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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(19)2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34638817

RESUMO

Local radiotherapy (RT) is important to manage metastatic triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Although RT primarily reduces cancer cells locally, this control can be enhanced by triggering the immune system via immunotherapy. RT and immunotherapy may lead to an improved systemic effect, known as the abscopal effect. Here, we analyzed the antitumor effect of combination therapy using RT with an anti-programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) antibody in primary tumors, using poorly immunogenic metastatic mouse mammary carcinoma 4T1 model. Mice were injected subcutaneously into both flanks with 4T1 cells, and treatment was initiated 12 days later. Mice were randomly assigned to three treatment groups: (1) control (no treatment with RT or immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI)), (2) RT alone, and (3) RT+ICI. The same RT dose was prescribed in both RT-alone and RT+ICI groups as 10Gy/fx in two fractions and delivered to only one of the two tumor burdens injected at both sides of flanks. In the RT+ICI group, 200 µg fixed dose of PD-1 antibody was intraperitoneally administered concurrently with RT. The RT and ICI combination markedly reduced tumor cell growth not only in the irradiated site but also in non-irradiated sites, a typical characteristic of the abscopal effect. This was observed only in radiation-sensitive cancer cells. Lung metastasis development was lower in RT-irradiated groups (RT-only and RT+ICI groups) than in the non-irradiated group, regardless of the radiation sensitivity of tumor cells. However, there was no additive effect of ICI on RT to control lung metastasis, as was already known regarding the abscopal effect. The combination of local RT with anti-PD-1 blockade could be a promising treatment strategy against metastatic TNBC. Further research is required to integrate our results into a clinical setting.

2.
Opt Lett ; 46(20): 5079-5082, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34653119

RESUMO

We propose and implement a high-quality three-dimensional (3D) display system for an integral imaging microscope using a simplified direction-inversed computation method based on user interaction. A model of the specimen is generated from the estimated depth information (via the convolutional neural network-based algorithm), the quality of the model is defined by the high-resolution two-dimensional image. The new elemental image arrays are generated from the models via a simplified direction-inversed computation method according to the user interaction and directly displayed on the display device. A high-quality 3D visualization of the specimen is reconstructed and displayed while the lens array is placed in front of the display device. The user interaction enables more viewpoints of the specimen to be reconstructed by the proposed system, within the basic viewing zone. Remarkable quality improvement is confirmed through quantitative evaluations of the experimental results.

3.
Anticancer Res ; 41(10): 4807-4820, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34593430

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: LY2835219 (LY), a novel CDK4/6 inhibitor, prevents cell proliferation through G1 arrest. Docetaxel (DTX) and paclitaxel (PTX) are cytotoxic drugs targeting tubulin-mediated apoptotic cell death via G2/M arrest. We evaluated the antitumor effects of DTX/PTX and LY individually and in combination in lung adenocarcinoma cells with or without KRAS mutations and xenograft mice harboring KRAS mutations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We investigated in vitro/in vivo changes in signaling molecules and analyzed cell proliferation, cycle, and apoptosis via flow cytometry and western blotting. RESULTS: LY cytotoxicity was dose-dependent and varied with KRAS mutation status. DTX→LY showed synergistic cytotoxicity regardless of KRAS mutation. Furthermore, the synergistic effect of PTX→LY was significantly greater than that of PTX+LY. DTX→LY remarkably reduced the number of G0/G1 cells and increased the number of G2/M arrested cells, resulting in an increase in apoptosis and subG1 cells. CONCLUSION: DTX→LY has synergistic antitumor effect in lung cancer cells and xenograft mice regardless of KRAS mutation.


Assuntos
Quinase 4 Dependente de Ciclina/antagonistas & inibidores , Quinase 6 Dependente de Ciclina/antagonistas & inibidores , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/genética , Taxoides/farmacologia , Aminopiridinas/farmacologia , Aminopiridinas/uso terapêutico , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Benzimidazóis/farmacologia , Benzimidazóis/uso terapêutico , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Camundongos , Mutação , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Taxoides/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(31): e26823, 2021 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34397844

