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1.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 30(8): 127049, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32111435

RESUMO

One achiral tetra-aryl cyclobutane [rheundulin A (1)] and three stilbene glycosides [rheundulins B-D (2-4)] were isolated from the methanol extract of Rheum undulatum L., along with eight known compounds (5-12). Structural determination of the new compounds (1-4) was accomplished using comprehensive spectroscopic methods. Compound 1 represents the first example of a dimeric stilbene linked via a cyclobutane ring from the Rheum genus. All isolates were screened for their inhibition against α-glucosidase. Among them, stilbene derivatives (5 and 6) showed strong inhibitory effects on α-glucosidase with IC50 values of 0.5 and 15.4 µM, respectively, which were significantly higher than that of the positive control, acarbose (IC50 = 126.8 µM). Rheundulin A (1) showed moderate α-glucosidase inhibition with an IC50 value of 80.1 µM. In addition, kinetic analysis and molecular docking simulation of the most active compound (5) with α-glucosidase were performed for the first time. Kinetic studies revealed that compound 5 competitively inhibited the active site of α-glucosidase (Ki = 0.40 µM), while 6 had a mixed-type inhibitory effect against α-glucosidase (Ki = 15.34 µM). Molecular docking simulations of 5 and 6 demonstrated negative-binding energies, indicating high proximity to the active site and tight binding to α-glucosidase enzyme.

2.
Biomed Res Int ; 2020: 2920804, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32185200

RESUMO

Aim: This study aims to evaluate the accuracy of scanned images of 4 clinically used intraoral scanners (CS3600, i500, Trios3, Omnicam) when scanning the surface of full arch models with various kinds of orthodontic brackets in the presence of artificial saliva. Materials and Methods. Four study models were prepared; bonded with ceramic, metal, and resin brackets, respectively, and without brackets. Reference images were taken by scanning the models with an industrial scanner. Study models were then applied with an artificial saliva and scanned 10 times, respectively, with the above 4 intraoral scanners. All images were converted to STL file format and analyzed with 3D analysis software. By superimposing with the reference images, mean maximum discrepancy values and mean discrepancy values were collected and compared. For statistical analysis, two-way ANOVA was used. Results: Omnicam (1.247 ± 0.255) showed higher mean maximum discrepancy values. CS3600 (0.758 ± 0.170), Trios3 (0.854 ± 0.166), and i500 (0.975 ± 0.172) performed relatively favourably. Resin (1.119 ± 0.255) and metal (1.086 ± 0.132) brackets showed higher mean maximum discrepancy values. Nonbracket (0.776 ± 0.250) and ceramic bracket (0.853 ± 0.269) models generally showed lower mean maximum discrepancy values in studied scanners. In mean discrepancy values, the difference between scanners was not statistically significant whereas among brackets, resin bracketed models (0.093 ± 0.142) showed the highest value. Conclusion: Intraoral scanners and brackets had significant influences on the scanned images with application of artificial saliva on the study models. It may be expected to have similar outcomes in an intraoral environment. Some data showed the discrepancy values up to about 1.5 mm that would require more caution in using intraoral scanners for production of detailed appliances and records.

3.
Sensors (Basel) ; 20(5)2020 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32143499

RESUMO

This work develops a distributed message-passing approach to cooperative localization for autonomous mobile vehicles that communicate via mm-wave wireless connection in vehicle-to-vehicle networks. Vehicles in the network obtain the measurement information about the relative distance and the angle of arrival from the mm-wave connections made with each other. Some vehicles may obtain knowledge about their absolute position information of different quality, for example, via additional localization feature. The main objective is to estimate the locations of all vehicles using reciprocal exchanges of simple information called a message in a distributed and autonomous way. A simulation is developed to examine the performance of the localization and navigation of vehicles under various network configurations. The results show that it does provide better positioning results in most cases and there are also several cases where the use of the cooperative technique adapts to design parameters such as accuracies of measurement equipment, and initial position estimates, that can affect the localization performance.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32190984

