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1.
Micromachines (Basel) ; 11(3)2020 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32143468

RESUMO

Microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (µPADs) have been suggested as alternatives for developing countries with suboptimal medical conditions because of their low diagnostic cost, high portability, and disposable characteristics. Recently, paper-based diagnostic devices enabling multi-step assays have been drawing attention, as they allow complicated tests, such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which were previously only conducted in the laboratory, to be performed on-site. In addition, user convenience and price of paper-based diagnostic devices are other competitive points over other point-of-care testing (POCT) devices, which are more critical in developing countries. Fluid manipulation technologies in paper play a key role in realizing multi-step assays via µPADs, and the expansion of biochemical applications will provide developing countries with more medical benefits. Therefore, we herein aimed to investigate recent fluid manipulation technologies utilized in paper-based devices and to introduce various approaches adopting several principles to control fluids on papers. Fluid manipulation technologies are classified into passive and active methods. While passive valves are structurally simple and easy to fabricate, they are difficult to control in terms of flow at a specific spatiotemporal condition. On the contrary, active valves are more complicated and mostly require external systems, but they provide much freedom of fluid manipulation and programmable operation. Both technologies have been revolutionized in the way to compensate for their limitations, and their advances will lead to improved performance of µPADs, increasing the level of healthcare around the world.

2.
BMC Pulm Med ; 20(1): 71, 2020 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32199453

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The concurrence of sarcoidosis and primary lung cancer is very rare. We report a very rare case with a delayed diagnosis of primary lung cancer due to its misdiagnosis as worsening of pulmonary sarcoidosis. CASE PRESENTATION: A 68-year-old man presented to the outpatient department for evaluation of a mass in the right hilar area with lymphadenopathies in subcarinal and both interlobar areas on chest computed tomography (CT). Sufficient core samples were obtained from subcarinal and bilateral interlobar lymph nodes using endobronchial ultrasonography (EBUS) guided transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA). EBUS could not reach the right hilar lymph node due to its high angle. The pathologic findings were consistent with sarcoidosis. After 5 months, chest CT revealed aggravation of the right upper paratracheal lymphadenopathy. Assuming worsening of sarcoidosis, he was prescribed an oral corticosteroid for 5 months. However, follow-up chest CT showed a newly developed right lower paratracheal lymphadenopathy and worsening right hilar lymphadenopathy. Bronchoscopy and EBUS were performed once again. Transbronchial lung biopsy from the right upper lobe and EBUS-TBNA from the right lower paratracheal lymph node revealed adenocarcinoma from the lung. CONCLUSIONS: Although coexistence of sarcoidosis and lung cancer is very rare, the clinician should consider the possibility of accompanying lung cancer in sarcoidosis patients who are not responding to initial corticosteroid therapy.

3.
Gut ; 2020 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32209606

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Direct comparison of the clinical outcomes between nucleos(t)ide analogue (NA) discontinuation versus NA continuation has not been performed in patients with chronic hepatitis B who achieved HBsAg-seroclearance. Whether NA discontinuation was as safe as NA continuation after NA-induced surface antigen of HBV (HBsAg) seroclearance was investigated in the present study. DESIGNS: This multicentre study included 276 patients from 16 hospitals in Korea who achieved NA-induced HBsAg seroclearance: 131 (47.5%) discontinued NA treatment within 6 months after HBsAg seroclearance (NA discontinuation group) and 145 (52.5%) continued NA treatment (NA continuation group). Primary endpoint was HBsAg reversion and secondary endpoints included serum HBV DNA redetection and development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). RESULTS: During follow-up (median=26.9 months, IQR=12.2-49.2 months), 10 patients (3.6%) experienced HBsAg reversion, 6 (2.2%) showed HBV DNA redetection and 8 (2.9%) developed HCC. Compared with NA continuation, NA discontinuation was not associated with HBsAg reversion in both univariable (HR=0.45, 95% CI=0.12 to 1.76, log-rank p=0.24) and multivariable analyses (adjusted HR=0.65, 95% CI=0.16 to 2.59, p=0.54). The cumulative probabilities of HBsAg reversion at 1, 3 and 5 years were 0.8%, 2.3% and 5.0% in the NA discontinuation group, and 1.5%, 6.3% and 8.4% in the NA continuation group, respectively. NA discontinuation was not associated with higher risk of either HBV redetection (HR=0.83, 95% CI=0.16 to 4.16, log-rank p=0.82) or HCC development (HR=0.53, 95% CI=0.12 to 2.23, log-rank p=0.38). CONCLUSION: The discontinuation of NA was not associated with a higher risk of either HBsAg reversion, serum HBV DNA redetection or HCC development compared with NA continuation among patients who achieved HBsAg seroclearance with NA.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32073828