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Low specificity and operator dependency are the main problems of breast ultrasound (US) screening. We investigated the added value of deep learning-based computer-aided diagnosis (S-Detect) and shear wave elastography (SWE) to B-mode US for evaluation of breast masses detected by screening US.Between February 2018 and June 2019, B-mode US, S-Detect, and SWE were prospectively obtained for 156 screening US-detected breast masses in 146 women before undergoing US-guided biopsy. S-Detect was applied for the representative B-mode US image, and quantitative elasticity was measured for SWE. Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System final assessment category was assigned for the datasets of B-mode US alone, B-mode US plus S-Detect, and B-mode US plus SWE by 3 radiologists with varied experience in breast imaging. Area under the receiver operator characteristics curve (AUC), sensitivity, and specificity for the 3 datasets were compared using Delong's method and McNemar test.Of 156 masses, 10 (6%) were malignant and 146 (94%) were benign. Compared to B-mode US alone, the addition of S-Detect increased the specificity from 8%-9% to 31%-71% and the AUC from 0.541-0.545 to 0.658-0.803 in all radiologists (All P < .001). The addition of SWE to B-mode US also increased the specificity from 8%-9% to 41%-75% and the AUC from 0.541-0.545 to 0.709-0.823 in all radiologists (All P < .001). There was no significant loss in sensitivity when either S-Detect or SWE were added to B-mode US.Adding S-Detect or SWE to B-mode US improved the specificity and AUC without loss of sensitivity.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Mama , Aprendizado Profundo , Diagnóstico por Computador/métodos , Técnicas de Imagem por Elasticidade/métodos , Ultrassonografia Mamária/métodos , Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Mama/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
5.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 49(17): 9783-9798, 2021 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34450641

RESUMO

The activity of hematopoietic factor GATA-1 is modulated through p300/CBP-mediated acetylation and FOG-1 mediated indirect interaction with HDAC1/2 containing NuRD complex. Although GATA-1 acetylation is implicated in GATA-1 activation, the role of deacetylation is not studied. Here, we found that the FOG-1/NuRD does not deacetylate GATA-1. However, HDAC1/2 can directly bind and deacetylate GATA-1. Two arginine residues within the GATA-1 linker region mediates direct interaction with HDAC1. The arginine to alanine mutation (2RA) blocks GATA-1 deacetylation and fails to induce erythroid differentiation. Gene expression profiling and ChIP-seq analysis further demonstrate the importance of GATA-1 deacetylation for gene activation and chromatin recruitment. GATA-12RA knock-in (KI) mice suffer mild anemia and thrombocytopenia with accumulation of immature erythrocytes and megakaryocytes in bone marrow and spleen. Single cell RNA-seq analysis of Lin- cKit+ (LK) cells further reveal a profound change in cell subpopulations and signature gene expression patterns in HSC, myeloid progenitors, and erythroid/megakaryocyte clusters in KI mice. Thus, GATA-1 deacetylation and its interaction with HDAC1 modulates GATA-1 chromatin binding and transcriptional activity that control erythroid/megakaryocyte commitment and differentiation.

6.
Int J Infect Dis ; 110: 29-35, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34245886

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We investigated whether non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) reduce winter-prevalent respiratory viral infections represented by a respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and influenza virus (IFV) during the winter in Korea. METHODS: The Korean Influenza and Respiratory Virus Monitoring System database was used. From January 2016 through January 2021, the weekly positivity of respiratory viruses and the weekly number of hospitalizations with acute respiratory infections were collected. The NPI period was defined as February 2020-January 2021. We analyzed whether hospitalization and sample positivity by respiratory viruses changed after NPIs. Bayesian structural time-series models and Poisson analyses were used. Data from other countries/regions reporting positive rates of RSV and IFV were also investigated. RESULTS: Compared with the pre-NPI period, the positive rates of RSV and IFV decreased significantly to 19% and 6%, and 23% and 6% of the predicted value. Also, hospitalization significantly decreased to 9% and 8%, and 10% and 5% of the predicted value. The positive rates of IFV in 14 countries during the NPI period were almost 0, whereas sporadic outbreaks of RSV occurred in some countries. CONCLUSIONS: No RSV and IFV winter epidemics were observed during the 2020-2021 season in Korea.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Epidemias , Influenza Humana , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial , Vírus Sincicial Respiratório Humano , Infecções Respiratórias , Teorema de Bayes , Hospitalização , Humanos , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Estações do Ano
7.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(7): e2113757, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34259850