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malnutrition plays an essential role in the mechanism of pathogenesis for sarcopenia. In late life, both food consumption and energy intakes decline. One of key factors for reduced energy intakes is anorexia of ageing. The aim of this study is to examine the association between anorexia of ageing and sarcopenia among community-dwelling elderly Japanese individuals. METHODS: This uses population-based, cross-sectional cohort study of elderly Japanese individuals. Anorexia of ageing was assessed via a simplified nutritional appetite questionnaire. Handgrip strength and walking speed were tested, and skeletal muscle mass was assessed using a bio-impedance analysis device. Subjects with sarcopenia were defined as those who met the criteria of the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia. The association between anorexia of ageing and sarcopenia was then analysed via multiple regression analysis. RESULTS: In total, 9,496 elderly Japanese individuals were evaluated (mean age 74.1 ± 5.4 years; male, 47.0%). The prevalence of anorexia of ageing was 9.8% (n = 927) in the present study. The prevalence of sarcopenia in men was 1.1%, 1.8%, 6.1%, 10.1%, and 21.2% and was 1.6%, 3.3%, 3.6%, 4.8%, and 7.4% in women aged 65-69, 70-74, 75-79, 80-84, and 85 years and older, respectively. The prevalence of anorexia also showed an age-dependent increase in both sexes (P < 0.001, respectively). The prevalence of anorexia in men was 8.3%, 6.3%, 9.8%, 13.6%, and 12.9% and was 7.9%, 9.4%, 10.5%, 17.6%, and 17.1% in women aged 65-69, 70-74, 75-79, 80-84, and 85 years and older, respectively. In multivariable logistic regression model adjusted for the covariates except for albumin, anorexia of ageing was independently associated with sarcopenia (OR: 1.45, 95% CI: 1.07 to 1.95; P = 0.015). This significant association remained even after adjusting for all covariates including nutritional status (OR: 1.42, 95% CI: 1.06 to 1.92, P = 0.020). CONCLUSIONS: Anorexia of ageing is associated with sarcopenia among Japanese elderly individuals. Further studies are needed to determine whether a causal association exists between anorexia and sarcopenia.

5.
Reprod Sci ; 27(1): 278-289, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32046393

RESUMO

Ganglioside GT1b is well-known for its role in cytokine production and in activating epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mediated signaling pathways in cancer cells. However, there are no reports that clearly elucidate the role of GT1b in EGFR-mediated signaling pathways in porcine oocytes during the process of in vitro maturation (IVM). In this study, we investigated the role of GT1b in EGFR-mediated activation of the ERK1/2 pathway in porcine cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) at 44 h of IVM. Our data show that expression of the ST3GAL2 protein significantly increased in porcine COCs at 44 h irrespective of treatment with EGF. Meiotic maturation and mRNA levels of factors (HAS2, TNFAIP6, and PTX3) related to cumulus cell expansion significantly increased in COCs treated with 2 µM GT1b during IVM in the absence of EGF. They also increased in COCs treated with EGF/GT1b as compared to that in the other groups. Interestingly, protein levels of EGFR, phospho-EGFR, ERK1/2, and phospho-ERK1/2 dramatically increased in COCs treated with EGF/GT1b. Moreover, the rate of fertilization and the developmental competence of blastocyst were significantly higher in EGF/GT1b-treated COCs. Taken together, these results suggest that exogenous GT1b improves meiotic maturation and cumulus cell expansion in porcine COCs via activation of EGFR-mediated ERK1/2 signaling.

6.
Allergy ; 2020 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32072647

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Asthma is associated with inflammatory dysregulation, but the underlying metabolic signatures are unclear. This study aimed to classify asthma inflammatory phenotypes based on cellular and metabolic features. METHODS: To determine cellular and metabolic profiles, we assessed inflammatory cell markers using flow cytometry, sphingolipid (SL) metabolites using LC-MS/MS, and serum cytokines using ELISA. Targeted gene polymorphisms were determined to identify genetic predispositions related to the asthma inflammatory phenotype. RESULTS: In total, 137 patients with asthma and 20 healthy controls (HCs) were enrolled. Distinct cellular and metabolic profiles were found between them; patients with asthma showed increased expressions of inflammatory cell markers and higher levels of SL metabolites compared to HCs (P < .05 for all). Cellular markers (CD66+ neutrophils, platelet-adherent eosinophils) and SL metabolic markers (C16:0 and C24:0 ceramides) for uncontrolled asthma were also identified; higher levels were observed in uncontrolled asthma compared to controlled asthma (P < .05 for all). Asthmatics patients with higher levels of CD66+ neutrophils had lower FEV1(%), higher ACQ (but lower AQLO) scores, and higher sphingosine and C16:0 ceramide levels compared to those with low levels of CD66+ neutrophils. Asthmatics patients with higher levels of platelet-adherent eosinophils had higher S1P levels compared to those with lower levels of platelet-adherent eosinophils. Patients carrying TT genotype of ORMDL3 had more CD66+ neutrophils; those with AG/ GG genotypes of SGMS1 exhibited higher platelet-adherent eosinophils. CONCLUSION: Patients with uncontrolled asthma possess distinct inflammatory phenotypes including increased CD66+ neutrophils and platelet-adherent eosinophils, with an imbalanced ceramide/S1P rheostat, potentially involving ORMDL3 and SGMS1 gene polymorphisms. Ceramide/S1P synthesis could be targeted to control airway inflammation.

