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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35000384

RESUMO

Ultraviolet to infrared broadband spectral detection capability is a technological challenge for sensing materials being developed for high-performance photodetection. In this work, we stacked 9 nm-thick tellurium oxide (TeOx) and 8 nm-thick InGaSnO (IGTO) into a heterostructure at a low temperature of 150 °C. The superior photoelectric characteristics we achieved benefit from the intrinsic optical absorption range (300-1500 nm) of the hexagonal tellurium (Te) phase in the TeOx film, and photoinduced electrons are driven effectively by band alignment at the TeOx/IGTO interface under illumination. A photosensor based on our optimized heterostructure exhibited a remarkable detectivity of 1.6 × 1013 Jones, a responsivity of 84 A/W, and a photosensitivity of 1 × 105, along with an external quantum efficiency of 222% upon illumination by blue light (450 nm). Simultaneously, modest detection properties (responsivity: ∼31 A/W, detectivity: ∼6 × 1011 Jones) for infrared irradiation at 970 nm demonstrate that this heterostructure can be employed as a broadband phototransistor. Furthermore, its low-temperature processability suggests that our proposed concept might be used to design array optoelectronic devices for wide band detection with high sensitivity, flexibility, and stability.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34977997

RESUMO

This study is to evaluate the clinical characteristics and outcomes of Enterococcus raffinosus bacteremia in adults. We analyzed the medical records of adult patients with E. raffinosus bacteremia who were diagnosed and treated between 1997 and 2020 at a tertiary care teaching hospital in Seoul, Republic of Korea. The demographic, clinical, and laboratory data were collected and assessed. A total of 49 cases of E. raffinosus bacteremia were identified. E. raffinosus accounted for 0.6% of all enterococcal bacteremia events, and the incidence was 0.02 cases per 1,000 admissions. Of the 49 cases of E. raffinosus bacteremia, 35 (71.4%) had underlying malignancy. The biliary tract was the most common source of infection (81.6%, 40/49) and polymicrobial bacteremia was found in 25 cases (51.0%). The resistance rates of E. raffinosus bacteremia cases to penicillin, ampicillin, vancomycin, and linezolid were 61.2%, 49.0%, 2.0%, and 0%, respectively. In our case series, there was one case of vanA-type vancomycin-resistant E. raffinosus. The all-cause 60-day mortality rate was 22.4% (11/49), and the E. raffinosus bacteremia-related mortality rate was 4.1% (2/49). Cases of E. raffinosus bacteremia mainly originated from biliary tract infection and had a low rate of bacteremia-related mortality.

3.
J Neurosurg ; : 1-7, 2021 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34891139

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Maximal safe ablation of target structures during magnetic resonance-guided laser interstitial thermal therapy (MRgLiTT) is critical to achieving good seizure outcome in patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE). The authors sought to determine whether intraoperative physiological variables are associated with ablation volume during MRgLiTT. METHODS: Patients with mTLE who underwent MRgLiTT at our institution from 2014 to 2019 were retrospectively analyzed. Ablation volume was determined with volumetric analysis of intraoperative postablation MR images. Physiological parameters (systolic blood pressure [SBP], diastolic blood pressure [DBP], mean arterial pressure [MAP], end-tidal carbon dioxide [ETCO2]) measured 40 minutes prior to ablation were analyzed. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed to determine independent predictors of ablation volume. RESULTS: Forty-four patients met the inclusion criteria. The median (interquartile range) ablation volume was 4.27 (2.92-5.89) cm3, and median ablation energy was 7216 (6402-8784) J. The median MAP, SBP, DBP, and ETCO2 values measured during the 40-minute period leading up to ablation were 72.8 (66.2-81.5) mm Hg, 104.4 (96.4-114.4) mm Hg, 62.4 (54.1-69.8) mm Hg, and 34.1 (32.0-36.2) mm Hg, respectively. In univariate analysis, only total laser energy (r = 0.464, p = 0.003) and 40-minute average ETCO2 (r = -0.388, p = 0.012) were significantly associated with ablation volume. In multivariate analysis, only ETCO2 ≤ 33 mm Hg (p = 0.001) was significantly associated with ablation volume. CONCLUSIONS: Total ablation energy and ETCO2, but not blood pressure, may significantly affect ablation volume in mTLE patients undergoing MRgLiTT. Mild hypocapnia was associated with increased extent of ablation. Intraoperative monitoring and modulation of ETCO2 may help improve extent of ablation, prediction of ablation volume, and potentially seizure outcome.