RESUMO

In spite of recent developments in mass spectrometry imaging techniques, high-resolution multiplex protein bioimaging techniques are required to unveil the complex inter- and intracellular biomolecular interactions for accurate understanding of life phenomena and disease mechanisms. Herein, we report multiplex protein imaging with secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) using metal oxide nanoparticle (MONP)-conjugated antibodies with <300 nm spatial resolution in the low ion dose without ion beam damage because of the high secondary ion yields of the MONPs, which can provide simultaneous imaging of several proteins, especially from cell membranes. We applied our new imaging technique for the study of hippocampal tissue samples from control and Alzheimer's disease (AD) model mice; the proximity of protein clusters in the hippocampus CA1 region showed intriguing dependence on aging and AD progress, suggesting that protein cluster proximity may be helpful for understanding pathological pathways in the microscopic cellular level.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32096917

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Muscle wasting, resulting from aging or pathological conditions, leads to reduced quality of life, increased morbidity, and increased mortality. Much research effort has been focused on the development of exercise mimetics to prevent muscle atrophy and weakness. In this study, we identified indoprofen from a screen for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator α (PGC-1α) inducers and report its potential as a drug for muscle wasting. METHODS: The effects of indoprofen treatment on dexamethasone-induced atrophy in mice and in 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1)-deleted C2C12 myotubes were evaluated by immunoblotting to determine the expression levels of myosin heavy chain and anabolic-related and oxidative metabolism-related proteins. Young, old, and disuse-induced muscle atrophic mice were administered indoprofen (2 mg/kg body weight) by gavage. Body weight, muscle weight, grip strength, isometric force, and muscle histology were assessed. The expression levels of muscle mass-related and function-related proteins were analysed by immunoblotting or immunostaining. RESULTS: In young (3-month-old) and aged (22-month-old) mice, indoprofen treatment activated oxidative metabolism-related enzymes and led to increased muscle mass. Mechanistic analysis using animal models and muscle cells revealed that indoprofen treatment induced the sequential activation of AKT/p70S6 kinase (S6K) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which in turn can augment protein synthesis and PGC-1α induction, respectively. Structural prediction analysis identified PDK1 as a target of indoprofen and, indeed, short-term treatment with indoprofen activated the PDK1/AKT/S6K pathway in muscle cells. Consistent with this finding, PDK1 inhibition abrogated indoprofen-induced AKT/S6K activation and hypertrophic response. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate the effects of indoprofen in boosting skeletal muscle mass through the sequential activation of PDK1/AKT/S6K and AMPK/PGC-1α. Taken together, our results suggest that indoprofen represents a potential drug to prevent muscle wasting and weakness related to aging or muscle diseases.

6.
J Neuroinflammation ; 17(1): 30, 2020 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31969159

RESUMO

Arachidonic acid-derived prostaglandins not only contribute to the development of inflammation as intercellular pro-inflammatory mediators, but also promote the excitability of the peripheral somatosensory system, contributing to pain exacerbation. Peripheral tissues undergo many forms of diseases that are frequently accompanied by inflammation. The somatosensory nerves innervating the inflamed areas experience heightened excitability and generate and transmit pain signals. Extensive studies have been carried out to elucidate how prostaglandins play their roles for such signaling at the cellular and molecular levels. Here, we briefly summarize the roles of arachidonic acid-derived prostaglandins, focusing on four prostaglandins and one thromboxane, particularly in terms of their actions on afferent nociceptors. We discuss the biosynthesis of the prostaglandins, their specific action sites, the pathological alteration of the expression levels of related proteins, the neuronal outcomes of receptor stimulation, their correlation with behavioral nociception, and the pharmacological efficacy of their regulators. This overview will help to a better understanding of the pathological roles that prostaglandins play in the somatosensory system and to a finding of critical molecular contributors to normalizing pain.

7.
J Med Chem ; 63(1): 418-424, 2020 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31702924

RESUMO

Paradoxically, some TRPV1 agonists are, at the organismal level, both nonpungent and clinically useful as topical analgesics. Here, we describe the scaled-up synthesis and characterization in mouse models of a novel, nonpungent vanilloid. Potent analgesic activity was observed in models of neuropathic pain, and the compound blocked capsaicin induced allodynia, showing dermal accumulation with little transdermal absorption. Finally, it displayed much weaker systemic toxicity compared to capsaicin and was negative in assays of genotoxicity.