RESUMO

Importance: The incidence rate of neck pain is increasing worldwide, and the disease is associated with a high social burden. Manual therapy has been widely applied in the treatment of neck pain, but a high-quality, pragmatic randomized clinical trial for this treatment has not been conducted to date. Objective: This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of Chuna manual therapy with that of usual care for patients with chronic neck pain. Design, Setting, and Participants: A multicenter, assessor-blinded, pragmatic, randomized clinical trial was conducted between October 18, 2017, and June 28, 2019. This intention-to-treat analysis included 108 patients with chronic neck pain persisting for at least 3 months; patients were recruited from 5 hospitals in Korea. Interventions: Ten sessions (2 sessions per week for 5 weeks) of Chuna manual therapy or usual care (electrotherapy and oral medication) were conducted. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcome was the difference in visual analog scale (VAS) score for chronic neck pain between baseline and 5 weeks after randomization. Results: This randomized clinical trial recruited 108 patients (mean [SD] age, 38.4 [9.3] years; 73 women [67.6%]). Fifty-four patients were allocated to the Chuna therapy group, and 54 received usual care. At 5 weeks after randomization, manual therapy showed statistically superior results compared with usual care in terms of pain (difference in chronic neck pain VAS, 16.8 mm; 95% CI, 10.1-23.5 mm), function (difference in Neck Disability Index, 8.6%; 95% CI, 4.2%-13.1%), and quality of life (difference in the European Quality of Life-5 Dimension 5 Levels (EQ-5D-5L) scores, -0.07 points; 95% CI, -0.11 to -0.02 points). Regarding the 1-year cumulative values measured using area under the curve analyses, superior outcomes were attained in the manual therapy group in terms of the numerical rating scale for chronic neck pain (1.3 points; 95% CI, 0.5-2.0 points), Neck Disability Index (6.7%; 95% CI, 2.5%-10.9%), Neck Pain Questionnaire (7.4%; 95% CI, 2.3%-12.6%), and EQ-5D-5L scores (-0.03 points; -0.07 to 0.00 points). Conclusions and Relevance: In this randomized clinical trial, for patients with chronic neck pain, Chuna manual therapy was more effective than usual care in terms of pain and functional recovery at 5 weeks and 1 year after randomization. These results support the need to consider recommending manual therapies as primary care treatments for chronic neck pain. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT03294785.

8.
Exp Mol Med ; 53(7): 1192-1204, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34316018

RESUMO

Loss-of-function variant in the gene encoding the KCNQ4 potassium channel causes autosomal dominant nonsyndromic hearing loss (DFNA2), and no effective pharmacotherapeutics have been developed to reverse channel activity impairment. Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2), an obligatory phospholipid for maintaining KCNQ channel activity, confers differential pharmacological sensitivity of channels to KCNQ openers. Through whole-exome sequencing of DFNA2 families, we identified three novel KCNQ4 variants related to diverse auditory phenotypes in the proximal C-terminus (p.Arg331Gln), the C-terminus of the S6 segment (p.Gly319Asp), and the pore region (p.Ala271_Asp272del). Potassium currents in HEK293T cells expressing each KCNQ4 variant were recorded by patch-clamp, and functional recovery by PIP2 expression or KCNQ openers was examined. In the homomeric expression setting, the three novel KCNQ4 mutant proteins lost conductance and were unresponsive to KCNQ openers or PIP2 expression. Loss of p.Arg331Gln conductance was slightly restored by a tandem concatemer channel (WT-p.R331Q), and increased PIP2 expression further increased the concatemer current to the level of the WT channel. Strikingly, an impaired homomeric p.Gly319Asp channel exhibited hyperactivity when a concatemer (WT-p.G319D), with a negative shift in the voltage dependence of activation. Correspondingly, a KCNQ inhibitor and chelation of PIP2 effectively downregulated the hyperactive WT-p.G319D concatemer channel. Conversely, the pore-region variant (p.Ala271_Asp272del) was nonrescuable under any condition. Collectively, these novel KCNQ4 variants may constitute therapeutic targets that can be manipulated by the PIP2 level and KCNQ-regulating drugs under the physiological context of heterozygous expression. Our research contributes to the establishment of a genotype/mechanism-based therapeutic portfolio for DFNA2.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34204455