4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(51): e28402, 2021 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34941180

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Patients with Legionnaires disease occasionally experience initial clinical improvement but radiological progression. However, data on this issue are so far limited. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in chest radiograph findings in patients with Legionnaires disease who showed initial clinical improvement and to identify risk factors and outcomes in these patients.All patients diagnosed with Legionnaires disease at a tertiary hospital in South Korea between March 2011 and May 2020 were retrospectively enrolled. Legionnaires disease was defined as abnormal chest radiographs accompanied by a positive finding on at least one of the following tests: urinary antigen test, sputum Legionella polymerase chain reaction, and sputum Legionella culture. Clinical improvement was defined as defervescence and decreased C-reactive protein level. Clinical and radiological records were reviewed on treatment days 7 and 14 and at discharge. We describe the characteristics of patients with clinical improvement but radiological deterioration on treatment for Legionnaires disease and compared them with patients with initial clinical improvement and stable or resolving chest radiograph findings.Of 140 patients with Legionnaires disease, 33 (24%) showed initial clinical deterioration, while the remaining 107 (76%) showed initial clinical improvement on day 7. The latter 107 patients were analyzed in this study; 22 (21%) showed radiological progression despite the clinical improvement. Risk factors for these patients were a high pneumonia severity index score and the use of mechanical ventilation. Mortality did not significantly differ between those with initial clinical improvement but radiological deterioration and those with both initial clinical and radiological improvement (28% vs 12%, P = .49).About one-fifth of patients with Legionnaires disease, especially those who had a high pneumonia severity index score and underwent mechanical ventilation, showed radiological deterioration despite of clinical improvement 1 week after appropriate treatment, while outcomes were not significantly worse in these patients. Therefore, our findings support that close monitoring without modification of antibiotics use is warranted in those who have clinical improvement regardless of radiologic findings.

5.
Viruses ; 13(12)2021 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34960620

RESUMO

Significant progress has been made on the molecular biology of the severe fever with thrombopenia virus (SFTSV); however, many parts of the pathophysiological mechanisms of mortality in SFTS remain unclear. In this study, we investigated virologic and immunologic factors for fatal outcomes of patients with SFTS. We prospectively enrolled SFTS patients admitted from July 2015 to October 2020. Plasma samples were subjected to SFTSV RNA RT-PCR, multiplex microbead immunoassay for 17 cytokines, and IFA assay. A total of 44 SFTS patients were enrolled, including 37 (84.1%) survivors and 7 (15.9%) non-survivors. Non-survivors had a 2.5 times higher plasma SFTSV load than survivors at admission (p < 0.001), and the viral load in non-survivors increased progressively during hospitalization. In addition, non-survivors did not develop adequate anti-SFTSV IgG, whereas survivors exhibited anti-SFTSV IgG during hospitalization. IFN-α, IL-10, IP-10, IFN-γ, IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1, MIP-1α, and G-CSF were significantly elevated in non-survivors compared to survivors and did not revert to normal ranges during hospitalization (p < 0.05). Severe signs of inflammation such as a high plasma concentration of IFN-α, IL-10, IP-10, IFN-γ, IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1, MIP-1α, and G-CSF, poor viral control, and inadequate antibody response during the disease course were associated with mortality in SFTS patients.

6.
Infect Chemother ; 2021 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34951533

RESUMO

A 64-year old woman who underwent lung transplantation and had t-cannula contracted classic scabies from her daughter. The patient was treated with 5% permethrin 10 times and had two consecutive negative follow-up microscopic examinations. However, the patient had recurrent symptoms and diagnosed with recurrent classic scabies 22 days after the last treatment. Unchanged tie string and unapplied topical agent around the t-cannula skin lesion may be reasons for recurrence. Thus, accurate application of topical treatment and changing the tie string of the t-cannula is needed to prevent a recurrence.