7.
Bioresour Technol ; 303: 122898, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32032939

RESUMO

This study introduces the catalyst-free production of levulinic acid (LA) and formic acid (FA) from spent coffee grounds (SCGs) as a starting material in a biphasic system of 1,2-dichloroethane (DCE)-water at temperatures above 160 °C. In addition to the advantage of using the biphasic system attributed to the product equilibrium, DCE served as a source of hydrogen induced by subcritical water (SCW). The effect of temperature, the amount of DIW and DCE, and the pretreatment on SCG (raw or lipid extracted SCG (LE-SCG)) on the overall reaction and humin formation were studied. The maximum conversion of LA and FA was 47 and 29 w/w% of the total convertible monosaccharides in raw SCGs while 43 and 28 w/w% of the conversion were obtained at 180 °C when LE-SCG was used. The solvothermal effects of two media provides a non-catalytic route to utilize undried SCG for the production of LA and FA.


Assuntos
Café , Formiatos , Ácidos Levulínicos
8.
J Neuroeng Rehabil ; 17(1): 11, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32000793

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Assessing the risk of disability in older adults is important for developing prevention and intervention strategies to decrease potential disability and dependency. The aim of this study was to examine the association between spatio-temporal gait variables and disability among older adults. METHODS: We conducted a prospective study in a community setting. We collected data from 4121 subjects (≥ 65 years, mean age: 71.9 years). Gait speed, cadence, stride length, and stride length variability were measured at baseline. Participants were instructed to walk at their usual pace along a 6.4 m straight and flat path on which an electronic gait measuring device was mounted at mid 2.4 m. Subsequent disability was confirmed from long-term care insurance records. RESULTS: During follow-up duration (mean: 49.6 months), 425 participants had incident disability. The cut-off value to detect high or low function in each gait variable was determined using the Youden index. Cox proportional hazard analysis adjusted for covariates showed that disability was significantly predicted by low function in each gait variable using the cut-off values: gait speed (hazard ratio [95% confidential intervals]: 2.06 [1.65-2.57]), stride length (2.17 [1.72-2.73]), cadence (1.49 [1.20-1.86], and stride length variability (1.46 [1.19-1.80]). The number of gait variables that scored in the low function category were also cumulatively related to subsequent disability (p < .001). CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed that spatio-temporal gait variables had a significant predictive value for incident disability. Multifaceted and quantitative gait analysis can contribute to disability risk assessment.

9.
Bioinformatics ; 2020 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32044918

RESUMO

MOTIVATION: Modern genomic research is driven by next-generation sequencing experiments such as ChIP-seq and ChIA-PET that generate coverage files for transcription factor binding, as well as DHS and ATAC-seq that yield coverage files for chromatin accessibility. Such files are in a bedGraph text format or a bigWig binary format. Obtaining summary statistics in a given region is a fundamental task in analyzing protein binding intensity or chromatin accessibility. However, the existing Python package for operating on coverage files is not optimized for speed. RESULTS: We developed pyBedGraph, a Python package to quickly obtain summary statistics for a given interval in a bedGraph or a bigWig file. When tested on 12 ChIP-seq, ATAC-seq, RNA-seq, and ChIA-PET datasets, pyBedGraph is on average 260 times faster than the existing program pyBigWig. On average, pyBedGraph can look up the exact mean signal of 1 million regions in ∼0.26 seconds and can compute their approximate means in less than 0.12 seconds on a conventional laptop. AVAILABILITY: pyBedGraph is publicly available at https://github.com/TheJacksonLaboratory/pyBedGraph under the MIT license. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