RESUMO

The mental health of nurses participating in patient care is under threat amid the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. This study aimed to identify the mental health status (depression, anxiety, and stress) and its influencing factors on nurses who provided patient care at a specialized hospital for COVID-19 in South Korea. Of the 180 nurses who participated in this study, 30.6% had moderate or higher levels of depression, 41% had moderate or higher anxiety levels, and 19.4% had moderate or higher stress levels. In this study, stigma influenced nurses' mental health, such that the higher the stigma, the higher the nurses' depression, anxiety, and stress. Depression was higher in female nurses than in male nurses, and stress was higher in charge nurses than nurses in other job positions. Therefore, a management program should be designed to improve the mental health of nurses during the current pandemic. In particular, a solution to reduce stigma is required, and the mental health of female nurses and nurses in leadership roles requires special attention.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Hospitais , Humanos , Masculino , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(22)2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34050020

RESUMO

Genes that are primarily expressed in cochlear glia-like supporting cells (GLSs) have not been clearly associated with progressive deafness. Herein, we present a deafness locus mapped to chromosome 3p25.1 and an auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder (ANSD) gene, TMEM43, mainly expressed in GLSs. We identify p.(Arg372Ter) of TMEM43 by linkage analysis and exome sequencing in two large Asian families segregating ANSD, which is characterized by inability to discriminate speech despite preserved sensitivity to sound. The knock-in mouse with the p.(Arg372Ter) variant recapitulates a progressive hearing loss with histological abnormalities in GLSs. Mechanistically, TMEM43 interacts with the Connexin26 and Connexin30 gap junction channels, disrupting the passive conductance current in GLSs in a dominant-negative fashion when the p.(Arg372Ter) variant is introduced. Based on these mechanistic insights, cochlear implant was performed on three subjects, and speech discrimination was successfully restored. Our study highlights a pathological role of cochlear GLSs by identifying a deafness gene and its causal relationship with ANSD.

12.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 651222, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33935762

RESUMO

Remarkable advances have been made in the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR) over the past decades, leading to improved graft outcomes. However, long-term failure is still high and effective treatment for chronic ABMR, an important cause of graft failure, has not yet been identified. Chronic ABMR has a relatively different phenotype from active ABMR and is a slowly progressive disease in which graft injury is mainly caused by de novo donor specific antibodies (DSA). Since most trials of current immunosuppressive therapies for rejection have focused on active ABMR, treatment strategies based on those data might be less effective in chronic ABMR. A better understanding of chronic ABMR may serve as a bridge in establishing treatment strategies to improve graft outcomes. In this in-depth review, we focus on the pathophysiology and characteristics of chronic ABMR along with the newly revised Banff criteria in 2017. In addition, in terms of chronic ABMR, we identify the reasons for the resistance of current immunosuppressive therapies and look at ongoing research that could play a role in setting better treatment strategies in the future. Finally, we review non-invasive biomarkers as tools to monitor for rejection.