7.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 10(12)2021 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34943704

RESUMO

ß-lactam-avibactam combinations have been proposed as carbapenem-sparing therapies, but little data exist on their in vitro activities in infections with high bacterial inocula. We investigated the in vitro efficacies and the inoculum effects of ceftazidime-avibactam and aztreonam-avibactam against extended-spectrum ß-lactam-resistant Enterobacterales blood isolates. A total of 228 non-repetitive extended-spectrum ß-lactam-resistant Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae blood isolates were prospectively collected in a tertiary center. In vitro susceptibilities to ceftazidime, aztreonam, meropenem, ceftazidime-avibactam, and aztreonam-avibactam were evaluated by broth microdilution method using standard and high inocula. An inoculum effect was defined as an eightfold or greater increase in MIC when tested with the high inoculum. Of the 228 isolates, 99% were susceptible to ceftazidime-avibactam and 99% had low aztreonam-avibactam MICs (≤8 mg/L). Ceftazidime-avibactam and aztreonam-avibactam exhibited good in vitro activities; MIC50/MIC90 values were 0.5/2 mg/L, 0.125/0.5 mg/L, and ≤0.03/0.25 mg/L, respectively, and aztreonam-avibactam was more active than ceftazidime-avibactam. The frequencies of the inoculum effect with ceftazidime-avibactam and aztreonam-avibactam were lower than with meropenem (14% vs. 38%, p < 0.001 and 30% vs. 38%, p = 0.03, respectively). The ß-lactam-avibactam combinations could be useful as carbapenem-sparing strategies, and aztreonam-avibactam has the better in vitro activity but is more subject to the inoculum effect than ceftazidime-avibactam.

8.
Materials (Basel) ; 14(24)2021 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34947168

RESUMO

This study investigated the air aging converter (Basic Oxygen Furnace, BOF) slag aggregate mortar with pulverized fly ash (PFA) and ferronickel slag (FNS). The chemical composition and mineralogical constituents of BOF incorporated mortar were analyzed. Setting time, flowability, compressive strength, and length change were measured to evaluate the fundamental properties of BOF mortar. The X-ray CT analysis was employed to observe the effect of converter slag in the cement matrix visually. The results showed that the hydration of BOF generated a pore at the vicinity of the aggregate, which decreased the compressive strength and increased the length change of mortar. However, the PFA or FNS incorporation of PFA or FNS can decrease the alkalinity of pore solution and subsequently reduce the reactivity of BOF aggregate. Thus, the incorporation of PFA and FNS can be a way to eliminate the disadvantage of BOF, such as volume expansion.

9.
Viruses ; 13(11)2021 10 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34834940

RESUMO

We conducted a prospective cohort study at a community facility designated for the isolation of individuals with asymptomatic or mild COVID-19 between 10 January and 22 February 2021 to investigate the relationship of viral shedding with symptom changes of COVID-19. In total, 89 COVID-19 adult patients (12 asymptomatic, 16 presymptomatic, 61 symptomatic) were enrolled. Symptom scores, the genomic RNA and subgenomic RNA of SARS-CoV-2 from saliva samples with a cell culture were measured. Asymptomatic COVID-19 patients had a similar viral load to symptomatic patients during the early course of the disease, but exhibited a rapid decrease in viral load with the loss of infectivity. Subgenomic RNA and viable virus by cell culture in asymptomatic patients were detected only until 3 days after diagnosis, and the positivity of the subgenomic RNA and cell culture in symptomatic patients gradually decreased in both from 40% in the early disease course to 13% at 10 days and 4% at 8 days after the symptom onset, respectively. In conclusion, symptomatic patients have a high infectivity with high symptom scores during the early disease course and gradually lose infectivity depending on the symptom. Conversely, asymptomatic patients exhibit a rapid decrease in viral load with the loss of infectivity, despite a similar viral load during the early disease course.

