ag layer favorable for ZnO crystal nucleation and continued nanowire growth can be reduced from the Ag ion solution coating at the temperature as low as 130 °C. This tactfully enables the selective hydrothermal growth of ZnO nanowires on the Ag patterns on flexible plastics. Such an all-solution-processible low-temperature fabrication protocol may provide an essential and practical solution to develop many diverse applications including wearable and transparent electronics, sensors, and photocatalytic devices. As one example, we demonstrate that a transparent UV sensor can be devised based on the ZNW growth on the Ag micromesh electrode.

19.
Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis ; 15: 1005-1014, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32440112

RESUMO

Background: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is highly prevalent in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and is independently associated with cardiometabolic comorbidities and systemic inflammation. Although several factors are associated with NAFLD, the influence of sarcopenia on NAFLD has not been fully determined in patients with COPD. We explored whether sarcopenia is associated with NAFLD in a COPD population. Methods: Data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 2008-2011 were analyzed. The subjects were defined as having NAFLD when they had a hepatic steatosis index (HSI) score >36, which is a previously validated NAFLD prediction score. Sarcopenia_BMI (=total appendicular skeletal muscle mass [kg]/body mass index [kg/m2]), sarcopenia_BW (=total appendicular skeletal muscle mass [kg]/body weight [kg] × 100), and sarcopenia_height (= total appendicular skeletal muscle mass (kg)/height2 (m)) measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to diagnose sarcopenia. Results: NAFLD was identified in 124 (14.6%) of 850 COPD subjects using the HSI. Multivariable logistic analyses adjusted for age, sex, hypertension, diabetes mellitus (DM), forced vital capacity (FVC), and metabolic syndrome demonstrated that sarcopenia (sarcopenia_BMI, odds ratio [OR] = 1.95; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.11-3.46, p = 0.022; sarcopenia_BW, OR = 2.25; 95% CI, 1.30-3.92, p = 0.004) was associated with NAFLD in patients with COPD. The proportion of sarcopenia_BMI was higher in patients with a high fibrotic burden from NAFLD (Q3, Q4) than in subjects with a low fibrotic burden from NALFD (Q1, Q2) (54.8% vs 24.2%, p = 0.024). The proportion of sarcopenia_BW was also higher in patients with a high fibrotic burden from NAFLD than in patients with a low fibrotic burden from NAFLD (51.6% vs 30.6%, p = 0.029). Conclusion: Sarcopenia was associated with an increased risk for NAFLD in patients with COPD, independent of age, sex, lung function, and metabolic factors. Sarcopenic COPD was also associated with a high fibrotic burden in NAFLD patients. Pulmonologists should be aware of possible liver comorbidities in the sarcopenic COPD phenotype.


Assuntos
Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Sarcopenia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Músculo Esquelético/diagnóstico por imagem , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/diagnóstico por imagem , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/epidemiologia , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/patologia , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Sarcopenia/diagnóstico por imagem , Sarcopenia/epidemiologia
20.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 12(21): 23914-23922, 2020 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32369331

RESUMO

There is a growing interest in window air filters to protect indoor air quality from ultrafine particulate matter (PM) in outdoor air. The filters for this purpose must achieve high filtering efficiency without compromising the original functions of the window, such as high air permeability and visibility. Several filters meeting these requirements have been developed and demonstrate a high PM2.5 filtering efficiency. However, these filters are installed outside the window or on the window screen guard, thereby requiring high levels of ultraviolet (UV), chemical, and thermal resistance. These requirements have been overlooked so far. In this study, we examine the fabrication and performance of a polybenzimidazole-benzophenone (PBI-BP) composite nanofiber air filter that demonstrates superb UV resistance and chemical and thermal durability. Because of the UV absorbance of the BP in the nanofibers, the filter membrane is robust even under prolonged UV exposure, which is essential for filters for this purpose. The filter membrane is not damaged even after treatment in strong acids or annealing at high temperature up to 400 °C. Thus, the PBI-BP composite filter is suitable for practical application in window air filters and can be adapted to develop filters used under other harsh environments.

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