13.
Ear Hear ; 42(3): 644-653, 2021 01 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33928925

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Understanding the characteristics of residual hearing at low frequencies and its natural course in relation to molecular genetic etiology may be important in developing rehabilitation strategies. Thus, we aimed to explore the characteristics and natural course of residual hearing at low frequencies associated with the two most frequent deafness genes: GJB2 and SLC26A4. METHODS: Initially, 53 GJB2 and 65 SLC26A4 subjects were enrolled, respectively. Only those whose audiograms exhibited hearing thresholds ≤70 dB at 250 and 500 Hz, and who had at least 1-year follow-up period between the first and last audiograms, were included. Collectively, the clinical characteristics of 14 ears from eight subjects with GJB2 variants, and 31 ears from 22 subjects with SLC26A4 variants fulfilled the strict criteria. In this study, a dropout rate refers to an incidence of dropping out of the cohort by cochlear implant surgery due to severe hearing deterioration. RESULTS: Among the ears with complete serial audiogram data set, significant residual hearing at low frequencies at the time of inclusion was observed in 18.8% of those with GJB2 variants (15 out of 80 ears) and 42.6% of those with SLC26A4 variants (46 out of 108 ears), revealing a difference between two deafness genes. Subsequently, ears with SLC26A4 variants (11 of 46 ears, 23.9%) turned out to have a higher dropout rate for cochlear implantation due to hearing deterioration within the first year than those with GJB2 variants (1 of 15, 6.7%), albeit with no statistical significance. Throughout the follow-up period (mean: 37.2 ± 6.8, range: 12 to 80 months), deterioration of residual hearing at low frequencies at 250 Hz (dB HL/y) and 500 Hz (dB HL/y) of those with GJB2 variants exhibited 3.1 ± 1.3 (range: 0 to 15) and 5.2 ± 1.6 (range: 0 to 20), respectively, suggesting the deterioration of residual hearing in GJB2 variants was rather slow and gradual. Specifically, GJB2 p.Leu79Cysfs*3 show less remarkable residual hearing at low frequencies, but then a relatively stable nature. In contrast, SLC26A4 variants demonstrated a significantly higher dropout rate due to severe hearing deterioration requiring cochlear implantation compared with the GJB2 variants. This trend was observed not only in the first-year follow-up period but also in the follow-up periods thereafter. The p.His723Arg;c.919-2A>G genotype of SLC26A4, in particular, was associated with a high propensity for sudden hearing deterioration, as indicated by the dropout rate, which was as high as 46.2% for cochlear implantation due to hearing deterioration during the first year follow-up period. Furthermore, the dropout rate for cochlear implantation was observed in 7.1% of those with GJB2 variants (one out of 14 ears) and 30.3% of those with SLC26A4 variants (10 out of 33 ears) throughout the entire follow-up period. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that there is a difference with respect to the progressive nature of residual hearing at low frequencies between the two most common genes responsible for hearing loss, which may provide clinical implications of having individualized rehabilitation and timely intervention.


Assuntos
Implante Coclear , Conexina 26/genética , Surdez , Transportadores de Sulfato , Implantes Cocleares , Surdez/genética , Genótipo , Audição , Humanos , Mutação , Transportadores de Sulfato/genética
14.
J Med Genet ; 2021 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33753533

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Down-sloping sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) in people in their teens and 20s hampers efficient learning and communication and in-depth social interactions. Nonetheless, its aetiology remains largely unclear, with the exception of some potential causative genes, none of which stands out especially in people in their teens and 20s. Here, we examined the role and genotype-phenotype correlation of lipoxygenase homology domain 1 (LOXHD1) in down-sloping SNHL through a cohort study. METHODS: Based on the Seoul National University Bundang Hospital (SNUBH) genetic deafness cohort, in which the patients show varying degrees of deafness and different onset ages (n=1055), we have established the 'SNUBH Teenager-Young Adult Down-sloping SNHL' cohort (10-35 years old) (n=47), all of whom underwent exome sequencing. Three-dimensional molecular modelling, minigene splicing assay and short tandem repeat marker genotyping were performed, and medical records were reviewed. RESULTS: LOXHD1 accounted for 33.3% of all genetically diagnosed cases of down-sloping SNHL (n=18) and 12.8% of cases in the whole down-sloping SNHL cohort (n=47) of young adults. We identified a potential common founder allele, as well as an interesting genotype-phenotype correlation. We also showed that transcript 6 is necessary and probably sufficient for normal hearing. CONCLUSIONS: LOXHD1 exceeds other genes in its contribution to down-sloping SNHL in young adults, rising as a signature causative gene, and shows a potential but interesting genotype-phenotype correlation.

15.
Food Sci Nutr ; 9(2): 973-984, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33598180

RESUMO

This study was performed to investigate the distribution of phenolic compounds in the peanut skins of various cultivars, as well as their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effect (Arachishypogaea L. cv. K-Ol, cv. Sinpalkwang, cv. Daan, cv. Heuksaeng) and extraction solvent. The major components of red peanut cultivars (K-Ol, Sinpalkwang, and Daan) were identified as proanthocyanidin, catechin, gallic acid, coumaric acid, and hesperidine, whereas the major components of black peanut cultivar (Heuksaeng) were identified as anthocyanin, ferulic acid, and quercetin. The DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities, and FRAP values were the highest in Daan followed by Sinpalkwng, K-Ol, and Heuksang. Furthermore, the skin extracts of red peanuts effectively improved cell viability, reactive oxygen species generation, MDA concentration, and antioxidant enzyme activity (GR, GPx, CAT, and superoxide dismutase) in oxidative stress-induced HepG2 cells, and reduced the expression of pro-inflammatory factors (NO, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1ß) in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. These results suggest that red peanut skin extracts could effectively mediate physiological activity and provide valuable information for the use of peanut byproducts as functional food materials.