10.
Ann Med ; 53(1): 2256-2265, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34809520

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Q fever endocarditis is a major cause of culture-negative endocarditis. The role of Coxellia burnetii is underestimated because it is difficult to diagnose. We investigated the significance of C. burnetii as the cause of culture-negative endocarditis and vascular infection by examining blood and tissue specimens using serological testing and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). METHODS: All patients with infective endocarditis or large vessel vasculitis were prospectively enrolled at a tertiary-care hospital from May 2016 through September 2020. Q fever endocarditis and vascular infection were diagnosed based on: (1) positive PCR for a cardiac valve or vascular tissue, (2) positive PCR for blood or phase I immunoglobulin G (IgG) ≥ 6400, or (3) phase I IgG ≥ 800 and < 6400 with morphologic abnormality. PCR targeted C. burnetii transposase gene insertion element IS1111a. RESULTS: Of the 163 patients, 40 (25%) had culture-negative endocarditis (n = 35) or vascular infection (n = 5). Of the 40 patients, 24 (60%) were enrolled. Eight (33%) were diagnosed with Q fever endocarditis or vascular infection. Of these 8 patients, 6 had suspected acute Q fever endocarditis or vascular infection with negative phase I IgG. Six patients were not treated for C. burnetii, 4 were stable after surgery. One patient died due to surgical site infection after 5 months post-operatively and one died due to worsening underlying disease. CONCLUSIONS: Approximately one-third of patients with culture-negative endocarditis and vascular infection was diagnosed as Q fever. Q fever endocarditis and vascular infection may be underestimated in routine clinical practice in South Korea.KEY MESSAGEQ fever endocarditis and vascular infection may be underestimated in routine clinical practice, thus, try to find evidence of C. burnetti infection in suspected patients by all available diagnostic tests including PCR.

11.
Brain Stimul ; 15(1): 23-31, 2021 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34749005

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus or globus pallidus internus is used to treat the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease. The former can worsen impulsive and compulsive behaviors after controlling for the reduction of dopaminergic medications. However, the effect of pallidal DBS on such behaviors in PD patients is less clear. OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: We hypothesized that greater stimulation spread to the pallidum with prefrontal connectivity would reduce motor impulsivity. METHODS: Seven Parkinson's patients with stable globus pallidus internus DBS settings for 3 months, disease duration of 13 ± 1.3 years, and Montreal Cognitive Assessment of 26.8 ± 1.1 each had two stimulation settings defined based on reconstructions of lead placement and volume of tissue activation targeting either a dorsal or ventral position along the DBS electrode but still within the globus pallidus internus. Subjects performed a stop signal reaction time task with the DBS turned off vs. on in each of the defined stimulation settings, which was correlated with the degree of stimulation effect on pallidal subregions. RESULTS: A shorter distance between the volume of tissue activation and the right prefrontally-connected GPi correlated with less impulsivity on the stop signal reaction time task (r = 0.69, p < 0.05). Greater volume of tissue activation overlap with the non-prefrontally-connected globus pallidus internus was associated with increased impulsivity. CONCLUSION: These data can be leveraged to optimize DBS programming in PD patients with problematic impulsivity or in other disorders involving impulsive behaviors such as substance use disorders.

12.
Infect Chemother ; 53(3): 528-538, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34623781

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing Enterobacterales bacteremia is associated with significant mortality; however, no optimal antibiotic strategy is available. We aimed to evaluate the clinical outcomes according to the antibiotic regimens and identify risk factors for mortality in patients with KPC-producing K. pneumoniae and Escherichia coli bacteremia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included all adult patients with monomicrobial bacteremia (KPC-producing K. pneumoniae or E. coli) between January 2011 and March 2021 at a 2,700-bed tertiary center. RESULTS: Ninety-two patients were identified; 7 with E. coli bacteremia, and 85 with K. pneumoniae bacteremia. Thirty-day mortality was 38.0% (35/92). Non-survivors were more likely to have had nosocomial infection (88.6% vs. 63.2%, P = 0.01), high APACHE II scores (mean [interquartile range], 22.0 [14.0 - 28.0] vs. 14.0 [11.0 - 20.5], P <0.001), and septic shock (51.4% vs. 26.3%, P <0.001) and less likely to have been admitted to the surgical ward (5.7% vs. 22.8%, P = 0.04), undergone removal of eradicable foci (61.5% vs. 90.6%, P = 0.03), and received appropriate combination treatment (57.1% vs. 78.9%, P = 0.03) than survivors. No significant difference in mortality was observed according to combination regimens including colistin, aminoglycoside, and tigecycline. In multivariable analysis, high APACHE II scores (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.14; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06 - 1.23, P <0.001), and appropriate definitive treatment (aOR, 0.25; CI, 0.08 - 0.74, P = 0.01) were independent risk factors for mortality. CONCLUSION: High APACHE II scores and not receiving appropriate definitive treatment were associated with 30-day mortality. Mortality did not significantly differ according to combination regimens with conventional drugs such as aminoglycoside and colistin.