8.
J Cell Mol Med ; 24(1): 1151-1156, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31762195

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Melatonin has various biological activities that improve the health of an individual. We evaluated the effects of melatonin on inflammatory response in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), focusing on the regulation of SIRT1 expression. METHODS: To investigate the effect of melatonin, we used cigarette smoke (CS)-induced COPD mouse model and CS condensate (CSC)-stimulated J774 macrophage cells. RESULTS: CSC-stimulated J774 macrophages exhibited increased p65 acetylation with a reduction in SIRT1 expression. However, melatonin induced the enhancement of SIRT1 expression, which eventually decreased p65 acetylation in CSC-stimulated J774 cells. Melatonin-treated mice exhibited an enhancement in SIRT1 expression with the reduction in p65 acetylation, which decreased the level of inflammatory mediators induced by CS. Additionally, SIRT1 inhibitor treatment increased the level of inflammatory mediators, which was accompanied by an increase in p65 acetylation. However, cotreatment with melatonin and an SIRT1 inhibitor reduced the level of inflammatory mediators compared with that by treatment with the SIRT1 inhibitor alone, which was accompanied by elevation in SIRT1 expression and reduction in p65 acetylation. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the results indicated that melatonin has therapeutic effects against COPD, owing to its property to enhance SIRT1 expression.

9.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 22(5): 2685-2692, 2020 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31641716

RESUMO

Hematite, α-Fe2O3, is an important semiconductor for photoelectrochemical water splitting. Its low charge carrier mobility and the presence of midgap states provide favourable conditions for electron-hole recombination, hence affecting the semiconductor's photoelectrochemical efficiency. The nature of the excited state and charge carrier transport in hematite is strongly debated. In order to further understand the fundamental properties of the hematite photoexcited state, we conducted femtosecond 2p (L3) X-ray absorption (XAS) and 2p3d resonant inelastic scattering (RIXS) measurements on hematite thin-films at the Pohang Accelerator Laboratory X-ray Free Electron Laser (PAL-XFEL). The observed spectral changes and kinetic processes are in agreement with previous 3p XAS reports. The potential additional information that could be acquired from 2p3d RIXS experiments is also discussed.

10.
Cytokine ; 126: 154863, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31629112

RESUMO

Adiponectin (Ad) is a representative adipocytokine that regulates energy homeostasis including glucose transport and lipid oxidation through activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathways. Plasma levels of Ad are reduced in obesity, which contributes to type 2 diabetes. Therefore, agents that activate the Ad signaling pathway could ameliorate metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes. Here, we report the identification of a high-affinitive agonist antibody against Ad receptors. The antibody was selected by using phage display of human combinatorial antibody libraries. The selected antibody induced phosphorylation of the acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) and AMPK in skeletal muscle cells and stimulated glucose uptake and fatty-acid oxidation (FAO) in myotubes. In addition, the antibody significantly lowered blood glucose levels during a glucose challenge in normal mice as well as basal blood glucose levels in a type 2 diabetic mouse model. Taken together, these results suggest that the agonist antibody could be a promising therapeutic agent for the treatment of metabolic syndrome such as type 2 diabetes.

11.
Heart ; 106(1): 50-57, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30209124

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Myocardial ischaemia is a leading cause of acute heart failure (AHF). However, optimal revascularisation strategies in AHF are unclear. We aimed to compare two revascularisation strategies, coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), in patients with AHF. METHODS: Among 5625 consecutive patients enrolled prospectively in the Korean Acute Heart Failure registry from March 2011 to February 2014, 717 patients who received CABG or PCI during the index hospitalisation for AHF were included in this analysis. We compared adverse outcomes (death, rehospitalisation for HF aggravation or cardiovascular causes, ischaemic stroke and a composite outcome of death and rehospitalisation for HF aggravation or cardiovascular causes) with the use of propensity score matching. RESULTS: For the propensity score-matched cohort with 190 patients, CABG had a lower risk of all-cause mortality than PCI (83 vs 147 deaths per 1000 patient-years; HR 0.57, 95% CI 0.34 to 0.96, p=0.033) during the median follow-up of 4 years. There was also a trend towards lower rates of rehospitalisation due to cardiovascular events or HF aggravation. Subgroup analysis revealed that the adverse outcomes were significantly lower in the CABG group than in PCI group, especially in patients with old age, three-vessel diseases, significant proximal left anterior descending artery disease and those without left main vessel disease or chronic total occlusion. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with PCI, CABG is associated with significant lower all-cause mortality in patients with AHF. Further studies should evaluate proper revascularisation strategies in AHF. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT01389843; Results.