16.
J Dairy Sci ; 104(4): 3876-3887, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33612219

RESUMO

Biotransformation, the structural modification of chemical compounds, has proved to be an indispensable tool in providing beneficial health effects. Although the health benefits of biotransformation using plant sources has been widely studied, the anti-adipogenic effect of biotransformed dairy products, such as whey, have not yet been demonstrated. Here, we investigated the anti-adipogenic effect of whey biotransformed by Weissella cibaria in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Weissella cibaria-biotransformed whey considerably reduced the accumulation of lipid droplets and intracellular triglycerides in 3T3-L1 cells. In the presence of W. cibaria-biotransformed whey, the mRNA and protein expression of a key transcription factor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), for adipogenesis was markedly suppressed in 3T3-L1 cells. Additionally, W. cibaria-biotransformed whey also decreased the mRNA and protein expressions of lipoprotein lipase and adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein, which are regulated by PPARγ. Moreover, W. cibaria-biotransformed whey inhibited the expression of adipokines, resistin, and leptin. Collectively, these results suggest that whey biotransformed by W. cibaria has the potential to exert anti-adipogenic effects by inhibiting intracellular signaling events of adipogenic-related transcription factors and target genes.


Assuntos
Adipogenia , Soro do Leite , Células 3T3-L1 , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Animais , Biotransformação , Diferenciação Celular , Camundongos , PPAR gama/genética , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Weissella , Soro do Leite/metabolismo
17.
Molecules ; 26(4)2021 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33567750

RESUMO

Rhus verniciflua Stokes (RVS) has been traditionally used as an herbal remedy to support the digestive functions in traditional Korean medicine. Additionally, the pharmacological effects of RVS, including antioxidative, antimicrobial and anticancer activities, have been well-reported. The genotoxicity of RVS, however, is elusive; thus, we evaluated the genotoxicity of RVS without bark (RVX) for safe application as a resource of functional food or a medical drug. To evaluate the genotoxicity of RVX, we used a bacterial reverse mutation test, chromosomal aberration test and comet assay, according to the "Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development" (OECD) guidelines. Briefly, for the reverse mutation test, samples (5000, 1667, 556, 185, 62 and 0 µg/plate of RVX or the positive control) were treated with a precultured strain (TA98, TA100, TA1535, TA1537 or WP2µvrA) with or without the S9 mix, in which RVX partially induced a reverse mutation in four bacterial strains. From the chromosomal aberration test and comet assay, the RVX samples (556, 185, 62, 20 and 0 µg/mL of RVX or the positive control) were treated in a Chinese hamster ovary cell line (CHO-K1 cells) in the conditions of the S9 mix absent or S9 mix present and in Chang liver cells and C2C12 myoblasts, respectively. No chromosomal aberrations in CHO-K1 or DNA damage in Chang liver cells and C2C12 myoblasts was observed. In conclusion, our results suggest the non-genotoxicity of RVX, which would be helpful as a reference for the safe application of bark-removed Rhus verniciflua Stokes as functional raw materials in the food, cosmetics or pharmaceutical fields.


Assuntos
Casca de Planta/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Rhus/química , Água/química , Animais , Células CHO , Cricetulus , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Camundongos , Testes de Mutagenicidade , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade
18.
Diabetes Technol Ther ; 23(6): 434-442, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33523771