13.
J Infect Dis ; 224(11): 1861-1872, 2021 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34718664

RESUMO

Germinal centers (GCs) elicit protective humoral immunity through a combination of antibody-secreting cells and memory B cells, following pathogen invasion or vaccination. However, the possibility of a GC response inducing protective immunity against reinfection following severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection remains unknown. We found GC activity was consistent with seroconversion observed in recovered macaques and humans. Rechallenge with a different clade of virus resulted in significant reduction in replicating virus titers in respiratory tracts in macaques with high GC activity. However, diffuse alveolar damage and increased fibrotic tissue were observed in lungs of reinfected macaques. Our study highlights the importance of GCs developed during natural SARS-CoV-2 infection in managing viral loads in subsequent infections. However, their ability to alleviate lung damage remains to be determined. These results may improve understanding of SARS-CoV-2-induced immune responses, resulting in better coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) diagnosis, treatment, and vaccine development.

14.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 8(9): ofab424, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34676275

RESUMO

Background: ST72-SCCmecIV, a community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) strain in Korea, originated in the community and has been spreading in health care settings. Herein, we describe the clinical and microbiological characteristics of patients with hospital-acquired MRSA bacteremia (MRSAB) caused by community-associated strains. Methods: We analyzed hospital-acquired MRSAB cases caused by ST72-SCCmecIV using a prospective cohort of patients with SAB in a tertiary hospital in Korea from July 2008 to December 2018. We compared the clinical and microbiological characteristics of ST72-SCCmecIV with ST5-SCCmecII, a representative hospital-associated genotype strain. Results: Of the 1782 S. aureus bacteremia (SAB) cases, 628 (35.2%) were hospital-acquired MRSAB. Of the 628 isolates, 431 (68.6%) were ST5-SCCmecII and 152 (24.2%) were ST72-SCCmecIV. Patients with ST72-SCCmecIV were younger than those with ST5-SCCmecII and less likely to have a history of recent surgery, antibiotic treatment, nasal MRSA colonization, and central venous catheter placement. Compared with ST5-SCCmecII, ST72-SCCmecIV isolates were more likely to have vancomycin MICs ≤1.0 mg/L (P < .001). Osteoarticular infection as the site of infection (7.2% [11/152] vs 1.4% [6/431]) was more common in patients with ST72-SCCmecIV. There were no significant differences in the rate of recurrence (≤90 days), persistent bacteremia (≥7 days), or 30- and 90-day mortality rates between the 2 groups. Conclusions: Osteoarticular infections were more prevalent in ST72-SCCmecIV MRSAB. Mortality rates between the ST72-SCCmecIV and ST5-SCCmecII groups were not significantly different.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34590681

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The optimal duration of antimicrobial therapy for uncomplicated Pseudomonas aeruginosa bloodstream infection (BSI) is unknown. We compared the outcomes of short and prolonged courses of antimicrobial therapy in adults with uncomplicated pseudomonal BSI. METHODS: All patients with uncomplicated P. aeruginosa BSI admitted at a tertiary-care hospital from April 2010 to April 2020 were included. We compared the primary outcome (a composite of the rate of recurrent P. aeruginosa infection and mortality within 30 days after discontinuing antimicrobial therapy) among patients who underwent short (7‒11 days) and prolonged (12‒21 days) courses of antimicrobial therapy using propensity score analysis with the inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) method. RESULTS: We evaluated 1477 patients with P. aeruginosa BSI; of them, 290 met the eligibility criteria who received antimicrobial agents with in vitro activity, including 97 (33%) who underwent short-course therapy [median of 9 (IQR = 8‒11) days] and 193 (67%) who underwent prolonged-course therapy [median of 15 (IQR = 14‒18) days]. We found no significant difference in the risk of recurrence or 30 day mortality between the prolonged-course and short-course groups [n = 30 (16%) versus n = 11 (11%); IPTW-adjusted HR = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.34 - 1.36, P = 0.28]. The prolonged-course therapy did not significantly reduce the risk of the recurrence of P. aeruginosa infection within 180 days compared with short-course therapy [n = 37 (19%) versus n = 12 (12%); IPTW-adjusted HR = 0.57, 95% CI = 0.29 - 1.10, P = 0.09]. CONCLUSIONS: Short-course antimicrobial therapy could be as effective as prolonged-course therapy for uncomplicated P. aeruginosa BSI.