10.
J Oral Rehabil ; 2020 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32053221

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Game-based training has been shown to improve behavioural motor learning in various medical fields including rehabilitation. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate the effects of a tablet PC (personal computer) game-based tongue training on tongue strength, thickness and compliance in healthy adults. METHODS: This study recruited 30 healthy volunteers. Subjects were randomly assigned to two groups (n = 15/group). Group 1 performed game-based tongue training, and group 2 performed tongue resistance training using the Iowa Oral Performance Instrument. Both groups performed the same tongue exercises as follows: frequency (isotonic = 30 times × 3, isometric = 20 seconds × 3), intensity (70% of 1-repeated maximum contraction) and intervention period (5 days for 6 weeks). The primary outcomes were tongue muscle strength and thickness. Secondary outcomes were assessed using a 0-to-10 numerical rating self-report scale that included motivation, interest/fun, physical effort and muscle fatigue/pain. RESULTS: Both groups showed significant improvement in tongue strength and thickness, but there were no significant differences between the groups after the intervention. The self-report scale numerical rating revealed that group 1 had significantly higher motivation and interest/fun after the exercise than group 2. Group 1 had expended a significantly lower physical effort than group 2. No significant differences were noted between the 2 groups for muscle fatigue/pain. CONCLUSION: This study showed that both exercises had similar effects on tongue strength and thickness increase in healthy adults, but game-based tongue training was more fun and physically less demanding.

11.
Geriatr Gerontol Int ; 20(1): 31-35, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31916692

RESUMO

AIM: We aimed to examine the association between physical activity (PA) and/or cognitive activity (CA) and cognitive impairment in a sample of older adults from a community-based cohort in Nagoya, Japan. METHODS: A total of 2726 participants (mean age 75.5 ± 3.9 years; 51.8% women) met the study criteria. The time of moderate-to-vigorous intensity PA was measured using an accelerometer. CA was subjectively assessed by the frequency of engagement in six activities (reading, writing for pleasure, doing crossword puzzles, playing board games/cards, participating in organized group discussions and playing musical instruments). Participants were categorized into four groups by high or low PA combined with high or low CA. Cognitive impairment was defined by at least one of four neuropsychological tests with a result of at least 1.5 standard deviations below the reference threshold. RESULTS: The prevalence of cognitive impairments differed significantly between the groups (P < 0.001), with 29.5% in the low PA and low CA group, to 14.8% in the high PA and high CA group. Compared with the low PA and low CA group, other groups had significantly lower odds ratio (OR) of cognitive impairment (low PA and high CA: OR 0.54, 95% CI 0.37-0.79; high PA and low CA: OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.45-0.92; high PA and high CA: OR 0.42, 95% CI 0.30-0.58). CONCLUSIONS: Both PA and CA showed a protective association with cognitive impairment, even when one or the other is lowly engaged. Therefore, older adults with difficulty engaging in sufficient PA might benefit from CA to prevent cognitive impairment. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2020; 20: 31-35.

12.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(2): 1042-1047, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31999241

RESUMO

Designated strain K5T was isolated from soil on Jeju Island. The bacterium was aerobic, Gram-stain-negative, oxidase-positive, catalase-low activity, motile, short-rod shaped, opaque and formed white colonies that were circular, raised and had entire margins. Strain K5T was able to grow at 15-40 °C, pH 4-9 and at 0-2 % (w/v) NaCl concentration. Phylogenetic analysis based on its 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain K5T is closely related to Ferrovibrio soli A15T (98.9 % sequence similarity), Ferrovibrio denitrificans Sp-1T (98.7 %) and Ferrovibrio xuzhouensis LM-6T (97.4 %). The sole respiratory quinone was determined to be ubiquinone-10. The dominant fatty acids of strain K5T were summed feature 8 (C18 : 1 ω7c / C18 : 1ω6c, 29.8 %), C19 : 0 cyclo ω8c (20.2 %) and C16 : 0 (24.4 %). DNA G+C content was 63.6 % and DNA-DNA relatedness between strain K5T and other three members of the genus Ferrovibrio ranged from 24 to 28 %. The major polar lipids were identified as phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and aminolipids. Moreover, polyphasic characterization revealed that strain K5T represents a novel species in the genus Ferrovibrio, for which the name Ferrovibrio terrae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is K5T (=KCCM 43295T=LMG 30611T).