12.
Environ Toxicol ; 35(1): 66-77, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31507073

RESUMO

The heart is the first organ formed in the developing fetus, and abnormal development of the heart is a major cause of fetal death. The adverse effects of cigarette smoke on the heart have been well established, but it is not well understood how cigarette smoke components regulate signaling molecules and cardiac specific functions during the early differentiation stage of the embryonic heart. In this study, we identified changes in the size of mouse embryoid bodies (mEBs) in response to treatment with cigarette smoke extract (CSE) via regulation of HDAC2, p53, p21, and cyclin D1 protein expression, which are cardiac differentiation and cell-cycle markers, respectively. In addition, exposure of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) to cigarette smoke components inhibited myocardial differentiation and development through the expression of HDAC1, HDAC2, GATA4, NKX2-5, TBX5, HAND1, and Troponin I. Long-term exposure studies showed that CSE and nicotine may delay the development of mouse cardiomyocytes from mESCs and inhibit the contractibility, which is a fundamental function of the heart. Taken together, these findings suggest that cigarette smoke components, including nicotine, may affect abnormal myocardial differentiation and development.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Embrionárias Murinas/efeitos dos fármacos , Miócitos Cardíacos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fumaça/efeitos adversos , Tabaco/toxicidade , Animais , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclina D1/metabolismo , Histona Desacetilase 2/metabolismo , Camundongos , Células-Tronco Embrionárias Murinas/citologia , Células-Tronco Embrionárias Murinas/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/citologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Fumar/efeitos adversos
13.
BMJ Open ; 9(12): e033579, 2019 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31852710

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Long working hours have been shown to raise the risk of various health outcomes. However, epidemiological evidence has shown inconsistent result in relation to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and the association between long working hours and pre-diabetes among non-diabetic adults remains largely unexplored. We thus aimed to investigate whether long working hours were linked with pre-diabetes as determined by glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) level. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. PARTICIPANTS: This study included 6324 men and 4001 women without diabetes from the 2010 to 2017 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURES: The study outcome of interest was pre-diabetes, defined as HbA1c values 5.7% to 6.4% RESULTS: Logistic regression was performed to obtain the ORs for pre-diabetes according to categories of work hour (40 hours/week, 41 to 52 hours/week, >52 hours/week), after adjusting for relevant covariates. Of the 10 325 eligible participants, 2261 (34.4%) men and 1317 (31.0%) women had pre-diabetes. No statistically significant relationship was found for women. In men, extended working hours (>52 hours per week) was associated with an increased likelihood of pre-diabetes, after adjustment for age, educational attainment, monthly household income, lifestyle related factors, perceived stress, family history of diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia and other covariates (adjusted OR=1.22; 95% CI 1.03 to 1.46). In the subgroup analysis by occupational categories, the association was only apparent among men in blue-collar worker groups. CONCLUSION: Extended working hours were significantly related to pre-diabetes in men, with no statistically significant association observed for women. Further subgroup analysis by occupational categories revealed that the increased odds of pre-diabetes associated with long working hours was only apparent among male workers of blue-collar occupations and shift workers.

14.
Phytother Res ; 2019 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31724257

RESUMO

In this study, we investigated whether 4-hydroxycinnamic acid (HA) has a palliative effect on asthmatic inflammatory responses using a mouse model of ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic asthma. The mice were divided into five groups, each consisting of seven females (normal control phosphate-buffered saline); OVA (OVA sensitization/challenge); dexamethasone (DEX, OVA sensitization/challenge + dexamethasone 3 mg/kg); HA-10 and HA-20 OVA sensitization/challenge + HA 10 and 20 mg/kg, respectively). Mice treated with HA showed a reduction in airway hyperresponsiveness and in the number of inflammatory cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) compared with asthmatic control. HA treatment also reduced the levels of interleukin (IL)-5 and IL-13 in BALF and of OVA-specific immunoglobulin E in the serum compared with asthmatic control. HA treatment relieved airway inflammation and mucus overproduction caused by OVA exposure. Additionally, HA inhibited the increases in levels of nuclear factor kappa B, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and cyclooxygenase-2 that normally occur after OVA exposure. HA treatment also reduced the activity and protein level of matrix metalloproteinase-9. Taken together, HA effectively suppressed asthmatic airway inflammation and mucus production caused by OVA exposure. These findings indicate that HA has the potential to be used as a therapeutic agent for asthma.