16.
J Immunother Cancer ; 9(9)2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34521732

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While some recent studies have reported the development of tuberculosis (TB) in patients exposed to immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), there is limited evidence to date. Therefore, we evaluated the risk of TB in patients with cancer exposed to ICIs using the National Health Insurance claims data in South Korea. METHODS: Patients with diagnostic codes for non-small cell lung cancer, urothelial carcinoma or melanoma between August 2017 and June 2019 were identified. The incidence rate and standardized incidence ratio (SIR) of TB were calculated for both the ICI exposure and non-exposure groups. The risk of TB according to ICI exposure was assessed using a multivariable Cox regression model. RESULTS: During the study period, 141 550 patients with cancer and 916 new TB cases were identified. Among the 5037 patients exposed to ICIs, 20 were diagnosed with TB at a median of 2.2 months after the ICI was initiated. The crude incidence rate of TB per 100,000 person-years was 675.8 (95% CI 412.8 to 1043.8) for the ICI exposure group and 599.1 (95% CI 560.5 to 639.6) for the non-exposure group. The SIR for TB was 8.1 (95% CI 8.0 to 8.2) in the ICI exposure group. After adjusting for potential confounding factors, ICI treatment was not significantly associated with an increased risk of TB (HR: 0.73; 95% CI 0.47 to 1.14). CONCLUSIONS: While the incidence of TB in cancer patients exposed to ICIs was eightfold higher than in the general population, the risk of patients with cancer developing TB did not significantly differ according to ICI exposure.

17.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 15677, 2021 08 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34344954

RESUMO

Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has emerged as an important cause of infection. We conducted a longitudinal study to evaluate changes in clinical and microbiological characteristics as well as outcomes of sequence type (ST) 72 MRSA bacteremia. We reviewed adult patients enrolled in a prospective cohort with ST72 MRSA bacteremia from August 2008 to December 2018 at Asan Medical Center, Seoul, South Korea. Changes in clinical characteristics, outcomes, and microbiological characteristics of patients over time were evaluated. Generalized linear and linear regression models were used to evaluate changes. Of the 1,760 isolates, 915 (62%) were MRSA bacteremia and 292 (31.9%) were ST72 MRSA. During the study period, the relative risk (RR) of MRSA bacteremia decreased annually by 3.7%; however, among MRSA bacteremia, RR of ST72 MRSA increased annually by 8.5%. Vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) decreased over the study period. Metastatic infection, persistent bacteremia, and recurrence of bacteremia within 12 weeks decreased significantly. There were no significant changes in 30-d and 12-week mortality. Antibiotic susceptibility of ST72 MRSA was evaluated, and the resistance rate to erythromycin decreased significantly. ST72 MRSA incidence increased annually; its vancomycin MIC and erythromycin resistance rate decreased over the 11 years.


Assuntos
Bacteriemia/microbiologia , Toxinas Bacterianas , Exotoxinas , Leucocidinas , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Idoso , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Toxinas Bacterianas/genética , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/epidemiologia , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/microbiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Exotoxinas/genética , Feminino , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Leucocidinas/genética , Masculino , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/classificação , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/genética , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/história
18.
Am J Transplant ; 2021 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34383368

RESUMO

Following curative liver resection (LR), resectable tumor recurrence in patients with preserved liver function leads to deciding between a repeat LR and a salvage liver transplantation (LT), if a donor's liver is available. This retrospective study compared survival outcomes and recurrence pattern following salvage living donor LT (LDLT) and repeat LR in patients with recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We reviewed the medical records of patients who underwent repeat LR (n = 163) or LDLT (n = 84) for recurrent HCC following curative resections, between January 2005 and December 2017 at a single institution. A 1:1 propensity score matching led to 42 patients per group. Disease-specific and recurrence-free survival were significantly better in the salvage LDLT group than in the repeat LR group (p = .042; HR = 2.40; 95% CI, 0.69-6.00 and p < .001; HR = 4.23; 95% CI, 2.05-8.71, respectively). Despite significant differences in recurrence patterns between the two groups (p = .019), the patient death rates, after recurrence, were similar for both groups (p = .760). This study indicates that salvage LDLT is superior to repeat LR for treating patients with transplantable, intrahepatic HCC recurrence, even in patients with Child-Pugh class A liver cirrhosis.