Assuntos
Filogenia , Rhodospirillaceae/classificação , Microbiologia do Solo , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Ilhas , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Fosfolipídeos/química , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , República da Coreia , Rhodospirillaceae/isolamento & purificação , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Ubiquinona/análogos & derivados , Ubiquinona/química
13.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 119, 2020 01 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31913282

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most prevalent neurodegenerative disorder, affecting one in ten people aged over 65 years. Despite the severity of the disease, early diagnosis of AD is still challenging due to the low accuracy or high cost of neuropsychological tests and neuroimaging. Here we report clinically accurate and ultrasensitive detection of multiple AD core biomarkers (t-tau, p-tau181, Aß42, and Aß40) in human plasma using densely aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The closely packed and unidirectionally aligned CNT sensor array exhibits high precision, sensitivity, and accuracy, evidenced by a low coefficient of variation (<6%), a femtomolar-level limit of detection, and a high degree of recovery (>93.0%). By measuring the levels of t-tau/Aß42, p-tau181/Aß42, and Aß42/Aß40 in clinical blood samples, the sensor array successfully discriminates the clinically diagnosed AD patients from healthy controls with an average sensitivity of 90.0%, a selectivity of 90.0%, and an average accuracy of 88.6%.

14.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 2020 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31976990

RESUMO

The molecular geometry effects of ortho, meta, and para-terphenyl based donor-π-acceptor (D-π-A) dyads on intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) were studied to investigate structure-ICT relationships. Terphenyl based D-π-A dyads were prepared by two-step palladium catalyzed, Suzuki-Miyaura coupling reactions, in which triphenylamine (TPA) was used as the electron donor and 1,2-diphenyl-benzimidazole (IMI) as the electron acceptor. The photophysical and electrochemical properties of terphenyl backbone-based ortho (O), meta (M), and para (P) dyads were compared. In steady state absorption spectra, a red-shift of CT band was observed in the order O < M < P, which was attributed to terphenyl isomer conjugation effects and agreed well with density functional theory (DFT) based calculations. In particular, the emission spectra of the three terphenyl D-π-A dyads produced showed similar emission maxima at ∼475 nm and a bathochromic shift property was observed in order to increase the solvent polarity, indicating the ICT process. From Lippert-Mataga plots, excited-state dipole moment changes (Δµ) were estimated to be 31.5 Debye (D) for O, 62.9 D for M, and 51.5 D for P. For M isomer, a large Δµ and the markedly reduced quantum yield was shown, as well as photo-induced electron transfer (PET) was expected in the excited state, but no radical species were observed by femtosecond transient absorption (TA) measurements. Based on experimental results, we conclude that all three terphenyl based D-π-A dyads, including non-conjugated ortho- and meta-terphenyl dyads, exhibit partial charge transfer rather than unit-electron transfer.

15.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 32, 2020 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31969114

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cigarette lifestyle marketing with psychographic targeting has been well documented, but few studies address non-cigarette tobacco products. This study examined how young adults respond to e-cigarette advertisements featuring diverse peer crowds - peer groups with shared identities and lifestyles - to inform tobacco counter-marketing design. METHODS: Fifty-nine young adult tobacco users in California participated in interviews and viewed four to five e-cigarette advertisements that featured characters from various peer crowd groups. For each participant, half of the advertisements they viewed showed characters from the same peer crowd as their own, and the other half of the advertisements featured characters from a different peer crowd. Advertisements were presented in random order. Questions probed what types of cues are noticed in the advertisements, and whether and how much participants liked or disliked the advertisements. RESULTS: Results suggest that participants liked and provided richer descriptions of characters and social situations in the advertisements featuring their own peer crowd more than the advertisements featuring a different peer crowd. Mismatching age or device type was also noted: participants reported advertisements showing older adults were not intended for them. Participants who used larger vaporizers tended to dislike cigalike advertisements even if they featured a matching peer crowd. CONCLUSION: Peer crowd and lifestyle cues, age and device type are all salient features of e-cigarette advertising for young adults. Similarly, educational campaigns about e-cigarettes should employ peer crowd-based targeting to engage young adults, though messages should be carefully tested to ensure authentic and realistic portrayals.