15.
J Thorac Dis ; 11(9): 3991-3999, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31656673

RESUMO

Background: Few studies have investigated the role of decongestive therapy and high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) in preventing reintubation and in-hospital mortality in patients with acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema (ACPE). Methods: Data from patients with ACPE who were weaned from mechanical ventilation in the cardiac intensive care unit between January 2013 and December 2017 were retrospectively evaluated. All patients were treated with HFNC or conventional oxygen therapy (COT), such as a nasal cannula or venturi mask, immediately after extubation. Decongestive therapy (intravenous furosemide infusion) was administered at the discretion of the attending physician. Results: Of 212 patients treated during the study period, 47 were excluded due to recent open-heart surgery and two, due to insufficient clinical data. The remaining 163 patients had a mean age of 67.4±14.3 years, and 92 (56.4%) were male; 44 patients received HFNC, and 119 COT. Mean weight loss within 72 hours of extubation was -0.86±2.03 kg. A total of 38 patients (23.3%) required reintubation, 21 of whom (12.9%) required reintubation within 72 hours of extubation. In-hospital mortality occurred in 16 patients (9.8%). Multivariate analysis showed that weight increase within 72 hours of extubation was independent determinants of reintubation (OR =1.7; 95% CI: 1.2-2.2; P<0.001) and in-hospital mortality (OR =1.5; 95% CI: 1.1-2.1; P=0.005). The use of HFNC was not associated with reintubation or in-hospital mortality. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that early weight loss resulted in reduced reintubation and in-hospital mortality in patients with ACPE. However, HFNC and COT did not differ in the prevention of reintubation and in-hospital mortality. Therefore, aggressive decongestive therapy, rather than HFNC, should be considered early after extubation.

16.
PLoS One ; 14(10): e0223193, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31647823

RESUMO

Microchips are widely used to separate circulating tumor cells (CTCs) from whole blood by virtues of sophisticated manipulation for microparticles. Here, we present a chip with an 8 µm high and 27.9 mm wide slit to capture cancer cells bound to 3 µm beads. Apart from a higher purity and recovery rate, the slit design allows for simplified fabrication, easy cell imaging, less clogging, lower chamber pressure and, therefore, higher throughput. The beads were conjugated with anti-epithelial cell adhesion molecules (anti-EpCAM) to selectively bind to breast cancer cells (MCF-7) used to spike the whole blood. The diameter of the cell-bead construct was in average 23.1 µm, making them separable from other cells in the blood. As a result, the cancer cells were separated from 5 mL of whole blood with a purity of 52.0% and a recovery rate of 91.1%, and also we confirmed that the device can be applicable to clinical samples of human breast cancer patients. The simple design with microslit, by eliminating any high-aspect ratio features, is expected to reduce possible defects on the chip and, therefore, more suitable for mass production without false separation outputs.

17.
Anal Chem ; 91(22): 14214-14219, 2019 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31631648

RESUMO

Pipetting techniques play a crucial role in obtaining reproducible and reliable results, especially when seeding cells on small target areas, such as on microarrays, biochips or microfabricated cell culture systems. For very rare cells, such as human primary skeletal muscle cells (skMCs), manual (freehand) cell seeding techniques invariably result in nonuniform cell spreading and heterogeneous cell densities, giving rise to undesirable variations in myogenesis and differentiation. To prevent such technique-dependent variation, we have designed and fabricated a simple, low-cost pipet guidance device (PGD), and holder that works with hand-held pipettes. This work validates the accuracy and reproducibility of the PGD platform and compares its effectiveness with manual and robotic seeding techniques. The PGD system ensures reproducibility of cell seeding, comparable to that of more expensive robotic dispensing systems, resulting in a high degree of cell uniformity and homogeneous cell densities, while also enabling cell community studies. As compared to freehand pipetting, PGD-assisted seeding of C2C12 mouse myoblasts showed 5.3 times more myotube formation and likewise myotubes derived from PGD-seeded human primary skMCs were 3.6 times thicker and 2.2 times longer. These results show that this novel, yet simple PGD-assisted pipetting technique provides precise cell seeding on small targets, ensuring reproducible and reliable high-throughput cell assays.