19.
Infect Dis (Lond) ; : 1-7, 2021 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34405761

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is difficult to diagnose tuberculosis (TB), particularly sputum-scarce pulmonary TB and extrapulmonary TB, using conventional diagnostic tests. Since these cases require additional invasive procedures to obtain appropriate specimens, new non-invasive diagnostic tests are needed. Plasma cell-free DNA (cfDNA) detection has gained interest as a novel diagnostic test for TB as it is convenient and less invasive. Therefore, we investigated the performance of enriched cfDNA for diagnosing pulmonary TB and extrapulmonary TB. METHODS: All patients suspected to have TB, who consented to the use of blood for detecting cfDNA, were prospectively enrolled from January 2019 to June 2020. We categorised the patients as confirmed, probable, possible TB, and not-TB. We compared the performance of cfDNA with those of conventional diagnostic tests. RESULTS: Among the 96 patients enrolled, 40 (41.7%) had TB, including 34 with confirmed TB and six probable TB, and 41 (42.7%) did not have TB. Acid-fast bacilli microscopy, Xpert MTB/RIF, and mycobacterial culture results were positive in 12 (31.6%), 22 (61.1%), and 25 (65.8%) patients, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of cfDNA were 80.0% and 78.1%, respectively. While the sensitivity and specificity of cfDNA were similar to those of interferon-gamma releasing assay (IGRA) (sensitivity 80.6% and specificity 71.4%), the combined sensitivity and specificity of the two assays were 94.4% and 64.3%, respectively, which can be used to rule out TB. CONCLUSIONS: Plasma cfDNA assay seems to be a useful adjunct to the current tests for diagnosing TB, especially when used in combination with IGRA for ruling out TB.AbbreviationsTBtuberculosiscfDNAcell-free DNAPCRpolymerase chain reactionAFBacid-fast bacilliIGRAinterferon-gamma releasing assayCTcomputed tomographyHIVhuman immunodeficiency virus.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34400343

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The development of a rapid diagnostic test for viable SARS-CoV-2 is important for infection control. Real-time RT-PCR assays detect non-viable virus, and cell culture differentiates viable virus but it takes several weeks and is labour-intensive. Subgenomic RNAs may reflect replication-competent virus. We therefore evaluated the usefulness of subgenomic RNAs for diagnosing viable SARS-CoV-2 in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: Patients with various severities of confirmed COVID-19 were enrolled at a tertiary hospital between February and December 2020. RT-PCR assay results for genomic and subgenomic RNA of SARS-CoV-2 from nasopharyngeal swab, sputum and saliva specimens were compared with cell culture results. RESULTS: A total 189 specimens from 20 COVID-19 patients were tested in genomic and subgenomic PCR assays and cultured on Vero cells. Of these 189 samples, 62 (33%) gave positive culture results, 93 (49%) negative results and the remaining 34 (18%) indeterminate results. Compared with cell culture results, the sensitivities of genomic RNA and subgenomic RNA of the N and S genes were comparable at 100%, but the specificity of subgenomic RNA (N, 65% and S, 68%) was higher than that of genomic RNA (N, 23% and S, 17%, p < 0.001). The mean durations of positive culture and subgenomic RNA were 11.39 ± 10.34 and 13.75 ± 11.22 days after symptom onset (p 0.437), respectively, while that of genomic RNA was 22.85 ± 11.83 days after symptom onset (p < 0.001). DISCUSSION: Our comparison of subgenomic RNA detection with symptom duration and SARS-CoV-2 culture positivity provides a significant advancement on the transmissibility-based approach beyond the detection of SARS-CoV-2 genomic RNA, and warrants further studies on the development of better diagnostic strategy.

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