16.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31994704

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinically relevant categorization of antimicrobial resistance is critical to mitigating the threat it poses. Difficult-to-treat resistance (DTR) is a recently proposed category defined as non-susceptibility to all first-line antibiotic agents. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted with non-duplicate cases of gram-negative bloodstream infection (GNBSI) caused by four major taxa (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter species) identified from a nationwide surveillance database. DTR was defined as non-susceptibility to all the ß-lactams and fluoroquinolones tested. Patient characteristics and mortality were compared between DTR GNBSI and GNBSI caused by carbapenem-resistant (CR+/DTR-) and extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant (ESCR+/DTR-) isolates using CDC definitions. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) for 30-day in-hospital mortality were examined for DTR in overall and in propensity score-matched cohorts. RESULTS: A total of 1,167 episodes of monomicrobial GNBSI were identified, and 147 (12.6%) of the isolates were DTR. The majority of DTR isolates were Acinetobacter spp. (79.6%) and P. aeruginosa (17.7%). DTR infections were associated with previous antibiotic use, healthcare contact, ventilator use, and lower respiratory tract infection. Crude mortality for GNBSI caused by DTR was 50.3%. A multivariable model showed that only DTR, but not other categories, was significantly associated with mortality (aOR, 3.58; 95% CI, 1.27-10.19). DTR was also a significant predictor for mortality in the analysis of propensity score-matched cohorts (aOR, 3.48; 1.82-6.79). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with GNBSI, DTR were associated with higher mortality than those in other resistance categories. Our findings suggest that DTR could be useful for surveillance and prognostication.

17.
Zoonoses Public Health ; 67(1): 70-78, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31677251

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic parasite that can have severe implications for human health. Acutely infected cats shed environmentally resistant T. gondii oocysts in their faeces that contaminate soil, and soil can serve as a reservoir of infection for humans. Free-roaming domestic cats are thought to play an important role in environmental contamination with T. gondii, but few studies have directly measured the direct contribution of free-roaming cats to T. gondii in soil. METHODS: Our goals were to determine whether T. gondii soil contamination occurs in public areas with free-roaming cat colonies in central California and examine spatial and temporal variation in soil contamination. We initially performed spiking experiments to compare the limit of T. gondii detection in soil using three conventional nested PCR assays and one real-time quantitative PCR. The nested PCR targeting the internal transcribed spacer (ITS-1) of the small subunit ribosomal RNA was the most sensitive assay, with a limit of detection between 20 and 200 oocysts per gram of soil. We applied the ITS1 PCR assay on soil from sites in city and state parks, public playgrounds and community gardens in central California, USA. Samples were collected during spring, summer and fall and in sites located along the coast and inland. RESULTS: We detected and sequence-confirmed T. gondii in 5.6% of all of our soil sub-samples, but with large seasonal and spatial variation in soil contamination: we only detected T. gondii during fall and only in coastal sites (44.3% soil prevalence), despite similar sampling intensity across space and time. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that free-roaming cat colonies are an important source of T. gondii in spaces where people recreate and grow food and that soil contamination is highly seasonal and spatially variable. Management of free-roaming cats could prevent T. gondii infections by reducing environmental contamination with this zoonotic pathogen.

18.
Int Forum Allergy Rhinol ; 10(2): 159-164, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31610616

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Posterior nasal nerve (PNN) cryoablation is a novel surgical technique to address allergic and nonallergic rhinitis. Periprocedural pain has been reported after PNN cryoablation and there are no standardized protocols for optimal in-office local anesthesia. This study sought to evaluate the effect of gabapentin on patient discomfort following in-office PNN cryoablation. METHODS: Multi-institutional prospective analysis of patients undergoing in-office PNN cryoablation for allergic or nonallergic rhinitis between March 2018 and April 2019. Patients received local anesthesia with or without 600 mg oral gabapentin 1 hour preprocedure. Rhinitis diagnosis, demographics, and baseline disease-specific quality of life (mini-Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire [RQLQ] and Total Nasal Symptom Score [TNSS]) were recorded. Patient discomfort was measured by the pain visual analogue scale (VAS) posttreatment and rated 0 to 10 on an ordinal scale. Fisher's exact and Wilcoxon 2-sample tests were used to evaluate differences between the 2 groups. RESULTS: A total of 26 patients were enrolled (gabapentin n = 15, control = 11). Baseline TNSS scores in the gabapentin vs control group were median [25th percentile to 75th percentile]) 10 (7.5 to 11.0) and 9 (6.0 to 10.0) (p = 0.35). Baseline Mini-RQLQ scores in gabapentin vs control groups were 3.21 (2.0 to 4.0) and 2.92 (2.78 to 4.35) (p = 0.51). The median VAS pain scores at 5, 20, and 30 minutes in the gabapentin vs control group were 0.0 (0.0 to 2.0) vs 3.0 (1.0 to 4.0), 2.0 (0.0 to 3.0) vs 8.0 (6.0 to 10.0), and 1.0 (0.0 to 1.0) vs 5.0 (4.0 to 6.0) (p = 0.02, p = 0.0043, and p = 0.003, respectively). CONCLUSION: Preprocedure gabapentin significantly reduces immediate and delayed postprocedural patient discomfort following PNN cryoablation.