18.
Ann Occup Environ Med ; 31: e16, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31620293

RESUMO

Background: Workers spend most of their social lives at work and have relationships of varying nature with people in the workplace. Direct supervisors, in particular, have a direct and lasting impact on workers, which may influence workers' mental health. Depression is very prevalent worldwide, and social concern about the disease is on the rise. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of direct supervisors' behavior on the depressive mood of Korean wage workers. Methods: We used data from the 4th Korean Working Conditions Survey held in 2014; 22,212 participants were included in the analysis. The quality of a direct supervisor's behavior was categorized from 0 (= lowest) to 5 (= highest) points. The degree of depressive mood was measured on a scale from "normal mood" to "likely depression" based on the 5-item World Health Organization Well-Being Index (WHO-5) questionnaire. Multiple logistic regression was used to analyze the association between the quality of the direct supervisor's behavior and the depressive mood of wage workers. Results: After multivariable adjustment, significantly increased odds ratio (OR) for likely depression was found in the 4, 3, 2, 1, and 0 points of the quality of the direct supervisor's behavior compared to 5 points. After stratification for the level of satisfaction with working conditions, the OR of the unsatisfied groups was higher than that of the satisfied groups. Conclusions: Likely depression was found to be significantly associated with a low quality of direct supervisor's behavior. This association was stronger in workers who were not satisfied with their working conditions. This study suggests that proper management of the direct supervisor's behavior is needed to reduce the risk of depression among Korean wage workers.

19.
Korean J Orthod ; 49(5): 299-309, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31598486

RESUMO

Objective: This study aimed to investigate the effect of pre-applied orthodontic force on the regeneration of periodontal ligament (PDL) tissues and the underlying mechanisms in tooth replantation. Methods: Orthodontic force (50 cN) was applied to the left maxillary first molars of 7-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 32); the right maxillary first molars were left untreated to serve as the control group. After 7 days, the first molars on both sides were fully luxated and were immediately replanted in their original sockets. To verify the effects of the pre-applied orthodontic force, we assessed gene expression by using microarray analysis and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), cell proliferation by using proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) immunofluorescence staining, and morphological changes by using histological analysis. Results: Application of orthodontic force for 7 days led to the proliferation of PDL tissues, as verified on microarray analysis and PCNA staining. Histological analysis after replantation revealed less root resorption, a better arrangement of PDL fibers, and earlier regeneration of periodontal tissues in the experimental group than in the control group. For the key genes involved in periodontal tissue remodeling, including CXCL2, CCL4, CCL7, MMP3, PCNA, OPG, and RUNX2, quantitative RT-PCR confirmed that messenger RNA levels were higher at 1 or 2 weeks in the experimental group. Conclusions: These results suggest that the application of orthodontic force prior to tooth replantation enhanced the proliferation and activities of PDL cells and may lead to higher success rates with fewer complications.

20.
J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 29(12): 1947-1956, 2019 Dec 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31601060

RESUMO

The gut microbiome influences the health and well-being of dogs. However, little is known about the impact of breed on the fecal microbiome composition in dogs. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the differences in the fecal microbiome in three breeds of dog fed and housed under the same conditions, namely eight Maltese (8.0 ± 0.1 years), eight Miniature Schnauzer (8.0 ± 0.0 years), and nine Poodle dogs (8.0 ± 0.0 years). Fresh fecal samples were collected from the dogs and used to extract metagenomic DNA. The composition of the fecal microbiome was evaluated by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing on the MiSeq platform. A total of 840,501 sequences were obtained from the 25 fecal samples and classified as Firmicutes (32.3-97.3% of the total sequences), Bacteroidetes (0.1-62.6%), Actinobacteria (0.2-14.7%), Fusobacteria (0.0-5.7%), and Proteobacteria (0.0-5.1%). The relative abundance of Firmicutes was significantly lower in the Maltese dog breed than that in the other two breeds, while that of Fusobacteria was significantly higher in the Maltese than in the Miniature Schnauzer breed. At the genus level, the relative abundance of Streptococcus, Fusobacterium, Turicibacter, Succinivibrio, and Anaerobiospirillum differed significantly among the three dog breeds. These genera had no correlation with age, diet, sex, body weight, vaccination history, or parasite protection history. Within a breed, some of these genera had a correlation with at least one blood chemistry value. This study indicates that the composition of the fecal microbiome in dogs is affected by breed.

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