RESUMO

Background: Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM)-derived metrics, including time in range (TIR), are attracting attention as new indicators, beyond hemoglobin A1c, of glycemic control and diabetes complications. This study investigated the associations between CGM-derived TIR, hyperglycemia, and hypoglycemia metrics and cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN) in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods: A total of 284 patients with type 2 diabetes who underwent CGM using GOLD™ (Medtronic MiniMed) for 3 days or iPro™2 (Medtronic MiniMed) for 6 days and autonomic function tests within 3 months based on outpatient data were recruited. The definition of CGM-derived metrics was subject to the most recent international consensus. CAN was defined as an abnormal result in two or more parasympathetic test, and the severity of CAN was estimated as the sum of the scores of the five cardiovascular autonomic function tests. Results: A total of 84 patients (29.6%) were diagnosed with CAN, and the mean TIR was 57.0% ± 7.0%. A multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that the odds ratio (OR) of presence of CAN was 0.876 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.79-0.98] per 10% increase in the TIR 70-180 mg/dL, after adjusting for age, sex, diabetes duration, any medications, and glycemic variability. A 10% increase in the TIR was significantly inversely associated with the severity of CAN (OR: 0.89, 95% CI: 0.81-0.98). Among the metrics of hyperglycemia, each 10% increase in a time above range (TAR) >180 mg/dL was also independently correlated with the presence of CAN (OR: 1.141, 97.5% CI: 1.01-1.29) and the severity of CAN (OR: 1.13, 97.5% CI: 1.01-1.26). Conclusion: A TIR 70-180 mg/dL and a TAR >180 mg/dL were significantly associated with CAN in outpatients with type 2 diabetes.

19.
J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol ; 32(2): 235-244, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33421265

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ganglionated plexuses (GPs) are implicated in atrial fibrillation (AF). Endocardial high-frequency stimulation (HFS) delivered within the local atrial refractory period can trigger ectopy and AF from specific GP sites (ET-GP). The aim of this study was to understand the role of ET-GP ablation in the treatment of AF. METHODS: Patients with paroxysmal AF indicated for ablation were recruited. HFS mapping was performed globally around the left atrium to identify ET-GP. ET-GP was defined as atrial ectopy or atrial arrhythmia triggered by HFS. All ET-GP were ablated, and PVs were left electrically connected. Outcomes were compared with a control group receiving pulmonary vein isolation (PVI). Patients were followed-up for 12 months with multiple 48-h Holter ECGs. Primary endpoint was ≥30 s AF/atrial tachycardia in ECGs. RESULTS: In total, 67 patients were recruited and randomized to ET-GP ablation (n = 39) or PVI (n = 28). In the ET-GP ablation group, 103 ± 28 HFS sites were tested per patient, identifying 21 ± 10 (20%) GPs. ET-GP ablation used 23.3 ± 4.1 kWs total radiofrequency (RF) energy per patient, compared with 55.7 ± 22.7 kWs in PVI (p = <.0001). Duration of procedure was 3.7 ± 1.0 and 3.3 ± 0.7 h in ET-GP ablation group and PVI, respectively (p = .07). Follow-up at 12 months showed that 61% and 49% were free from ≥30 s of AF/AT with PVI and ET-GP ablation respectively (log-rank p = .27). CONCLUSIONS: It is feasible to perform detailed global functional mapping with HFS and ablate ET-GP to prevent AF. This provides direct evidence that ET-GPs are part of the AF mechanism. The lower RF requirement implies that ET-GP targets the AF pathway more specifically.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial , Ablação por Cateter , Veias Pulmonares , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Fibrilação Atrial/cirurgia , Eletrocardiografia Ambulatorial , Átrios do Coração , Humanos , Veias Pulmonares/diagnóstico por imagem , Veias Pulmonares/cirurgia , Recidiva , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Curr Transplant Rep ; : 1-13, 2020 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33145146

RESUMO

Purpose of Review: Insufficient knowledge about COVID-19 and the potential risks of COVID-19 are limiting organ transplantation in wait-listed candidates and deferring essential health care in solid organ transplant recipients. In this review, we expand the understanding and present an overview of the optimized management of COVID-19 in solid organ transplant recipients. Recent Findings: Transplant recipients are at an increased risk of severe COVID-19. The unique characteristics of transplant recipients can make it more difficult to identify COVID-19. Based on the COVID-19 data to date and our experience, we present testing, management, and prevention methods for COVID-19. Comprehensive diagnostic tests should be performed to determine disease severity, phase of illness, and identify other comorbidities in transplant recipients diagnosed with COVID-19. Outpatients should receive education for preventative measures and optimal health care delivery minimizing potential infectious exposures. Multidisciplinary interventions should be provided to hospitalized transplant recipients for COVID-19 because of the complexity of caring for transplant recipients. Summary: Transplant recipients should strictly adhere to infection prevention measures. Understanding of the transplant specific pathophysiology and development of effective treatment strategies for COVID-19 should be prioritized.

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