19.
Int Arch Allergy Immunol ; 181(2): 103-110, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31752004

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most of children with cow's milk (CM) and hen's egg allergies are known to outgrow their diseases with time, but recent studies have demonstrated that children tend to continue to have allergic symptoms in adolescence and adulthood. The aim of this study was to investigate the natural course of CM and egg allergies in Korean children and analyze prognostic factors. METHODS: In this retrospective study, we reviewed data of children with CM allergy and with egg allergy using medical records and parental telephone interviews. Diagnosis of CM or egg allergy was based on positive oral food challenge test or convincing history of allergic symptoms in combination with positive allergen-specific IgE. Acquisition of tolerance was defined by the absence of allergic symptoms after reintroduction of the offending foods. RESULTS: Half of the children outgrew CM allergy at a median age of 8.7 years. CM-specific IgE level at the first reaction was a significant prognostic factor for oral tolerance in CM allergy (p < 0.05). The median age to acquire oral tolerance in 50% of patients with egg allergy was 5.6 years. Egg-specific IgE level at the first reaction and family history of allergic diseases significantly affected the prognosis in children with egg allergy (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Half of Korean children with CM and egg allergies had symptom resolution at 8.7 and 5.6 years of age, respectively. Our results also suggest that CM- and egg-specific IgE levels at the first reaction are the most significant prognostic factors in predicting acquisition of oral tolerance.


Assuntos
Alérgenos/imunologia , Hipersensibilidade a Ovo/imunologia , Hipersensibilidade a Leite/imunologia , Leite/imunologia , Animais , Bovinos , Galinhas/imunologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Ovos , Humanos , Tolerância Imunológica/imunologia , Imunoglobulina E/imunologia , Prognóstico , República da Coreia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Testes Cutâneos/métodos
20.
J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle ; 11(1): 46-54, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31436391

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA)-derived phase angle is expected to be an efficient prognostic marker of health adverse events with aging as an alternative of muscle mass. We aimed to examine the predictive ability of phase angle for incident disability in community-dwelling elderly and determine the optimal cut-off values. METHODS: Community-dwelling elderly aged ≥65 years (n = 4452; mean age = 71.8 ± 5.3 years, 48.3% women) without disability at baseline participated in this prospective cohort study. Phase angle and appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) were examined using a multi-frequency BIA at baseline. Other potential confounding factors (demographics, cognitive function, depressive symptoms, medications, and physical performance) were also assessed. Incident disability was monitored on the basis of long-term care insurance certification. RESULTS: Over a follow-up of 24 months, 4.0% (n = 174) experienced disability, with an overall incidence rate of 20.6 per 1000 person-years. The Cox hazard regression analysis showed that phase angle, as a continuous variable, was independently associated with incident disability after adjusting the covariates [male: hazard ratios (HRs) = 0.61, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.37-0.98; female: HR = 0.58, 95% CI = 0.37-0.90], although body mass index adjusted ASM was not. Receiver operating characteristic analysis indicated moderate predictive abilities of phase angle for incident disability [male: area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) = 0.76, 95% CI = 0.70-0.83; female: AUC = 0.71, 95% CI = 0.65-0.76], while those of body mass index adjusted ASM were low (male: AUC = 0.59, 95% CI = 0.521-0.66; female: AUC = 0.58, 95% CI = 0.52-0.63). Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that low phase angle categorized by cut-off value (male, ≤4.95°; female, ≤4.35°) was independently related to increased risk of incident disability (HR = 1.95, 95% CI = 1.37-2.78). CONCLUSIONS: Lower phase angle independently predicts the incident disability separately from known risk factors. BIA-derived phase angle can be used as a valuable and simple prognostic tool to identify the elderly at risk of disability as targets of preventive treatment.

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